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24. An adjective is a word stantive to qualify it.*
25. To the adjective are ascribed three degrees of comparison, viz. positive, comparative, and superlative.
26 An adjective of the positive kind is in its simplest state; the comparative degree increases or lessens the positive in signification; and the superlative increases or lessens the signification of the positive to the highest or lowest degree.
27. The simple word, or positive, becomes the comparative by adding r or er; and the superlative by adding stor est. The adverbs more and most, placed before the adjective, have the same effect.
28. A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun to avoid the too frequent repetition of the same word
29. There are three kinds of pronouns, viz. personal, relative, and adjective pronouns.
30. There are five Personal Pronouns, viz. I, thou or you, he, she, it; with their plurals, we, ye or you, they.
By qualifying a substantive, is meant, either to point out its kind, to express some circumstance respecting it, or in any way to fit it to sustain, in the best manner, its office in a sentence. See remarks under the head of Adjectives, Part II.
+ You is used either in the singular or plural number, but requires the verb, with which it agrees, to be always in the plural form.
31. The persons of pronouns are three in
each number, viz.
I is the first person
Thou or you is the second person
32. The gender of pronouns has respect only to the third person singular; He is masculine, She is feminine, It is neuter.
33. Pronouns have three cases, viz. nominative, posessive, and objective. The objective case of a pronoun has, in general, a form different from that of the nominative or the posses
34. The personal pronouns are thus declined.
Ye or you,
35. Relative Pronouns are such as relate in general to some word or phrase going before, which on this account is called the antecedent. They are who, which, that, what, and sometimes
36. Who is applied to persons, which to things, and that to both persons and things; what is a compound relative, including both the antecedent and the relative, and is equivalent to that which.
37. Who is of both numbers, and is thus declined :
38. Who, which, and what are called interrogatives when they are used in asking questions.
39. Adjective Pronouns are of a mixed nature, participating the properties both of pronoun and adjectives; and may be divided into four sorts, viz. possessive, distributive, demonsra tive, and indefinite.
40 The possessive are those which relate to property or possession. There are seven of them, viz. my, thy, his, her, our, your, there.
41. The distributive are those which denotę the persons or things that make up a number as taken separately and singly. They are cach, every, either.
42 The demonstrative are those which point out precisely the subjects to which they relate. They are this and that, these and those.
43. The indefinite are those which express their subjects in an indefinite or general manner. The following are of this kind, viz. some, other, any, one, all, such, &c.* 44. Other is declined in the
45. A verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer. Verbs are of three kinds; transitive, intransitive, and passive.
46. A transitive verb is one which passes over from the agent or subject and terminates on some object
47. An intransitive verb is one which does not pass over to an object, but whose being or action is confined to the subject or actor.
48. A passive verb expresses passion or suftering, or the receiving of an action.†
49. To verbs belong number, person, mood, and tense. The number and person of verbs
*The distributive, demonstrative, and indefinite adjective pronouns are frequently joined to the substantives to which they relate. They then become adjectives and should be parsed as such. For the sake of distinguishing them from other adjectives, they may be called pronominal Adjectives.
+Verbs implying action, and which terminate on an object, are, by some grammarians, styled active verbs; those which imply simply being or state of being, neuter cerbs.
always correspond with the nouns or pronouns with which they agree.*
50. Mood or Mode is the particular form which the verb assumes to express different states of the mind, and different circumstances of being or action.
51. There are five moods of verbs, viz. the indicative, the imperative, the potential, the subjunctive, and the infinitive.
52 The indicative mood simply indicates er declares a thing.
53 The imperative mood is used for commanding, exhorting, entreating, or permitting. 54. The potential mood implies possibility, liberty, power, will, or obligation.
55. The subjunctive mood represents a thing under a condition, motive, wish, or supposition, &c. and is preceded by a conjunction, expressed or understood, and attended by another verb.
56. The infinitive mood expresses a thing in a general and unlimited manner, without any distinction of number or person.
57. The participle is a certain form of the verb, and derives its name from its participating not only the properties of a verb, but also those of an adjective and noun.
58. There are three participles, the presant or active, the perfect or passive, and the compound perfect.
* Verbs of themselves, i. e. independently of the noun or pronoun with which they agree, have no number or person. See remarks on this subject, Part II.