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fit, or Pleasure, or Honour, or the like. Therefore why should I be angry with a Man for loving himself better than me? And if any Man should do wrong merely out of ill nature; why, yet it is but like the Thorn or Briar, which prick and scra because they can do no other. The most tolerable Sort of Revenge is for those Wrongs which there is no Law to remedy: but then, let a man take heed the Revenge be such as there is no Law to punish : else, a Man's Enemy is still beforehand, and it is two for one. Some, when they take Revenge, are desirous the Party should know whence it cometh ; this is the more generous : for the Delight seemeth to be, not so much in doing the Hurt as in making the Party repent ; but base and crafty Cowards are like the Arrow that Ayeth in the Dark. Cofmus Duke of Florence, had a desperate Saying against Perfidious or Neglecting Friends, as if those Wrongs were unpardonable: You shall read (faith he) that we are commanded to forgive our Enemies; but you never read, that we are commanded to forgive our Friends." But yet the Spirit of Job was in a better tune; Shall we (faith he) take Good at God's Hands, and not be content to take Evil also ? 4 and so of Friends in a proportion. This is certain, that a Man that studieth Revenge keeps his own Wounds green, which otherwise would heal and do well. Public Revenges are for the most part fortunate : as that for the Death of Cæfar; for the Death of Perti

: The saying of Cosmo is related also in the Apophthegms, ed. 1625, P. 225, No. 206.

Job ii. 10.

nax;5 for the Death of Henry the Third of France ; and many more. But in private Revenges it is not so; nay rather, Vindictive Persons live the Life of Witches; who as they are mischievous, so end they unfortunate.

v. Of Adversity T was a high Speech of Seneca (after

the manner of the Stoics), That the good Things which belong to Prosperity

are to be wished; but the good Things, that belong to Adversity are to be admired. Bona Rerum Secundarum optabilia, Adversarum mirabilia. Certainly, if Miracles be the command over Nature, they appear most in Adversity. It is yet a higher Speech of his, than the other, (much too high for a Heathen): It is true Greatness, to have in one the Frailty of a Man, and the Security of a God. Verè magnum, habere Fragilitatem Hominis, Securitatem Dei.? This would have done better in Poesy, where Transcendencies are more allowed. And the Poets, indeed, have been busy with it : for it is, in effect, the thing which is figured in that strange Fiction of the Ancient Poets, which seemeth not to be without Mystery ; nay, and to have some approach to the State of a Christian : that Hercules, when he went to unbind Prometheus, (by whom Human Nature is represented) failed the length of the great Ocean in an Earthen Pot or Pitcher : lively describing Christian Resolution, that faileth in the frail Bark of the Flesh, thorough the Waves of the World. But to speak in a Mean: The Virtue of Prosperity is Temperance; the Virtue of Adversity is Fortitude ; which in Morals is the more Heroical Virtue. Prosperity is the Blessing of the Old Testament ; Adversity is the Blessing of the New; which carrieth the greater Benediction, and the clearer Revelation of God's Favour. Yet, even in the old Testament, if you listen to David's Harp, you shall hear as many hearse-like Airs, as Carols : and the Pencil of the Holy Ghost hath laboured more in describing the Amfictions of Job than the Felicities of Solomon. Prosperity is not without many

[graphic]

5 Hift. Aug. Script. vol. i. p. 578, ed. 1671. Senec, ad Lucil. 66.

2 Ib. id. 53.

Fears and Distastes; and Adversity is not without Comforts and Hopes. We see in Needleworks and Embroideries, it is more pleasing to have a lively Work upon a Sad and Solemn Ground, than to have a dark and melancholy Work upon a lightsome Ground: Judge, therefore, of the Pleasure of the Heart, by the Pleasure of the Eye. Certainly, Virtue is like precious Odours, most fragrant when they are incensed, or crushed; for Prosperity doth best discover Vice, but Adversity doth best discover Virtue.*

• Apollod. Deor. Orig. 11. Comp. what he says of this fable in " The Wisdom of the Ancients.”

4 Mr. Macaulay has cited this fine passage (which, from the words “ Prosperity is the blessing,” was added in the edition of 1625,) as a proof that Bacon's fancy had not decayed in his later years, but had even become richer and softer.

с

VI. Of Simulation and Dif

simulation.'

ISSIMULATION is but a faint kind

of Policy, or Wisdom ; for it asketh a strong Wit and a strong Heart to

know when to tell Truth, and to do it : therefore it is the weaker Sort of Politicks, that are the

Dissemblers. Tacitus faith, Livia forted well with the Arts of her Husband, and Dissimulation of her Son :attributing Arts or Policy to Augustus, and Disimulation to Tiberius. And again, when Mucianus encourageth Vespasian to take Arms against Vitellius; he faith, We rise not against the Piercing Judgement of Augustus, nor the Extreme Caution or Closeness of Tiberius.3 These Properties of Arts or Policy, and Difimulation or Closeness are, indeed, Habits and Faculties several, and to be distinguished. For if a Man have that Penetration of Judgement, as he can discern what Things are to be laid open, and what to be secreted, and what to be shewed at Half-lights, and to whom and when, (which indeed are Arts of State, and Arts of Life, as Tacitus well calleth them) to him a Habit of Dilimulation is a Hindrance and a Poorness. But if a Man cannot obtain to that Judgement, then it i See Antitheta, No. 32.

great

2 Tacit. Ann. v. i. 3 Tacit. Hift. ii. 76. * See Tacit. Ann. iii. 70, and Ruperti's note.

is left to him generally to be Close, and a Dilembler. For where a Man cannot choose or vary in Particulars, there it is good to take the safest and wariest Way in general ; like the Going softly by one that cannot well see. Certainly the ableit Men that ever were have had all an Openness, and Frankness of dealing, and a name of Certainty and Veracity; but then they were like Horses well managed; for they could tell passing well when to stop or turn: and at such times, when they thought the Case indeed required Diffimulation, if then they used it, it came to pass that the former Opinion spread abroad of their good Faith and Clearness of dealing made them almost invisible.

There be three degrees of this Hiding and Veiling of a Man's Self. The first Closeness, Refervation, and Secrecy; when a Man leaveth himself without Observation, or without Hold to be taken what he is. The second Dissimulation in the Negative; when a Man lets fall Signs and Arguments, that he is not that he is. And the third, Simulation in the Affirmative; when a Man industriously, and expressly feigns and pretends to be that he is not.

For the first of these, Secrecy : It is indeed, the Virtue of a Confessor; and assuredly the Secret Man heareth many Confessions ; for who will open

himself to a Blab or a Babbler ? But if a Man be thought Secret, it inviteth Discovery ; as the more Close Air sucketh in the more Open: and as in Confeffion, the Revealing is not for

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