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This form, however, is not essential to the nature of the subject. The moods may be as effectually designated by a plurality of words, as by a change in the appearance of a single word, because the same ideas are denoted, and the same ends accomplished, by either manner of expression. The modern tongues, particularly the English, abound in auxiliary words, which vary the meaning of the noun or the verb, without requiring any considerable varieties of inflection. Thus, I do love, I did love, I have loved, I had loved, I shall love, have the same import with Amo, amabam, amavi, amareram, amabo, in Latin. It is obvious that a language, like the Greek and Latin, which can thus comprehend, in cne word, the meaning of two or three words, must have some advantages over those which are not so comprehensive. It may not be more perspicuous; but, in the arrangement of words, and consequently in harmony and energy, as well as in conciseness, it may be much more elegant.
An adverb is a part of speech joined to a verb, an adjective, a preposition, an article, and to other adverbs, to qualify them; as, He reads well He is remarkably healthy: They were elated at their success almost beyond measure They were gone almost an hour: He spells very correctly. Sometimes the adverb qualifies a whole sentence without having reference to any particular word; as, Now
there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, &c. In the first of these examples the adverb qualifies the verb reads; in the second, the adjective healthy; in the third, the préposition beyond; in the fourth, the article an; in the fifth, the adverb correctly; in the sixth, the whole sentence in which it stands, by introducing it with greater ease. Thus, as a qualifying word, the adverb is used very extensively. It is called an adverb because it is more frequently joined to a verb to qualify it than to any other part of speech.
Some adverbs, as well as adjectives, are varied to express the different degrees of comparison; as, Soon, sooner, soonest; often, oftener, oftenest. Those ending in ly are compared by more and most; as, Wisely, more wisely, most wisely.
Adverbs sometimes take the form of the adjective; as, Agreeable to your request, I take the earliest opportunity to write to you. It should be, agreeably to your request, &c. The contraction of the ly is admissible in poetry when necessary to preserve the measure; as, Secure he sat, &c. and when two adverbs expressing manner come together; as, He speaks remarkably correct. It is sometimes admissible. also in familiar conversation; as, She dresses plain, but neat; instead of plainly and neatly.
Adverbs seem originally to have been contrived to express compendiously in one word what must otherwise have required two or more: as, He acted wisely, for, he acted with
wisdom; prudently, for, with prudence; He did it here, for, he did it in this place; exceedingly, for, to a great degree; often, and seldom, for many, and for few times; very, for, in an eminent degree, &c...
There are many words in the English language that are sometimes used as adjectives, and sometimes as adverbs; as, More men than women were there; or I am more diligent than he. In the former sentence more is evidently an adjective, and in the latter an adverb. The word much is used sometimes for an adjective, and sometimes for an adverb ; as, Much money has been expended: It is much better to go than to stay. In the first of these sentences, much is an adjective; and in the second, an adverb. In short, nothing but the sense can determine to what part of speech these words belong.
Adverbs, though very numerous, may be reduced to certain classes, the chief of which are those of number, order, place, time, quantity, manner or quality, doubt, affirmation, negation, interrogation, and comparison.
1. Of number; as Once, twice, thrice, &c. 2. Of order; as, First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, fifthly, lastly, finally, &c.
3. Of place; as, Here, there, where, elsewhere, anywhere, somewhere, nowhere, herein, whither, hither, thither, upward, downward, forward, backward, whence, hence, thence, whithersoever, &c.
4. Of time.
Of time present; as, Now, to-day, &c. Of time past; as, Already, before, lately, yesterday, heretofore, hitherto, long since, long ago, &c.
Of time to come; as, To-morrow, not yet, hereafter, henceforth, henceforward, by and by, instantly, presently, immediately, straightway, &c.
Of time indefinite; as, Oft, often, oftimes, ofentimes, soon, seldom, daily, weekly, monthly,. yearly, always, when, then, ever, never, again, &c.
5. Of quantity; as, Much, little, sufficiently, enough, abundantly, &c.
6. Of manner or quality; as, Wisely, foolishly, justly, unjustly, quickly, slowly, &c.Adverbs of quality are the most numerous kind; and they are generally formed by adding the termination ly to an adjective or participle, or changing le into ly; as, Bad, badly; cheerful, cheerfully; able, ably; admirable, admirably.
7. Of doubt; as, Perhaps, peradventure, possibly, perchance.
8. Of affirmation; as, Verily, truly, undoubtedly, doubtless, certainly, yes, yea, surely, indeed, really, &c.
9. Of negation; as, Nay, no, not, by no means, not at all, in no wise, &c.
10. Of interrogation; as, How, why, wherefore, whether, &c.
11. Of comparison; as, More, most, bette best, worse, worst, less, least, very, almost, little, alike, &c.
Adverbs of affirmation, negation, and interrogation, often stand unconnected with any other portion of a sentence; as, yes, no, why, &c. In such cases they do not perform their accustomed office of qualifying, and may be styled independent adverbs.
Besides the adverbs already mentioned, there are many which are formed by a combination of several of the prepositions with the adverbs of place here, there, and where; as, Hereof, whereof, thereof; hereto, thereto, whereto; hereby, thereby, whereby; herewith, therewith, wherewith; herein, therein, wherein; therefore, (i, e. there-for) wherefore, (i. e. where-for) hereupon or hereon, thereupon or thereon, whereupon or whereon, &c.
In some instances the preposition suffers no change, but becomes an adverb merely by its application; as, when we say, He rides about: They came after the service had commenced.
There are also some adverbs, which are composed of nouns and the article a; as, Aside, athirst, afoot, ahead, asleep, aboard, ashore, abed aground, afloat, &c.
The words when and where, and all others of the same nature, such as, whence, whither, whenever, wherever, &c. may be properly called conjunctive adverbs, because they participate the nature both of adverbs and conjunctions; of