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Notices of the ANCIENT KINGDOM OF YLLI IN BRITANNY. Mr. URBAN,

Sl. Servan, France, N. E. of Brest, and a part of it still

June 25. bears the name of Lysien, aboveA

into which Armorica was divid. Ausochus may be safely placed at Tree ed, after the departure of the Romans garantec. and under the British colonization,

The kingdom of Ylli contained only was one which bore the name of Ylli. seventeen villages, in the time of Cles, Its insignificance might have excluded rod, a valiant monarch, who is said it from history, but for the marriage of to have been twice crowned with one of its princesses to a king of Brie

a cap of wreathed laurel. He had taany. Hence it has become an ob. three sons, each of who had a reject of inquiry to Breton antiquaries, markable iinpression on the right shoulwho are not agreed upon its geogra- der; the eldest a bow, the second a phical situation, some placing it near spear's head, and the third a sword; Morlaix, and others coufounding it which denoted their military renown. with a different stale.

They bore this motto on their shields, M. Miorcec de Kerdanet, the first

Caravtez e peb amser, living archæologist of Britanny, has e peb hæot lealdet. published a liule tract on the subject, Charity at all times, in which he considers the question as

Honour in every way. set at rest.

Clerod was succeeded by his grandThe words of Ingomar, as quoted by Dom Morice, appear to point out the him reigned his son Ausoch, who is

son Hilperut, or the Gloomy. After situation of Ylli, if they can be satis known in history as the father of the factorily explained. He says, that beautiful Pradell or Pritell. During King A usochus, dwelt in capite lit his absence at a neighbouring court, loris magni, à parte occidentali, in it happened that Judual, Prince of tribu Lysiú, in commendatione Ylli. Dumnonia,+ who had lost his way in In inediæval Latin, commendatio means hunting, arrived at the palace. He government or custody, answering to the

was struck with the charms of the Breton word Quemenel; and Quemenet

princess, and the same night he saw her Ylli, was actually the name of a canion of Lower Britanny, in the district of image in a dream, surrounded with wea. Leon, or northern part of the present that the lady's hand must be sought in

pons of war. The omen might betoken department of Finisterre. This coun- perils and enterprises ; but the lover did try contained a bishopric and two not despair; he consulted the bard and subordinate dioceses, or archidiaco.

prophei Tholosin, son of Onis, who nates, namely Ach (Lat

. Aginense), dwelt in the peninsula of Rhuis ;t by and Quemenei-Ylli. The chief place whom he was told, that the issue of the of this latter division was Tregarantec, marriage would be a warlike son. or Charily's home,t so called because Encouraged by this explanation, he dethe inhabitants of Pleudiher found re

manded and obtained ihe hand of the fuge there, at the time of a raging Princess: their marriage is placed in It is about five leaguis

* Pridd, adj. precious, Welsh Dict. * Notice sur le Royaume d'Ylli. 18mo. + The North-Eastern part of Britany: Pp. 10. Priuted for Duchesne, at Rennes. Mr. Turner considers it as the refuge of the

+ M. Miorcec readers this word trève de exiles from Devonshire. la charité, I should cooceive erroneously. 1 Opposite Quiberon, on the southero I have given the Welsh, or more ancient coast of Britanny. Aa Abuey was dedicated meaning of the word.

there to St. Gildas.

epide nic.

Ancient Kingdom of Ylli.-On Bridges.' (July. the year 500. The same Judual is

property, it may have experienced called Hoel III. by some writers; he more happiness than larger states, extended his dominion, says M. De- where kings can only see with the laporte, over nearly the whole of Bri- eyes of ministers. That it should have tanny, which is parily accounted for remained unconquered in those turbuby his marriage with the heiress of lent times, supposes patriotism in the Ylli. He took the title of king. The inhabitants, affection towards their historian just quoted ihrows no light chiess, and a propitious course of ciron the marriage, but merely says, “he cumstances.

The name of Tregaranespoused Pratelle, by whom he bad tec speaks highly for the character of several children."

the people, and is no trivial instance Jadual died about 620. His son of the value of elymology in corroboand successor was the celebrated Judi- rating history, li is possible that a cail, whom tradition represents as a diligent search of the early Welsh match for the stoutest antagonist when Bards may throw some light on the a boy, but who shines in history as a events of this interesting little king. very amiable character.* He married com, or on the names of its princes. Moron, daughier of Even, King of

CYDWELI. Ach. One of his sons, named Arnec, was bishop of the lule diocese. It seems that he resigned it in favour of

Mr. URBAN, St. Vigan, his neighbour. The legend Bea and the Wye, I have often

July 20.

EING resident between the Sesays, that he promised him as much territory as he could traverse, while he observed the injury and inconvenience hiniselt' was asleep. Arosc betook sustained by the neighbourhooil, for himself to slumber, and Vigan mount- want of a bridge over the Severn at ed his forse; but it was on the siteple Newnham; travellers in carriages being of St. Eloi, between Landernean and compelled 10 go round either by GlouLesneven; and taking a spring from cester or the Old Passage, from twenty thence, he traversed ine whole of the or more miles out of their way, if their diocese in the air besore Arnec awoke,

direction be the opposite populous and it was accordingly ceded to him. country, and the paris beyond. I have

The kingdom appears to have revert- therefore collected, for the information ed to temporal princes, for Argan, or

of
my

neighbours, various matters conArastan, reigned in the time of Char. cerning bridges, which I think it may lemagne. (It might be an apanage.) be amusing and useful to lay before This prince accompanied Charles in the public, as they do not apply to a his expeditions, was distinguished as a particular case only. soldier, and fell at Roncevaus in 778.7

It is well known that the erection His exploits were a favourite theme of of bridges has become so exceedingly the Breion Troubadours. His succes- expensive, and so accompanied with sor was Prinicis, of whom nothing is heavy loss to the shareholders, that a recorded, or indeed of any later sove- virtual prohibition exists 10 the inreign.

crease of such conveniences, except It has escaped the keen antiquary of at the public cost. Nevertheless, I beg Les Tourelles, that Ylli is a word 10 premise, that I am not such a Vandal meaning a division, or something as to object 10 stone bridges, chain parted off. It is natural 10 suppose

bridges, or any l'est things, where they that this little kingdom had been de- can be afforded; only that where they tached from some other, and thence cunnot be afforded, expense is not to obtained its name. Too insignificant be doctrinal against convenience; stonez to be an object of cuji lily, and no and nortar against te'n per ceol.; facilarger than an Englisi nchleman's lity of communication, which aug.

ments commerce and the value of es. * See Mir. Turner's skitch of Breton his

tales, against mere outside show.

But tory, in the first and fourth editions of his

more money gained will cause money History of the Anglo Saxons. of M. Miorcec adds, “ Le Tasse l'a célé

10 be spent. The country, which bré dans la Jérusalem. Il a extrait ce qu'il

has exhibited the best modes of enen dit de l'archevêque Turpin, contemporain countering the difficulty is America ; d'Argan."

and though many of their expedients Yll. s. m. that tends to part. Yllt, a are 100 rude for adoption here, yet rent. — Welsh Dict. Lysien has a similar there are others which mcrit attention. signification :- Llys, s. m. thit separates. In the first place, then, I would ob.

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On the Erection of Bridges. serve, that there does already exist a them; wheréns, had it been built with stone, ferry at New nham ; and that such it would not even now produce an interest ferry may be made 10 answer every of more than 25 per cent."-Faulkner's purpose of a bridge (except, perhaps, Chelsea, i. 33. when the Bour or Hygre, i.e. the tide, I have heard thai the wooden bridge is pouring in) by the following simple at Putney pays len per cent., and that means; and I beg it to be recollected, the shareholders a few years ago wisethat I shall say nothing without autho- ly resisted the conversion of it into rity.

stone, because, as public convenience " At Philadelphia, the finest oliject is

was served without it, they saw no reathe river Delaware, and its opposite shore,

son why their private property was to about half a mile across, with a little island suffer for the sake of a good job. in the middle of it. Steam and team boats “But ugliness is avoidable, for Colonel By se continually crossing and recrossing. has erecteil a beautiful wooden frame bridge They are double boats, or two placed side over the Big Kettle in Canada."-Mac Tagby side, the paddles working between with a gart's Canada, i. 347. deck across both, to take waggons, car

of the hopeless proceeds of stone and riages, &c. You may drive into them seated in any vehicle, and out on the opposite side on

iron bridges, the following table, taken coming lo shore, without the least danger. A

from your Magazine for May, 1830, p. large bell is rany every time they make the 479, tells a melancholy tale! shore, stop about ten minutes, ring again,

BRIDGES :

Price of Div. and off." – Pickering's Emigration, p. 28.

Shares. per ann.

Hammiersmith. That a similar expedient might be

£24 0 £i 10 Southwark .

24 0 here adopieil, is beyond doubt, because

Do. New 7 & per cent. a raf. conveys a surge-coach without

Vauxhall on horsing or unloading, across an es

Waterloo mary in or near Arundel in Sussex,

Ann. of 81. and was contrived by the coach-pro- Ann. of 71. prietor, because a bridge was refused.

If Government would make a dona. The rast was lowed by a chain and

tion of timber from the neighbouring windluss, but as the rope or chain, forest of Dean, the expense of a wooden (not necessarily so, though iroublesome) bridge at Newnham would be very might impede the navigation of the

considerably reduced. river, it would be objectionable at

The indispensable expense of a chain New nha ta.

bridge has been very much exaggerated; To the double-boat described above,

Mr. MacTaggart, a government evgi. no such impediment exists. The pad. dies miglic be worked by a man in each boat, and simple machinery; and

A chain bridge to stretch across the St.

Lawrence, from Cape Diamond to Point Levi, quays or causeways of differing heights

a distance of more than a mile, where the and estents might be thrown out on both shores, to meet the changeable

current is strong and water deep, seems no elevationis of the ride.

easy task, yet it might be performed. The

chain bridge would require five floating piers, The next economical substitute

and these may be so constructed and so aawould be a wooden bridge, with a chored that even the heaviest drift ice rushdrawbridge in the centre, for vessels to ing before a flood would not be able to sweep pass, as at Amsterdam, and but lately them away. The expeuse atteoding such an unat Weymouth. But stone bridges are dertaking, considering coutingencies, might by far the best. Undoubtedly; but probably amount to 40,0001.; pothing less, there is a wide difference in cost be- at least, could possibly answer.”—MacTagIween a crown and a pound. Wooden garl's Canada, Vol. i. p. 315. bridges, (expense is ihe question), do Now, the breadth of the water way not cost more than one fourth of stone at Newnbam in full tide is, according ones, are the only bridges across wide to a trigonometrical adnieasurement, rivers which pay good interest of money, 560 yards, and, of course, but the third and may be made picturesque and beau- of a mile and eighty yards over. Divide tiful. Now for the proofs :

40,0001. by 3, and upon Mr. Maclage “A stoce bridge was first meditated at

gart's estimate, a bridge could be built Chelsea ; but the estimate given in was

across the Serern at Newnham for 83,0001. The proprietors, alarmed at the 13,330l. Two, or at most three, piers expense, erected a wooden one for about would be enough. 20,0001. The concern now amply remunerates But the most appalling circumstance

neer, said,

6

Bridge over the Severn at Newnham. [July, as regards Newnham, is that no rocky This timber was perfectly sound after the bottom is to be found, except at such lapse of now above six centuries, and proves a depth that piles are useless, and the a strong practical instance of the preservasubstitute must be sunk rock ; and as

tion of wood under water, when unexposed to Apating piers, there being no depth

to the action of air."-Archæol. xxiii. 18. of water, as in the Saint Lawrence, the In building our ancient brilges, the navigation of the river would be im- custom was to turn the water-course, peded, and falls, as at Old London make starlings, and upon thein raise Bridge, be created. Dig will you the piers ; and if they had sunk their come to the solid ground,"* is certainly starlings to low-water level, and not an ancient and sound architectural made their piers unnecessarily thick, adage, and taking the main opening there would have been no falls. lc (580 feet) of the famous Suspension does not appear, from the London or Bridge over the Menai for a standard, Bristol old bridges, that they piled unthree piers would be required. Bui, der the starlings. (See Seyer's Bristol.) whatever may be the hazard attached Nor is it at all probable, quick as are to a sandy foundation, it is certain that the sands of the Severn, and various it has been counteracted without exca

other sands, that a superstructure raised vation down to rock. Pliny (xxxvi. 14) upon the hull of the Royal George, the informs us, that the famous temple of Rother-ship, or a Severn crow bedded the Ephesian Diana was founded in a in sand, would subside much from the marshy soil to guard against earth- superincumbent weight; for Vauxhall quakes, and that ihe foundations might bridge has its piers laid in boxes. As not be laid in slippery ground, “ calca- to the Severu, the experiment could tis ea [fundamenta) carbonibus, dein be easily made by examining the depth velleribus lance, substravere ;" i. e. they to which the causeway on the Arlingo underlaid the foundations with trodden ham side, used from time immemorial, coals, afterwards with fleeces of wool; has subsided; and furtherinore, the ford whence no doubt came the legend that at low water for carriages has been London Bridge was built upon wools used from time immemorial, so ihat it sacks. This temple was in existence can never have been undermined, and long after the time of St. Paul. Alex- must be firm enough for a tiniberander, when he wanted to pass the bridge, or an artificial bed of stone laid Arosis, demolished the villages, and, upon it. In excavation, the Ame. laying the materials on blocks of stone, rican mode is twice as cheap as the promptly formed a bridge. (Prate's Q. English, both in bridge and canalCurt. ii. 30). Nor does it appear to be making. Instead of human labour bethe fact, that where there is an inter. ing employed in digging, a team or i wo vening artificial sound stratuin, the ploughs the surface with a very strong substratum beneath is of much mo- plough, the men remove the earth as ment, for Alberti says, you may light fast as it is turned up; they then plough upon a country like ihai of the Adria. again, and so continue the process, (if tic and Venice, where, under the con- the stratuin be not rocky) till the job is gestitia, you can find almost nothing completed. but loose inud ( solutum limum). (De A bridge at Newnham, unless supre ædificat. fol. xxxii. b.) Our ances- ported by Governinent (and in all nators seem to have acted in this way by tions except this, such public works making their starlings.

are so supported,) is, however, not like“ The original foundation of Old London Gloucester and the Old and New Pas

ly to find patronage. The people of Bridge appears to have been laid at low water, as the heads of the small piles were a

sages, have a strong interest in oplittle above that level; they were chiefly of posing such a measure ; but there is no elm, and driven in three rows, all round the ferry like that used at Philadelphia,

reasonable objection to a double-boat sides and ends of the piers, about six or seven feet deep, and ten inches square, upon

and the profits of such a convenience an average. Between these piles a quantity might form a fair criterion as to the of loose rubble stones were laid without ce- prudence of ulterior measures. There ment, and upon this were bedded three strong are turnpike roads in coinmunication sleepers, aborit 21 inches wide and 9 thick. on both sides, and no approaches re

quired, nor acts of parliament, nor any * “ At veteres, quod faustiim et felix sit, outlay except that which does not refodito inquiunt usquedum solidum iovenias." quire serious consideration. Indeed one - Alberii de re ædificat. fol. xxxii. or more patriotic noblemen or gentle

1830.)
Italian Drama at Paris.-Alfieri's Plays.

7 men might, by an easy subscription, man vocalists in the French capital : liave a model and sull working descrip- they commenced their representations tions sent from Philadelphia, and by on Tuesday last (6th July,) with Rosassent of the proprietor of the ferry, set munda, a tragedy in five acts, by Alfieri; the business going. The secret consists followed by La casu désabitata, a farce in nothing more iban iwo barges, with in one act by the Count Giraud, an a stage or platform, guarded by rails, Italian by birth, but of French descent. and forming a moveable bridge, which It is worthy of remark, that Alfieri's may be hooked on to piers or quays. plays are seldom allowed to be per

Haring stated plain mutters of fact, formed in Italy; and from the senti. I do not see why Englishmen in Eng. ments which pervade them, it can land cannot be as wise as Anglo-Ame- hardly be supposed that the French ricans, and not sneer at conveniences Government would suffer them to be because they may be cheap; in short, represented in a translation. Alfieri, I affirm that by ihe Philadelphian con- in his disposition, seeins 10 have restruction of double ferry-boais, the pur. sembled Lord Byron ; he identifies poses of a bridge may, to a very ample tyranny with almost every act of erery esieni, be exemplified at Newnhain, government, and is unsparing in his to the great eventual benefit of the condemnation of those public characlown, the country, and the public at ters who fall under his lash. His strong large. We borrowed our steam-boats unqualified language is in consequence from the Americans, why not other as scarcely fit for iheairical publicacion in practicable conveniences? I am aware the vulgar tongue of any country; and of insuli, because architects will not however the French literati inight wish suffer any public convenience what- to excuse the boldness of his siyle, and cver to be projected, if it be possible to the free spirit of his writings, they canprevent it, unless it be done at an enor- not so easily pardon his severe sarcasms mous expence, and their plea is na. on iheir national characier; they contional ornament. Their plea is just, if sider it rather inconversunt to comthe funds can be afforded, bui it is mence ihe Italian performances with a known, that is expensive architectural production of such a writer. The Corconstruction cannot be afforded, the saire observes, that if his satire, the picturesque supplies the usesul without Miso. Gallo, had been read in the pit, u fiftieth of the cost; and that the pube not an individual would have remained lic convenience is not nor ought to be in the house. With such preventions, impeded, because a man will obstruct the merits of the Italian drama cannot your having a picturesque dwelling. be jusıly appreciated in Paris, until the house, unless you sacrifice almost all works of some other authors have been you are worth 10 make it an architec- represented. Tural palace. It is a notorious fact, in a leading characteristic of Alfieri's farour of the picturesque or Gothic tragedies is, that instead of displaying siyle, that no other style assists or har. the action upon which his drama is monizes with landscape. In the Gothic, founded, he produces long colloquial there are beautiful, picturesque, and descriptions of some strong passion. cheap modes of improvement, and ac- Threais are held out, curses denounced, cordingly it is now a prevailing fashion and reproaches vented, with nothing to Gojbicize rural dwellings. Such a to relieve the monotony of the converstyle requires far less sacrifices of mo- sation. Shakspeare has been blamed ney, and few or no demolitions; by our classical neighbours, for dewhereas the Grecian, voless it be scending suddenly from the high piich spoiled, demands both as 10 buildings of tragic sublimity to the low merrinot wholly new. The Grecian style, inent of a farce : those, however, who therefore, for persons of moderate fore make this objection, forget that such a tune miore extensively obstructs the na. transition is ofien necessary to prevent Lional ornament iban here and there an ihe attention from flagging. The in, expensive fabric improves it.

troduction of comic scenes frequently Yours, &c. An Economist. enables the spectator to become better

acquainted with the progress of the nar

jalive than lie could be by the declamaMr. Urban, Paris, July 9. tions and soliloquies of the principal THE THE Italian Thespians, i virtuosi personages; and while it is admiried

parlanti, have succeeded the Ger. as a truism, that variety has charms,

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