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59. Tense or time is made to consist of six variations, viz the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, and the first and second future.

60. The present tense represents an action or event as passing at the time in which it is inentioned.

61. The imperfect tense represents the action or event either as past and finished, or as remaining unfinished at a certain time past

62. The perfect tense not only refers to what is past, but also conveys an allusion to the present time.

63. The pluperfect tense represents a thing not only as past, but also as prior to some other point of time specified in the sentence.

64. The first future tense represents an action as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time when.

65. The second future tense intimates that the action will be fully accomplished, at or before the time of another future action or event.

66. Auxiliary or helping verbs are those, by the help of which the principal verbs are chiefly conjugated; they are do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, with their variations; and let and must, which have no variation.

67, The conjugation of a verb is the regular combination and arrangement of its several numbers, persons, moods, and tenses.

68. The verb to be is conjugated as follows:

To Be.

Indicative Mood.
Present Tense.


1. I am.


1. We are.

2. Thou art, or you are. 2. Ye or you are. 3. He, she, or it is. 3. They are.

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Imperfect Tense.


1. We were.

2. Thou wast, or you 2. Ye or you were.

3. They were.


3. He was.

Perfeet Tense.



1. I have been.

2. Thou hast been, or you have been.

3. He has been.

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1. We have been.

2. Ye or you have been. 3. They have been.

Pluperfect Tense.


1. We had been.

2. Thou hadst been, or 2. Ye or you had been,

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3. He shall or will be. 3. They shall or will be.

Second Future Tense.


1. I shall have been.


1. We shall have been.

2. Thou wilt have been, 2. Ye or you will have will have been.

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3. He will have been. 3. They will have been.

Imperative Mood.



2. Be thou, or do thou 2. Be ye or you, or do ye

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1. I might, could, would, 1. We might, could,

or should be.

2. Thou mightst, &c. or 2. you might, could, would, or should be. 3. 3. He might, could, would, or should be.


would, or should be. Ye or you might,could, would, or should be. They might, could, would, or should be.

Perfect Tense.

1. I mayor can have been.!.

2. Thou mayst or canst have been, or you may 2. or can have been.


We may or can have been.

Ye or you may or can have been.

3. He may or can have 3. They may or can have

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*This form of the verb in the potential mood has usually been ranked in the imperfect tense; and it is frequently used in a manner which will bear the signification of that tense, but it is not less frequently found in the present or future. Indeed it is a form of the verb which is used indiscriminately, to express past, present, or future time; the construction of the sentence alone determining to which tense it belongs.

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1. I might, could, would, 1. We might, could,

or should have been.

2. Thou mightst, &c. or

would, or should have been.

you might, could, 2.

Ye or you might,could,

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2. If thou be, or if you be.2. If ye or you be.

3. If he be.


Present Tense.-Third Form.

1. If I were.

3. If they be.


1. If we were.

2. If thou wert, or if 2. If ye or you were.

you were.

3. If he were.

3. If they were.t

* See remarks on the different forms of the subjunctive present, Part II

In the subjunctive imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, first future, and second future, the verb is conjugated just as it is in those tenses of the indicative mood, except that will and wilt are not used in the subjunctive second future, and that a conjunction is added implying doubt or condition.


Infinitive Mood.

Present Tense. To be. Perfect. To have been.

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2. Thon hast, or you have. 2. Ye or you have. 3. He, she, or it hath or has. 3. They have.

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Imperfect Tense.


1. We had.

2. Thou hadst or you had. 2. Ye or you had. 3. He had.

3. They had.

The perfect and pluperfect are formed from the present and imperfect by annexing had; as,' (perfect) I have had, &c. (pluperfect) I had had &c. The first future is formed from the present by prefixing the auxiliary shall or will; as, I shall or will have, &c. The second future is formed from the first by annexing had; as, I shall have had, You will have had, &c.


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Imperative Mood.


2. Have thou, or do thon 2. Have ye or you, or do

have, or have you, or

do you have.


ye or you have.

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