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On Painted or Lambruscaled Apartments. [Dec. portions of these panels, as divided by and inscriptions, painted on the walls, she saw, consisting of legs and arms is often noticed by the venerable in armour, are of no use but to assist Chaucer : in determining the period in which “ And soth to faine my chambre was the paintings were executed.* It re. Ful wel depaintid mains therefore, only to make some And all the wals with colours fine observations on the age of these pic- Were painted bothe texte and glose,

And all the Romaunt of the Rose." tures, and the purpose for which they

Chaucer's Dreme. were painted.

In reference to the latter head it Again, must be remarked, that the custom of

" But when I woke all was ypast, painting wainscotted or lambruscated

For ther nas lady ne creture,

Save on the wals old portraiture apartments, (as they are termed in old records; a barbarous Latin word de.

Of horsemen, hawkis, and houndis,

And hurt dere all ful of woundis." Ibid. rived from the French “ lambris,") with historical subjects, sacred or pro

In another passage we find both fane, was certainly in use as early as painting and tapestry mentioned : the reign of Henry III. ; see the do. “I wol give him all that falles cuinenis referred to by Walpole, and To his chambre and to his halles, consulted by Verlue, the antiquary and I will do painte hem with pure golde, artist, in proof of the antiquity of his- And tapite hem ful many a folde." Ilid. torical painting in this country.

And in the Romauote of the Rose “ Anno 1238, 17 Henry III. Manda- is this couplet: tum est Vicecomiti South'ton, quod Came- “ Sorowe was paintid next Envie ram regis lambruscatam de castro Winton Upon that wal of masonrie.” depingi faciat eisdem historiis et picturis The above citations are sufficient to quibus fuerat pri'us depicta."

show the prevalence of the custom of Thus it clearly appears that the decorative painting on walls and wainwainscot of chambers was painted with scoting in the middle ages,t and I enrepresentations of connected passages tertain from these premises no doubt of history, even before this early pe- but the pictures at Baston formed a riod, for the order is for renewing ihe portion of the ornaments of the walls subjects which had been depicted, of the ancient manor house at that leading to the inference of a consi- place, which in the latter end of the derable previous lapse of time to render fourteenth century was part of the possuch renovation necessary. In another sessions of the ancient and opuleni fadocument, from the same source and mily of Squerry, I whose name is still period, the King commands his Trea- commemorated in that of Squerry's surer to disburse to Odo the Gold- Park, attached to a demesne which smith, 117 shillings and 10 pence, for they possessed at Westerhamn, in a oil, varnish, and colours purchased, and neighbouring quarter of the county. pictures painted in the Oueen's cham- The age of these paintings may, ber at Westminster. By this last from the costume of the figures, and quoted entry, the knowledge of oil

the character of the remaining inpainting as early as the thirteenth cen- scriptions, with much certainty be tury may be also inferred.

fixed towards the latter half of the The practice of ornamenting cham- fourteenth century, about 1480. The bers with historical or fanciful designs pattern on the tunics and tapestry re

Thus the scalloped surcoat depending over the armour, ou the triangular fragment, exhibits the costume of the latter end of the fifteenth century. See Illustrations of Monstrelet, by Moses, plate 33, for a figure in a similar style of dress.-Johnes's Translation of Monstrelet's Chronicles.

+ The names of apartments were generally perhaps derived from the subject of their decorations ; chus we have the Actioch, the Jerusalem, and the Star Chambers.

I This family possessed the manor of Baston from the time of Henry the Sixth to that of Richard the Third. See Inquisit. post Mortem, vol. iv. p. 187. Harris's History of Kent, &c. A number of old English coins were found in making some alterations at Bascon: house, about the time I discovered the pictures. It then assumed the appearance of a modern villa.

Antiquaries deal in minutiæ ; tbe eye of letter e in the inscripcion, uoder the portrait of Athelstan, in the Baston panels, is formed with a curvature or fourish not observable on

1830.]
On ancient Tapestry.'

501 presented in them, will be found strongly Quickly not only to withdraw her ario corroborate this assertion.

rest of his person for debt, but also to It may not be irrelevant to the sub- make him a further loan, and she exject of my remarks, to observe that the claims, painting of wainscotted or lambrus

By this heavenly ground I tread on, I cated apartments, and the use of ta- must be fain to pawu both my plate and the pestry, were modes of decoration which tapestry of my dining chambers !" were contemporaneously employed, al

Falstaff rejoins, though it niay be imagined aliat ihe first was the earlier practice, as the tapestry and for thy walls a pretty slight drollery, or

“ Glasses, t glasses is the only drinking, of the usual kind is, I believe, said to have been made first at Arras in the hunting in water work, is worth a thou

the story of the Prodigal, or a German fourteenth century. As to the Bayeux sand of these fly-bitten tapestries. Let it tapestry, it was of course nothing more

be ten pound if thou canst. If it were not than a pictorial trophy or record, exe. for thy humours there is not a better wench cuted in necdle-work, and hung round in England! Go wash thy face and draw the choir of the cathedral church of thy action.”I that place, on festival occasions,* to

In another passage of the play, he remind the Normans of the triumph

says, that his troops are as ragged as of their arms.

Lazarus in the painted cloth." Tapestry was, I suppose, in pretty I had the honour to exhibit to the general use in England in the line of Society of Antiquaries, in March last, Chaucer ; he associates a dealer or

the beautiful drawings by the late Chas. hanger in tapestry, with members of

A. Stothard, F.S.A. which form the two common trades among his Pil- subject of the plate; and shortly after, grims 10 Beckeli's shrine,

by the permission of the proprietor “ A webbe, a dyer, and a tapiser." James Ward, Esq. of Baston, the oriIn the sixteenth century, under the ginal paintings. The style of these, reign in Elizabeth, a mode of hangings although pariaking of the hardness was introduced, which parlook both of which attached to works of the time, the nature of tapestry and painting on is distinguished by its masterly characthe walls, I mean painted cloths. ter. This, in the original, is particuThus in a scene of our Shakspeare's larly remarkable in the countenance of Henry IV. in which his " inimitable the erect regal figure. unimitated Falstaff" persuades hostess It is difficult to convey an idea of

that letter in an earlier period. See the letter, copied from the inscription ; on the plate, and an example on the engraved brass to the memory of Sir William Yelverton, who died 1481, in Cotman's Norfolk Brasses.

* A piece of tapestry, representing the Life of Our Saviour and the Virgin, made in the time of William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury (whose arms, with those of England and other coats, it bore), formerly adorned St. Paul's Church, London, and was afterwards transferred to the Cathedral of Aix in France. Memoire de la Tapisserie du Cheur de l'Eglise Cathedrale d'Aix, per M. Fauris de St. Vincens. Paris, 1812.

+ This passage affords me an opportunity incidentally of observing that they at this time had out, I believe, come into general use. Wine was at this period either drunk out of silver vessels, or pots of earthenware, which were ornamented either with grotesque heads, as the bearded jugs (see Gent. Mag. for April, 1830), subjects connected with Scripture (see Gent. Mag. for March, 1827), allegorical personages, or moral sentences. I have in my possession an earthen vessel of the time of Henry VIII. holding about half a pint, which was found on grubbing up an old tree near Hever Castle in Kent. It is impressed with devices of moral allusion, in compartments. In one is seen (Fursichticheit) Foresight, proceeding. onward with a lighted taper in her hand; in the next, Chastity is personified by the self-immolation of (Lockrecia) Lucretia ; and in a third (Gerechticheit) Justice poises her scales. Temperance was a virtue too inimical to the Vintner's trade to find a place on the wide cup. I have another ancient vessel of the same periot, on wbich is inscribed, in large yellow glazed characters, the wholesonie admonition REMEMBER, THY. EAND (end). Among some old MSS. in the editorship of which I have been some time employed, there is an application, made in the year 1594, by Sir Julius Cæsar, for permission to dig for clay iu Farnham park, the demesne of the Bishops of Winchester, for the purpose of making certain “green pols usually drank in by the Gentlemen of the Temple.'

I Henry IV. 2d part, Act 2, Scene 1,

mon

race.

502
On Celtic Civilization.

[Dec. these excellencies in etchings of the lished neighbours, were enabled to present size. The colouring of the fi. write Latin, rather prove the want of gures is exceedingly deep and rich, and a native literature, than otherwise: for, has been splendidly contrasted by the among the most barbarous nations use of a pigment of real gold in the there are to be found individuals encrowns, sceptres, borders of the gar- dowed with sufficient natural underments, &c.

standing to benefit by instruction, if I believe the Society of Antiquaries they happen to come within its range ; would have caused Mr. Storhard's

“Full many a gem of purest ray serene, drawings from these pictures to be en

The dark, unfathom'd caves of ocean bear." graved for one of their publications, but for the difficulty which presented And if none of them were induced 10 itself of conveying any adequate idea of write in Celic, it is best accounted their beauty without the assistance of for by supposing the few learned Celis colours.

to have been aware that no one would ALFRED JOHN KEMPE. be able to read their compositions.

Many persons who now inquire into Mr. URBAN, Paris, Oct. 25. antiquiiy, apply their investigations to THE generic term Celt is usually the subject, more in the hope of over

attributed to the people, who, in turning some popular hypothesis, than remote ages, inhabited Gaul, Spain, with a view of eliciting information ; and the British islands. Scarcely' any they endeavour to raise a doubt, and one doubts that, until the Romans then pride themselves on their supeextended their conquests, and thus riority over those “who are ready to brought those countries within the believe any thing." The exertions of sphere of civilization, their various a diligent and sincere antiquary are, tribes bore the characteristics of a com- therefore, of great value to the republic

We almost intuitively of letters; and such a person is unthink that the dialects now used by the questionably to be found in the Mar. Welsh, Irish, Highlanders, Bretons, quis de Fortia d'Urban, who is indeBasques, &c. are all derived from the fatigable in promoting the discussion original Celtic language ; and that the of liistory and archæology. Druids of Britain and Gaul practised This gentleman is an advocate of the same rites, and taught the same Celtic civilization, and has inserted an notions : but we have no means of essay on the subject, in the fifth ascertaining the condition of the Celis; volume of the “ Annals of Hainault," and while some persons maintain that by Jacques de Guyse, now publishing the original inhabitants of those coun

for the first time in a French translauries, but particularly Gaul, had made tion. I shall not attempt to notice all considerable progress in civilization, the reasonings of the Marquis on this there are others who contend that, unsubject, but an outline of his princitil the Romans settled among them, pal arguments cannot fail of interesting they were not more advanced than the some of your readers. Indians of America.

M. de Forria does not disguise the The advocates of the latter hypothe great difficully there is in obtaining sis call for the traces of organised so- positive information respecting the naciety; and argue that, as the Celts tions of antiquity, even among those have left neither national history, nor

who have left memorials :monuments, nor even any medals or

“ The Egyptians, with their hieroglyphics implements to show their knowledge and their pyramids, have not succeeded in of metals, they must be considered as transmitting to us the ideas which those ignorant and barbarous tribes. To pyramids and hieroglyphics were destined to support this opinion, they deny the preserve. The language kdown under the antiquity of the ruins said to be Celtic; name of the Sanscrit, has come down to us ; the medals so called they attribute to we have manuscripts which have perpetuated the Greeks who were settled at Mar- works in it; we have succeeded in transseilles ;

while they assume the absence lating them; but yet we do not know who of their authors from the silence of the spoke the Sanscrit." Romans, who would have referred to Repeated revolutions destroy the methe Celtic chronologists and poets, if morials of nations, and render tradition there had been any. The rew Celts, extremely obscure;, and France has who by the tuition of their more po- experienced many, both physical and

1830.)
On Celtic Civilization.

503 political. For the former, we can re- some advances in civilization. Acfer to the volcanic remains of Auvergne, cording to Mabillon, (de re Diplomaor the fossile specimens of the Tou• tica, lib. i. c. 8.) they used papyrus, raine and Montinartre; for the latter, which they obtained froin the Egypwe need only allude to the successive tians, and some specimens of it are subjugations of the country by the Ro- said to have been preserved in old mans and Franks; the substitution of churches and abbeys. But these testi. the Carlovingian kings for those of the monies are far froni sufficient to assist a Merovingian race; ihe Capetian dg. definition of the Celtic language, or to nasty for the Carlovingian; and the show which of its descendant dialects feudal troubles in the middle ages. most resembles it. Cæsar mentions During the wars of religion in the six- that the Belgæ, Aquitani, and Celts teenih, and in the democratic hurri. or Gauls, differed in their language, cane at the close of the eighteenth cen- manners, and laws; the variation of inries, the violence of the convulsion palois may, however, have been very was directed more against institutions marked, without a decided difference than records, which were preserved by of language; and as there has been the invention of printing ; but from discovered a great affinity between the what we can see of its effects, we may Basque and Irish congues, (both of infer the degree of destruction which which have been brought forward to took place in more barbarous times, in explain some Punic passages in the aliempting to destroy all traces of a • Penulus" of Plautus,) we may fairly preceding domination.

presume that they were, in common M. de Forria gives authorities for with the dialects spoken by, intermethe following positions :

diate tribes, variations of ihe parent · 1. That there are monuments still Celtic. Still the use of a language is extant of Celtic origin. 2. That there no proof of the existence of literature. was a Celtic language and literature. We have, however, an abridgment, by 3. That the Celts cultivated the arts. Justin, of the “Universal History of 4. That their retrogradation resulted Trogus Pompeius," a native of Vaison from the loss of their liberiy.

in the Vaucluse, who died some years 1. Among the monuments of Celtic before our era. From what Justió has origin are, a Druidical temple at Au- preserved of his work, it is plain that tun, and triumphal arches at Orange, he possessed information not to be. Carpentras, and Cavaillon, built by obtained from any Greek or Latin au. the Gauls 120 years before the Christ- thor; M. de Fortia, in consequence, jan era.

See the “Introduction à supposes it was obtained from the an. l'Histoire d'Avignon," p. 114; and nals of the country. Cæsar and PomL'Art de verifier les dates avant J. C.” ponius Mela inform us that the Druids vol. v. pp. 233 and 279.

had written on astronomy; and Posi2. Respecting the Celtic language, donius is referred to by Aihenæus in we learn from Varro, that three lan- bis Deipnosophistorum," and also by guages were in use at Marseilles :- Strabo, as an authority for the domestic Græcè loquantur, et Latinè, el Gallicè. history of the Celts. Varro's iestimony is appealed to by

3. What degree of proficiency the Isidore, Bishop of Seville, in 601, Celis had attained in the Arts, is likewhose work, entitled “Originum," is wise covered with an impenetrable to be found in “ Auctores linguæ La- veil; but it is evident that architecture tinæ," Geneva, 1622. It appears from was known to them. Diodorus Sicu. that writer, who had access to books Jus (lib. v.) mentions their temples; which have not come down to us, that and Strabo (lib. iv.) alludes to one at the Greeks settled at Marscilles when Toulouse, which was held in great Cyrus seized upon their maritime veneration. Posidonius relates a cirtowns : they introduced the use of cumstance which shows they were not their alphabet; but it is also main- unaccustomed to splendour: he says tained that the Phænicians and Car. that Lovernios, King of Auvergne, thaginians had previously settled there (B.C. 50,) frequently rode through his and introduced iheir language. Cæsar dominions in a magnificent chariot, says (lib. 6, c. 4,) that the Gauls used and distributed gold and silver coins the old Greek characters in their pub- (vumot uc) to the people. There are, lic and private acls; and here we may moreover, Celtic medals in many caobserye ihat such a distinction supposes binets, which, added to the foregoing

504

The Knights Templars, and the Inns of Court. [Dec. testimonies, leave no doubt as to theired the Temple to the Knights Hospiknowledge of metallurgy:

tallers of Saint John of Jerusalem. It 4. The decay of Celtic civilization was afterwards granted by them at a soon followed the Roman conquest, as rent of 10l. per annum, to divers pro. the invasion of the Franks speedily de- fessors of the law, under the name of stroyed the manners and sciences which the "Students of the Common Law of had become familiar to the Gauls, England." These latter seem to have from their intercourse with Rome. migrated from Thavies Inn, in Holborn. Other countries have experienced simi- The New Temple was so called, belar changes. The neighbourhood of cause the Knights Templars had preTunis bears no trace of the splendour viously a building in Oldbourne termied of ancient Carthage; and the countries The Temple. The New Temple was now brutalized under the Mahometan founded in the time of Henry II., and yoke, were at one time as far advanced in the year 1185 it was dedicated to in civilization as any part of the then the Virgin Mary by Heraclius, Patriknown world.

arch of the Church called the Holy M. de Fortia carries his hypothesis Resurrection in Jerusalem. still further, and supposes that in the Henry VIII. granted to the professors most ancient times a degree of ad- of the law, a lease, under which they vancement was attained, from which held as tenanıs to the Crown, onlil the mankind in general have since de. 6th year of James I.; when that King clined :

granted Hospitia et capitalia messuagia “ Thus,” says he, “the Sanscrit is su- cognita per nomen de le Inner ei le perior to the Greek, the Greek to the La- Middle Temple, sive Novi Templi, to tin, and that to our modern jargons. Ho Sir Julius Cæsar and others, to them mer, Demosthenes, Herodotus, and Archi- and their heirs, for the use and occumedes, were not equalled at Rome; Cicero, pation of the Professors and Students Virgil, Pliny, and Seneca, have not had of the Law. among the moderns any rival really worthy

Hospitia Curiæ, or Inns of Court, of them. It is by admiring Euripides and

were also established in Scotland; Sophocles, that Racine has succeeded in

and their existence is recognised explacing himself beside them; and Euclid never had a more zealous partizan than pressly in the gih Act of the 2d Par

liament of James IV, where “ the Newton."

Sheriffs and Bailees, Collectors of the This subject affords a vast scope for

King's Tax, are ordered to be before discussion, and sew will take more

the Chancellor and Lords of the Couninterest in its elucidation, than Yours, &c. W. S. B.

cil, on Friday that next comes, in

George Robieson's Innes, to make full Mr. URBAN,

compt of the said Tax."

TEMPLARIUS.

Yours, &c.
T-
THE first profession of Knights
Templars was as a safeguard of

Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 10.

N subjects of year 1185, being in the reign of Peel, who has advanced nothing in Hen. II. Their number, in the year 1228, when Honorius

answer to Mr. Scrope's most excellent

was Pope, amounted to only nine; but they very

pamphlet, entitled, “The Currency soon increased their numbers

. In the Question freed from Mystery." It

deals in undeniable facts, from which time of Pope Eugenius they had red

the conclusions are irresistible. This crosses upon their upper garments,

condemned that they'inight be distinguished from the sole source of our unexampled in

paper money was actually others, after their retirement from the

crease of solid wealth between 1788 Holy Land.

and 1815. That it was sometimes In pursuance

a decree made by abused is true; but the remedies for the Great Council at Vienna, anno 1234, respecting the profession of the stroying it. Mr. Scrope only speaks

that abuse were obvious, without deKnights Teinplars, Edward III. grant- of it as payable in gold on demand,

Two octavo volumes, entitled “ The which is a sufficient check on excess Scottish Gaël,” have been recently published of issue. But the most infatuated by Mr. Jas. Logan, and will shortly be no- thing is the destruction of the one ticed in our Review.

pound notes, which, if any paper is

has

Dec. 9.

of

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