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On the Invention of Letters.

117 the Pelasgi were termed divine, be- general dispersion 11 These observa. cause, says Eustatius, they amongst tions must then have been committed all the Greeks were the only preservers to writing ; and Pliny12 from Epigenes of letters after the Flood.

says, they were engraven on brick pilSanchoniatho attributes the inven- lars. This was many years before tion of letters 10 Thoth the grandson of Thoth reigned in Egypt. Ham. “From Misor (Mizraim)" Noah founded the empire of China, says he, “ came Taautus, who found and instructed his subjecis in this useful out the writing of the first letters; art ; and it is remarkable that the whom the Egyptians call Thoor, the Chinese alphabet at this day, if an acAlexandrians Thoyth, and the Gre- cumulation of eighty thousand characcians Hermes."7 But Thoib died be- ters may be dignified with that appelfore Abraham entered into Canaan, Jation, is, according to the best auihoand consequently Letters were before rities, but a slight variation from the the time of Abraham.

system of writing communicated to his Thoih, however, was not the in. immediate descendants by that paventor of Letters; for I think it de- triarch.13 monstrable that he received the ele. If these testimonies be admitted, it ments of this knowledge from Noah. will appear that letters were practised Even Sanchoniatho himself expressly by Noah after the flood; and we may asserts, that Thoth imitated the art of very reasonably conjecture that he was picture writing practised by Ouranus not ignorant olthem before that event, or Noah (responsálsvos Toy Ovqaror) ;8 because he was six hundred years of and delineated the sacred characters age when he entered the ark; and that formed the elements of this kind there is no existing evidence to prove of writing. Thoth was an able rheto. that he invented them afterwards. rician,' and was surnamed by the

A learned modern author, Dr. Doig, Greeks Hermes, for his eminent lo. is decisive on this point. He thing's gical skill. Hence he doubtless im- the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, praved on the art which was thus which he considers the same as the communicated to him by Noah; for Chaldaic and the Syrian, were antedibeing of an active and enterprizing luvian. After observing that “there genius, he was indefatigable in the was certainly a tradition among the pursuit of knowledge; and the stores Jews that writing was an antediluvian of learning and science, by deep and invention," this writer adds, “ there laborious research, were unfolded to must have been a tradition to the same his view. And this has rendered his purpose among the Chaldeans, since name celebrated throughout all the ihe writers who have copied from Beworld; for he was the most learned rosus, the celebrated Chaldean histoprince that flourished in Egypt for rian, speak of alphabetical writing as many ages.10 Grotius gives him the an art well known among the antedilucharacter of an eminent writer; and vians. According to them, Oannes, Plato testifies very strongly the multi- the Chaldean legislator, gave bis displicity of bis acquirenients, by affirm- ciples an insight into letters and science. ing that he taught not only Geometry, This person also wrote concerning the Astronomy, Architecture, and Music, generation of mankind; of their difbut also Chemistry, Medicine, and the lerent pursuits, civil polity, &c. Inuse of Hieroglyphics. He is said to mediately before the deluge, say they, have written his discoveries on forty- the god Cronus appeared to Sisuthrus Iwonas, or pillars, and to have depo

or Xisuthrus, and commanded him to sited them in caves near Diospolis

. commit to writing the beginning, imThey were subsequently discovered and provement, and conclusion of all things deciphered by Agathodæmon the se- down to the present time, and to bury cond Mercury

these accounis securely in the temple Astronomical observations were found of the sun at Seppara. All these tra. in Babylon by Alexander, as high as ditions may be fabulous in the main; about twelve or fifteen years after the

11 Porph. apud Simplic, in Aristot. de 7 Sanch. in Euseb. præp. evan. I. i.c. 10. Cælo, p. 123. 8 Vid, Warb. Div. Leg. b. 4, s. 4, p. 73.

12 L. 35, c. 14. 9 Tertul. I. de Cor. Fest.

13 Vide Warburton's Plate from Kircher's 10 Cumb. Sanch.

China Illustrace, in Diy. Leg. b. 4, s. 4.

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On the Invention of Letters,

[Aug. but still they evince that such an opi- the use of letters, we should be at a nion was current; and that though the loss to account for the method he used use of letters was not indeed eternal, to note down the results of bis astroit was however prior to all the records nomical and arithmetical calculations ; of history; and of course, we think, for without some kind of memoranda, an antediluvian discovery.'


progress in those studies, abstruse Pliny 14 says, that letters were always as they must necessarily have been at found among the Assyrians; and that early period, would have been Shuckford 15 affirms, that“ letters were much reiaried; and he accomplished used in Assyria long before Abraham in a very short antediluvian life more was born, and in Egypt much longer than any of his predecessors, or many before Moses; and the ancient He- of his successors, with all the superior brew and Assyrian letters were the advantages which they enjoyed.18 Thus same. The true reason why we meet in Jonathan's Targum on Genesis, we with no supposed author of the Assy- find Enoch termed " the Great Scribe." rian letters is I believe this. Antiquity Eupolemus 19 says, that Enoch was inis agreed that letters were not invented structed in all things by angels ; letters in Assyria. Mankind had lived above of course included. Bar Hebræus afsixteen hundred years before the food, firms that Enoch was the first who inand it is not probable they lived with vented books and different sorts of out the use of letters; for if they had, writing 20 « The Greek Christians, how should we have had the short an- and all Arabian writers, according to nals which we have of the first world? Abulfaragius, supposed Enoch to be If they had letters, it is likely that the first Egyptian Hermes; and BeiNoah was skilled in them, and iaught davi, a learned Arabian commentator them to his children." The know- on the Koran, cited by Houlinger, says, ledge of this art he probably received that he was the first calamographer, from Methusaleh the son of Enoch, and profoundly versed in astronomy to whom his father had communicated and arithmetic.:21 much of the information which he I can scarcely however induce myhad collected by study and experience. self 10 believe that Enoch was acAnd there is something in this state- quainted with the characters of the ment beyond mere conjecture, for “ in Hebrew alphabet, which would attain a fragment of Alexander Polyhistor, to perfection by gradual improvements, preserved by Scaliger, 16 there is men- down to the time of Moses, and night tioned the keeping of some records receive its last finish by the exertions of written before the flood.7

his superior learning and zeal. The St. Jude quotes ihe words of Enoch's peculiar kind of letter used by Enoch, prophecy, which it was contended in is now unknown ;yet we may conihe early ages of Christianity were ac- clude, from such testimony as these tually written in a book, admitted by dark ages produce, that he did make that Apostle to be genuine. St. Au- use of letters or characters to perpetuate gustine acknowledged that Enoch wrote bis scientific attainments, and that a book of prophecy; and Tertullian these characters were understood by contended that it ought to be received Noah and his posterity after the flood; into the sacred canon. The book, for the benefits of so happy an invenhowever, was rejected as apocryphal. tion once enjoyed, would not long reIf Enoch were not acquainted with main a secret in the bosom of Enoch, 14 Literas semper arbitror Assyrias fuisse, vii. 56.

15 Connect. b. 4. 16 Euseb. Grec. p. 8.

17 Cumb. Sanch. 18 I

copy from Wait (Orient. Ant. p. 277) a curious passage from Ibn-nephi, not as possessing any authority, but to show that a confirmed' idea must have existed in the East that Enoch was acquainted with the use of letters. “ And God appointed him (Enoch) a prophet, and caused to descend to him thirty books; and he inherited the books of Seth, and the ark of Adam, and he lived by dint of his own labour, and was a tailor!" 19 Euseb. Præp. evan. I. 9, c. 17.

20 Wait. Orient. Ant. p. 182, in nota. 21 Maur. Hist. Hind. p. 439, with authorities.

22 Aben Washih, who wrote more than 1000 years ago, affirms that there were three antediluvian alphabets, which he gives at length; the Syrian alphabet, revealed by God to Adam; the Celestial alphabet, used by Seth; and the alphabet of Enoch, communicated by the angel Gabriel. « Who says the contrary,” adds this author, “

says falsehood."


Epitaphs on the Ludford Family.

119 whose whole life was dedicated to the 1. “To the Memory of John BRACEBRIDGE porpose of promoting the glory of God, LUDFORD, Esq. (eldest son of Samuel B. and conveying blessings to his fellow Ludford, Esq.) Bencher of the Inner Temple, creatores.

born 18th May, 1707, died 16th Nov. 1775. Thus have I traced the knowledge Aud to the memory of Juliana HIS WIFE, of letters to Enoch, and there I termi.

youngest and third surviving daughter of nate the inquiry, for I confess myself 1780, aged 68. Xis abilities were great,

Sir Richard Newdigate, Bart. Died Jan. 19, at a loss to prosecule the subject further.

both as a scholar and a lawyer; but, instead I have scarcely been able to gather a of following his profession of a Barrister, remote hint from sacred or profane with the view of enriching himself, his behistory, which may sanction the hy- nevolence disposed him and his hereditary pothesis that letters were used before fortune enabled him, to employ his legal the time of Enoch, if we except the talents and acquirements for the benefit

of opinions of a few enthusiastic Jews, bis Friends, and in defending the cause of who, in their overweening zeal for the Widow and Fatherless. In his capacity antiquity, have roundly asserted that of Magistrate, and in the paternal, social, God revealed them to Adam. And

and all

other relative duties of life, his worth even here it is probable that the use of Juliana, who survived him, was a most

was pre-eminent, and deservedly appreciated. speech or language has been confound affectionate wife and mother, constant in ed with the use of letters. Indeed this her friendships, and a liberal benefactress to lalter communication was not abso. the poor and her dependents in general, lutely necessary. The knowledge which They left four children. John, assumed Adam received by direct inspiration, the additional name of Newdigate, A.D. related to such matters as were inme- 1808. Juliana, a woman of distinguished diately requisite to support his charac. accomplishments, died 1st May, 1811, aged ter as the supreme Lord over all created Frances died 31st March, 1821, aged things. And this was not a confined 74. Millisent died 7th Feb. 1827, aged 74. species of information. But before These three sisters lived together for many the time of Enoch, no abstruse sciences

years at Camp Hill in this neighbourhood, were known in the world 23 which re

universally beloved and respected. Strictly

observant quired the use of letters to perpetuate they were estimable examples of piety, cha

all religious and moral duties, and transmit them to posterity.

rity, and the most active benevolence." Geo. OLIVER,

2. “To the Memory of John NEWDIGATE

LUDFORD, Esq. D.C. L. (only son of John Mr. URBAN,

Bracebridge Ludford, Esq.) Bencher of the Aug. 20.

Inner Temple, born 17th Aug. 1756, died JOU will gratify many who knew 16th May, 1825. Also to the memory of

the worth of the deceased, by re- ELIZABETH HIS WIFE, eldest daughter of cording the epitaphs on two handsome John Boswell, Esq. of Witton Hall

, born mural monuments lately erected (under 5th Feb. 1756 ; who survived him only until the friendly superintendance of Wil- 20th Jan. 1826. Surpassed by pone in atliam Hamper, Esq. F.S.A. of Birming. tachment to the Constitution of his Country ham) in the chancel of Ansley church, in Church and State ; be was scrupulously Warwickshire. A memoir of John

exact in the observance of all the ordinances Newdigate Ludford, is inserted in of the established Religion, and evinced his your vol. lxxxv. i. p. 469; and the Loyalty by raising the Nuneaton troop of death of his amiable lady is noticed in Yeomanry Cavalry, in the critical year 1795,

and by commanding it to the day of his your vol. Lxxxvi. i. p. 190.

death. He possessed an excellent underYours, &c.

J. B. N.

standing and a huinane heart. At all times

a most iudulgent Landlord, his kindness was 23 Cain built a city (Gen. iv. 17), which particularly shown to the Widows of his Te-, would bring into operation the principles of nants, whom he permitted to remain undisGeometry and Architecture; but it is sup. turbed on his estates. He was an active posed, aod with much justice (vide Cuinb. and conscientious Magistrate, a kind Father, Sanch.), that this city was constructed with and emineatly sustained the character of an the assistance of Tubal Cain and his brethren, old English Gentleman, for integrity, hospithe eighth in descent from Adam, who tality, and charity. He was blessed, beyond were contemporary with the sons of Enoch; the common lot of humanity, in his Wife, and therefore the arts invented by him whose constant study for his happiness was might be in requisition amongst the de- combined with the most admirable qualificascendants of Cain, whilst they accumulated tions; the acquirements of a Lady were a mass of contiguous dwellings for social hallowed by the piety and humility of a habitation and inutual defence.

Christian. She was the best of Mothers,

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Mr. B. says,

P. 143.

Alleged Massacre at Nismes in 1815.

[Aug and her truly amiable and benevolent dispo: qu'ils voulaient frapper ; le mot d'hérésie de sition exemplified itself in the daily practice fut pas (une seule fois prononcé pendant les of the purest virtues.

troubles sanglans du midi, dans lesquels il ." This monument is erected in testimony ne faut voir qu'une de ces réactions poliof the deepest affection to their revered pa- tiques dont les instigateurs restés dans l'omrents, by Elizabeth Juliana Newdigate Lud- bre avaient peut-être plus d'un motif." ford Chetwode, Frances Millisent Newdigate - Meiners, Histoire de la Reformation, Ludford, and Mary Ann Astley, their only 1826, p. 184. children and coheiresses, A.D. 1829."

I consider this writer the better au.

thority in such a case, as he is by no Mr. URBAN, St. Servan, France,

means disposed to exculpate the Ca. June 29.

tholics on other occasions. Excepting IN N perusing an historical work of a few inaccuracies, there is no history

some merit, (Belsham's History of of the Reformation more worthy the Great Britain from the Peace of A; perusal of literary men, as its effects on miens), I was painfully suprised to find science and politics are ably traced out the religious disturbances which took in this volume. place in the South of France in 1815,

Yours, &c. CYDWELI. not only exaggerated but greatly misrepresented.

Mr. URBAN, Retford, July 3. “ The Protestants , known as the zealous TYR

TURNING over the other day the friends of the Revolution, and much fa. leaves of that important and vavoured under the late reign, were exposed to luable depository of the public records every species of vexation, not to say perse- of Great Britain, &c. called Rymer's cution.”-vol. II.

Fædera, I found (in the underwritten « Thus was France left without defence

words and language) an allestation by (by disbanding the army), and great con- King Edward III. that a woman comfusion ensued; particularly in those depart- nitted to prison for the murder of ments where the Protestants most abounded;

her husband, subsisted in the said priand at Nismes a sauguinary scene took place, son forly days without eating or drinkwhich revived the recollection of St. Bar- ing, and his pardon granted to her in tholomew."-p. 180.

acknowledgement of the miracle. Some partiality may be excused in

At present I shall forbear to make an author whose prepossessions are not

any observation on the superstitious disguised ; but truth can only be ascer

credulity of a Monarch so renowned, tained by hearing both sides. You and whose memory is so justly dear to doubtless remember, Mr. Urban, the the English nation, but shall be happy ferment which those troubles excited

to learn from any of your correspondin England, and justly so, if the repre

ents whether there are any historical sentations made of them were correct.

circumstances connected with a fact so As an instance of different opinion, it exacıly recorded, and so indisputable as may be recollected, that the Rev. Sir the release of the murderer for the H.'W. Moncrieff advocated earnestly supposed miracle. the cause of the Protestants, while

Yours, &c. INVESTIGATOR. his son-in-law Dr. Stoddart denied that they had suffered on account of “ A. D. 1357, 31 Edw. III. De sustitheir religion.

nendo Vitam sine Potu et Cibo. Rex OmI solicit the attention of every can.

nibus, &c. salutem. Sciatis quod cùm did reader to the following passage,

Cecilia (quæ fuit uxor Johannis de Rygetaken from a zealous and uncompro- Johannis, viri suí

, et de morte illa co

indictata de morte ipsius

way) super mising Protestant:

ram dilectis et fidelibus nostris, Henrico “ Les vicissitudes du Christianisme dans Grene et sociis suis Justiciariis nostris, ad deux de ses grandes divisions, le Catholi- goalam nostram Notyoghamiæ deliberandam cisme et le Protestantisme, s'arrêtent, du assignatis, allocata. moins en France, à l'époque où l'égalité " Pro eo quod se tenuit mutam ad Poecivique fut proclamée dans ce pays. Le nam suam extitit adjudicata, ut dicitur, in massacre des protestans de Nîsmes en 1815, quà sine Cibo et Poti, in artá • Prisona, per ne peut être regardé comme l'effet d'une Quadraginta Dies, vitam sustinuit viâ miraanimosité religieuse. Les assassins ne fu- culi et quasi contra naturam humanam, sicut rent guidés ni par des prêtres, vi par des ex testimonio accepimus fide digno. prédicateurs; ils ne faisaient point partie d'une croisade; ce n'était pas des hérétiques • Vide 6 Rymer's Foedera, p. 13.

1830.] CLASSICAL LITERATURE.-On Macaronic Poetry. 121

“ Nos, eâ de causâ, pietate moti, ad lau- prædictå deliberetur, et de corpore suo dem Dei et gloriosa Virginis Mariæ Matris ulterius non sit impetita occasione Judicii suæ, unde dictum miraculum processit, ut supradicti. In cujus, &c. Teste Rege creditur, de gratiâ nostra speciali, pardon- apud Westmonasterium vicesimo-quinto die avimus eidem Ceciliæ executionem Judicii Aprilis.” prædicti.

" Per Breve de Privato Sigillo." “ Volentes quod eadem Cecilia a Prisonâ

CLASSICAL LITERATURE. ON MACARONIC POETRY. compaginatum ; grossum, rude, et rus" (Continued from page 36.)

ticanum. Ideo Macaronica nil nisi

grossedinem, ruditatem, et VocabuAYDN, amongst other playful lezzos, debet in se continere.” The

, troduced into one of his symphonies a

pudding, pated fellow. Dr. Geddes minuet and trio, which are first played


* It is the characteristic of a in the regular way, and then repeated Macaronic poem to be written in Labackwards. It is foreign to the purpose

tin hexameters; but so as to admit here to notice the different shapes in occasionally vernacular words, either which verses were sometimes written,

in their native form, or with a Latin such as axes, altars, crosses, &c. I

inflexion. Other licenses, too, are may just refer to the Virgilio-Centones, allowed, in the measure of the lines, where the history of portions of the

contrary to the strict rules of prosody." Old and New Testament are contained

By far the greater number of Macain a poem of considerable length, of ronic poels have been continental which all the lines are taken from

writers; indeed, we have but two reVirgil. There are also Homerici-Cen- gular authors of that description, lones on the same plan. Of the former, namely, Drummond of Hawthornthe commencement of the account of den, who wrote Polemo - Middrina, the temptation of Eve may suffice as a

and Dr. Geddes. The first writer in specimen.

this style, of whom we have any acFortunati ambo, si mens non læva fuisset, count, was Typhis Odaxius Patavinus, Conjugis infandæ docuit post exitus ingens ; or rather Titi degli Odasj; who wrote Jamque dies infandi erat, per florea rura about the end of the 15th century, Ecce inimicus atrox, immensis orbibus anguis,

Carmen Macaronicum de patavinis Septem ingens giros septena volumina ver

quibusdam arte magicâ delusis,” 410,

without place or daie, catchwords, or Macaronic poetry requires some- signatures. Of this there were several what more attention, as it appears to editions, which are all equally rare. have been much in vogue in the 16th About the same time appeared “ Maand 17th centuries. There are some charronea varia, diversis linguis conpoems in Baudius, with a mixture of scripta, præsertim Latinè, et caractere ihe Greek and Latin languages; and gothico impressa,” small 8vo, without as early as the 12th and 13th centuries place or date. This rare volume, quaini mixtures of English, Latin, and whose author, according to Brunet, French, may be found in the monkish

was Georgio Aglione d'Asti, contains writers, but these cannot be included several small pieces, of which the first under the term Macaronic. So Wale is, “ Macharronea contra Macharroter Mapes, and Golias, whoever he

neam Bassani ad spectabilem D. Balwas, alihough great manufacturers of

lasarem Lupum astin. studentem Paburlesque Latin, cannot be classed' pie, &c.” The remainder are prinwith Macaronic writers. Ducange cipally farces in Lombard and Piedalso mentions Epistolæ Farcitæ, com- montese verse. In the year 1516, were posed in mixed Latin and Gallic idiom.

first published at Paris, “Fructuo. Macaronic poetry is thus described by sissimi atque amenissimi Sermones," Folengi, one of the best writers of the by Gabried Barlette, a Dominican class : “ Ars ista poetica nuncupatur friar. These are written in the lowest ars Macaronica, a Macaronibus deri- Macaronic style, one sentence often vata: qui Macarones sunt quoddam consisting of two or three languages, pulmenium, farina, casco, butyro and mixing ludicrous with serious subGENT. MAG. August, 1830.

sat, &c.

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