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human Nature, as it received his* due at the Second Hand. Neither had the Fame of Cicero, Seneca, Plinius Secundus, borne her Age so well, if it had not been joined with some Vanity in themselves : like unto Varnish, that makes Ceilings not only shine, but last. But all this while, when I speak of Vain Glory, I mean not of that Property that Tacitus doth attribute to Mucianus, Omnium, quæ dixerat, feceratque, Arte quâdam Ostentator : 5 for that proceeds not of Vanity, but of natural Magnanimity and Discretion : and, in some Persons, is not only comely but gracious. For Excusations, Cessions, Modesty itself, well governed, are but Arts of Oftentation : and amongst those Arts there is none better than that which Plinius Secundus speaketh of, which is to be liberal of Praise and Commendation to others in that wherein a Man's Self hath any Perfection. For faith Pliny very wittily, In commending another you do yourself right; for he that you commend is either superior to you in that you commend, or inferior; if he be inferior, if he be to be commended, you much more : if he be superior, if he be not to be commended, you much less.6 Glorious 7 Men are the Scorn of wise Men; the Admiration of Fools; the Idols of Parasites; and the Slaves of their own Vaunts.

4 Both Mr. Markby and Dr. Devey substitute its for bis here and elsewhere, but it should be recollected that the neuter possessive pronoun had not then found its way into use, and, as we retain bis in the Bible and in Shakespeare, there can be no reason for altering it

s Tacit. Hift. xi. 80. Comp. Adv. of L. 11. xxiii. 2. 6 Plin. Epift. vi. 17. ? Glorious here, as before, means boastful.


Lv. Of Honour and Repu



HE winning of Honour is but the re

vealing of a Man's Virtue and Worth without Disadvantage ; for some in

their Actions, do Woo and affect Honour, and Reputation ; which Sort of Men are commonly much talked of, but inwardly little admired : and some, contrariwise, darken their Virtue in the Shew of it; so as they be undervalued in opinion. If a Man perform that which hath not been attempted before ; or attempted and given over; or hath been achieved, but not with so good Circumstance, he shall purchase more Honour than by Effecting a Matter of greater Difficulty or Virtue, wherein he is but a Follower. If a Man so temper his Actions, as in some one of them he doth content every Faction or Combination of People, the Musick will be the fuller, A Man is an ill Husband of his Honour that entereth into any Action, the Failing wherein may disgrace him more than the Carrying of it through can Honour him.

Honour, that is gained and broken upon another hath the quickest Reflection ; like Diamonds cut with Facets; and therefore let a Man contend to excel any Competitors of his in Honour, in outshooting them, if he can, in their own Bow. · Discreet Followers and Servants help much to Reputation : Omnis Fama

Domesticis emanat.1 Envy, which is the Canker of Honour, is best extinguished, by declaring a Man's Self, in his Ends, rather to seek Merit than Fame: and by Attributing a Man's Successes rather to divine Providence and Felicity than to his own Virtue or Policy. The true marshalling of the Degrees of Sovereign Honour are these. In the First Place are Conditores Imperiorum, Founders of States, and Commonwealths; such as were Romulus, Cyrus, Cæfar, Ottoman,' Ismael. In the Second Place are Legislatores, Lawgivers ; which are also called Second Founders, or Perpetui Principes, because they govern by their Ordinances, after they are gone: such were Lycurgus, Solon, Justinian, Edgar, Alphonsus of Castile the Wise, that made the Siete Partidas. In the Third Place are Liberatores, or Salvatores; such as compound the long Miseries of civil Wars, or deliver their Countries from Servitude of Strangers or Tyrants ; as Augustus Cæfar, Vespasianus, Aurelianus, Theodoricus, King Henry the Seventh of England, King Henry the Fourth of France. In the Fourth Place, are Propagatores or Propugnatores Imperii, such as in honourable Wars enlarge their Territories, or make noble Defence against Invaders. And in the Last Place are Patres Patriæ, which reign justly, and make the Times good wherein they live. Both which last Kinds need no examples, they are in such Number. Degrees of Honour in

Q. Cic. de Petit. Consul. v. 17. Cf. Adv. of L. II. xxiii. 15. * Thus the edition of 1625, Mr. Markby, probably by inadvertence, prints distinguished. It is extinguitur in the Latin version.

3 i.e. Othman I, the founder of the Turkish empire.


Subjects are; first, Participes Curarum, those upon whom Princes do discharge the greatest Weight of their Affairs; their Right Hands, as we call them. The next are, Duces Belli, Great Leaders ; such as are Princes’ Lieutenants, and do them notable Services in the Wars.

The third are, Gratiofi, Favourites; such as exceed not this Scantling; to be Solace to the Sovereign, and harmless to the People. And the fourth, Negotiis pares ; such as have great Places under Princes, and execute their places with Sufficiency. There is an Honour likewise which may be ranked amongst the greatest, which happeneth rarely: that is, of such as Sacrifice themselves to Death or Danger for the Good of their Country: as was M. Regulus, and the two Decii.

LVI. Of Judicature.

UDGES ought to remember that their

Office is Jus dicere, and not Jus dare; to interpret Law, and not to make

Law, or give Law ;1 else will it be like the Authority claimed by the Church of Rome; which under pretext of Exposition of Scripture doth not stick to add and alter, and to pronounce that which they do not find; and by Shew of Antiquity to introduce Novelty. Judges ought to be more learned than witty; more reverend than

See the 44th Aphorism of the tract, “ De Fontibus Juris,” in the vini Book De Augm. Sc.

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plausible ; and more advised than confident. Above all Things, Integrity is their Portion and proper Virtue. Cursed (saith the Law) is he that removeth the Landmark. The Mislayer of a mere Stone is to blame. But it is the Unjuft Judge that is the capital Remover of Landmarks, when he defineth amiss of Lands and Property. One foul Sentence doth more Hurt than many foul Examples ; for these do but corrupt the Stream ; the other corrupteth the Fountain. So faith Solomon, Fons turbatus, et Vena corrupta, eft Justus cadens in caufâ fuâ coram Adversario.3 The Office of Judges may have Reference unto the Parties that fue; unto the Advocates that plead; unto the Clerks and Ministers of Justice underneath them; and to the Sovereign or State above them.

First, for the Causes or Parties that sue. There be (faith the Scripture) that turn Judgement into Wormwood;+ and surely there be also that turn it into Vinegar; for Injustice maketh it bitter, and Delays make it sour. The principal Duty of a Judge is to suppress Force and Fraud; whereof Force is the more pernicious when it is open ; and Fraud when it is close and disguised. Add thereto contentious Suits, which ought to be spewed out, as the Surfeit of Courts. A Judge ought to prepare his Way to a just Sentence, as God useth to prepare his Way, by raising Valleys and taking down Hills : so when there appeareth on either side a high Hand, violent Prosecution, cunning Advantages taken, Combination, Power, great Counsel, Deut. xxvii. 17.

3 Prov. xxv. 26.

4 Amos v. 7.


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