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Juggernaut, 21st June.

• The idolatrous processions continue for some days longer, but my spirits are so exhausted by the constant view of these enormities, that I mean to hasten away from this place sooner than I at first intended. I beheld another distressing scene this morning at the Place of Skulls ;-a poor woman lying dead, or nearly dead, and her two children by her, looking at the dogs and vultures which were near.

The people passed by without noticing the children. I asked them where was their home. They said, they had no home but where their mother was.'-0, there is no pity at Juggernaut! no mercy, no tenderness of heart in Moloch's kingdom! Those who support his kingdom, err, I trust, from ignorance. They know not what they do.

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“As to the number of worshippers assembled here at this time, no accurate calculation can be made. The natives themselves, when speaking of the numbers at particular festivals, usually say that a lack of people (100,000) would not be missed. I asked a Brahmin how many he supposed were present at the most numerous festival he had ever witnessed. • How can I tell,' said he, how many grains there are in a handful of sand ?'

* The languages spoken here are various, as there are Hindoos from every country in India: but the two chief

languages in use by those who are resident, are the Orissa and the Telinga. The border of the Telinga Country is only a few miles distant from the Tower of Juggernaut.

Chilka Lake, 24th June.

I felt my mind relieved and happy when I had passed beyond the confines of Juggernaut. I certainly was not prepared for the scene. But no one can know what it is who has not seen it.-From an eminence* on the pleasant banks of the Chilka Lake (where no human bones are seen,) I had a view of the lofty tower of Juggernaut far remote; and while I viewed it, its abominations, came to mind. It was on the morning of the Sabbath. Ruminating long on the wide and extended empire of Moloch in the heathen world, I cherished in my thoughts the design of some Christian Institution,' which, being fostered by Britain, my Christian country, might gradually undermine this baleful idolatry, and put out the memory of it for ever.'

* Manickpatam.

Annual Expenses of the Idol JUGGERNAUT,

presented to the English Government.

(Extracted from the Official Accounts.)

Rupees. £.Sterling 1. Expenses attending the table of the idol 36,115 or 4,514 2. Ditto of his dress or wearing apparel 2,712 339 3. Ditto of the wages of his servants 10,057 1,259 4. Ditto of contingent ex

oses at the different seasons of pilgrimage 10,989 1,373 5. Ditto of his elephants and horses

3,030 378 6. Ditto of his rutt or annual state carriage 6,713

839

Rupees 69,616 £8,702

• In Item third, 'wages of his servants,' are included the wages of the courtesans, who are kept for the service of the temple.

Item sixth.-What is here called in the official account the state carriage,' is the same as the car or tower. Mr. Hunter informed me that the three state carriages' were decorated this year (in June 1806) with upwards of 2001. sterling worth of English broad cloth.

Of the rites celebrated in the interior of Juggernaut called the Daily Service, I can say nothing of my own knowledge, not having been within the Temple."

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# The Temple of Juggernaut is under the immediate controul of the English Government, who levy a tax on pilgrims as a

source

JUGGERNAUT IN BENGAL.

Lest it should be supposed that the rites of Juggernaut are confined to the Temple in Orissa,

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source of revenue. See 'A Regulation (by the Bengal Government) for levying a Tax from Pilgrims resorting to the Temple of Juggernaut, and for the Superintendance and Management of the Temple. Passed April 3, 1806.'

The province of Orissa first became subject to the British Empire under the administration of the Marquis Wellesley, who permitted the pilgrims at first to visit Juggernaut without pay. ing tribute. It was proposed to his Lordship, soon after, to pass the above regulation for the management of the Temple, and levying the tax ; but he did not approve of it, and actually left the Government without giving his sanction to the opprobrious law. When the measure was discussed by the succeeding Government, it was resisted by George Udny, esq. one of the Members of the Supreme Council, who recorded his solemn dissent on the proceedings of Government, for transmission to England. The other members considered Juggernaut to be a legitimate source of revenue, on the principle, I believe, that money from other temples in Hindoostan had long been brought into the treasury. It is just that I should state that these gentlemen (though their opinion on this subject will differ so much from that of their countrymen at home) are men of the most honourable principles and of unimpeached integrity. Nor would any one of them, I believe (for I have the honour to know them) do any thing which he thought injurious to the honour or religion of his country. But the truth is this, that those persons who go to India in early youth, and witness the Hindoo customs all their life, seeing little at the same time of the Christian Religion to counteract the effect, are disposed to view them with complacency, and are sometimes in danger of at length considering them ev as proper or necessary.

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or that the Hindoos there practice a more crimi-' nal superstition than they do in other places, it may

be proper to notice the effects of the same idolatry in Bengal. The English nation will not expect to hear that the blood of Juggernaut is known at Calcutta : but, alas, it is shed at the very doors of the English, almost under the eye of the Supreme Government. Moloch has many a tower in the province of Bengal : that fair and fertile province which has been called « The Garden of Nations.” Close to Ishera, a beautiful villa on the river's side, about eight miles from Calcutta, once the residence of Governor Hastings, and within view of the present Governor-General's countryhouse, there is a temple of this idol which is often stained with human blood. At the festival of the Rutt Jattra, in May, 1807, the Author visited it, on his return from the South of India, having heard that its rites were similar to those of Juggernaut.

Juggernaut's Temple, near Ishera, on the Ganges:

Rutt Juttra, May, 1807. * The tower here is drawn along, like that at Juggernaut, by cables. The number of worshippers at this festival is computed to be about a hundred thousand. The tower is covered with indecent emblems, which

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