صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

1830.]
The Currency and ils Evils.

505 allowable, were the most useful of all. rates, it would answer to cultivate even Mr. Huskisson (to whose principles of the worst soils. Hence they would at political arithmetic I can never sub- least draw a part of their sustenance, if scribe,) put it into Mr. Canning's not their entire sustenance. All the head that the abolition of the one arguments in favour of foreign supply, pound notes was the only way to keep are the fallacious and selfish logic of the gold in the country. All these the commercial ranks of British sodreams about a sound currency arise ciety, who entirely rule the opinions, from an ulier mistake of its nature and as well as the purses, of our over-maobjects. Persons calling themselves nufacturing nation. They are always statesmen, do not see whence these acute, subile, and intelligent; but, I delusions arise. They come from the must say, seldom comprehensive and interested intrignes and falsifications profound. We have heard of "inerof the stock-holders and monied capi- chant-kings” in Republics: they now talists, who, not content with having reign in England. An outcry is raised made Jew bargains by their loans on against this mode of talking, as the rethe public industry during the war, sult of narrow prejudices; they who thus 'conurive actually to double their most use this outcry are, many of extortions, and render the weight of them, too sagacious not to know that taxation quite intolerable.

it is the reverse of prejudice ; but it The fear that paper money will con. answers their purpose to join in the tinue to augment prices, is the grand cry. stalking-horse. This is a fundamental Look at our Parliamentary repreerror. If it augments them only so sentation ; look at the cities and bofar as to bring remuneration, it is a roughs. Who are returned by them? necessary good; beyond that, the Not persons connected with them; augmeniation can be only nominal. not men of property from the neigh. Prices depend on the actual labour and bourhood : büt, utier strangers, chiefly actual capital employed-except so far from the Stock-Exchange ; who thus as those are varied by a variation of become our legislators and rulers. demand. The foreign vent will be As to those to whom the cant term determined by these, and not by no- of " Squirearchy" has been lately apminal price. All foreign commercial plied, iney are annihilated! They are intercourse must be substantially an in the last gasp of expiring languor. exchange of barter. The country It is on them that laxation has worked which gains most will have to receive with double and treble force, leaving the difference in cash. If the balance the only a nominal property. All of trade is in our favour, the higher indirect iaxation, as well as direct, the value of gold, the more we gain. operated most severely on them, by Currency is a measure of labour and making the expense of mere repairs cost; and paper forms this measure often exceed the rent. In five-andquite as correctly as gold. If its no- thirty years the told amount of the reminal amount is greater than that of pairs of one farm I possess, has far exihe gold for which it is substituted, ceeded the rent. When Mr. Pitt, in still it represents the same quantity of the Income tax, only allowed an avelabour and cost as that of gold. But an rage deduction of 10 per cent. for reincreased quantity of exchangeable ar- pairs, it did not half cover the cost. ticles, without an increased quantity of Yours, &c. W. M-NW-G. currency, will infallibly be followed by starved production, because labour and

Mr. URBAN,

Nov. 2. cost will want adequate remuneration. The beneficial effects of the Scotch Amy life and

writings of Milton system of banking have been admira. bly explained in an article of a late cannot fail to be interesting to your

Quarierly Review." What pretence self and your readers, I venture to subcan there be for not adopting it in

mit to you the following conjecture. Englaud ?

My attention has lately been called to With regard to agriculture--so long the “Comus" of Milton, where, after as there is a total want of employment The Persons have been mentioned, it of a portion of the poor, and they can is stated that “The chief persons who only derive support from the parish presented were the Lord Brackleys GENT. Mag. December, 1830.

506
Milton a Performer in his Comus."

[Deci Mr. Thomas Egerton, his brother; the Second."--(See Todd's Milton, ed. the Lady Alice Egerton ;"—and there 1809, vol. vi. p. 178.) And Todd incan be no doubt but that these per forms us, thai on the title page of a formed the two Brothers and the Lady. copy of Milion's “Defensio Populi,' Henry Lawes, in his dedication to published in 1651, now in the MarLord Brackley, intimates that he him- quis of Stafford's possession, "The self

represented the Allendant Spirit, amiable and learned Earl of Bridge or Thyrsis ; but it is not stated who water, who had performed the part of performed Comus, the principal cha- the First Brother in his Comus," had racter. This is rather remarkable; "written, Liber igne, author furca, and, on considering the matter, I think dignissimi," and had “disdained his it was no other than Milton him. acquaintance."—(Todd, rol. i. p. 77, self, who was thus both author and noie.) actor. My reasons for this conjecture That Milton himself soon began to are these :-Had it been any person of regard this juvenile performance with distinction, why should not his name a less favourable mind is probable, have been given equally with Lord from a passage in the Introduction to Brackley and his brother, and Lady his “Reason of Church Government," Alice Egerton ? But then, it may be published in 1641, in which, speaking asked, " If it was Milton, why should of his literary projects, he says, perhaps his name have been concealed?" Tothis with a reference to this very work :it may be answered, that, though the “Neither do I think it shame 10 coMasque was acted in the year 1634, it renant with my knowing reader that was not published till 1637, and then for some few years yet I may go on not by Milton, but by Lawes, and trust with him towards payment of without Milton's name to it, stating what I am now indebted, as being a that, “although not openly acknow- work not to be raised from the heat of ledged by the author, yet it is a legiti- youth, or the vapours of wine, like that maie ofispring, so lovely, and so much which flows at waste from the pen of admired, that the often copying of it some vulgar amourist, or the trencher hath tired my pen 10 give my severall fury of a riming parasite ; nor to be friends satisfaction, and brought me to obtained by the invocation of dame a necessity of producing it to the pub. Memory and her Syren daughters; but licke view.” Now, if Milton was by devout prayer to that eternal Spirit, thus chary, of being known as the who can enrich with all uiterance author, it is probable that he would and knowledge, and sends out his be much more so of being an arowed seraphim with the hallowed fire of his aclor. Milton was connected with altar, to touch and purify the lips of ihe Puritans; and, with them, to write whom he pleases.”—(See Todd, vol. i. a drama would be an offence; but to

p. 43.) act in one would be a niuch greater. That it is not improbable that MilA second edition of “Comus," with ton should hare a part in the performsome of Milton's other poems, and ance, may be argued from Lawes, the with his name to them, was published musician, having one; and, if he was in 1645, when, probably, it was in worthy to perform with the young noyain any longer to attempt to conceal bility, much more the poet, a young the author. But, by this time, the man of great learning, and who had Puritans had made a very great head. had his education at the University. In the Preliminaries to ihe Treaty of He was probably, likewise, well qualiUsbridge, in Feb. 1644-5, the abn-fied for it. Plays were still performed lition of the playhouses was positively at the University, and Milion might

In Milton's second have performed in them. I have none edition of his poems, in 1673, the of them to refer to. His “Latin Dedication by Lawes to Lord Brack- exercises,” we are told," he recited ley, though he was still living, under publicly;" and that they are “ mark. the title of Earl of Bridgewater, was ed with characteristic animation.”suppressed. Mr. Warton says, “ Mil: (Todd, vol. i. p. 9.) That he was ton was perhaps up willing to own his suited to the character in his personal early connections with a familý' con accomplishments seems sufficiently spicuous for its unshaken loyalty, and evident. He was then not twenty-six pow highly patronized by King Charles years of age. “Milton, in his youth,

insisted upon

men,

1830.]
The Æolina.

507 is said to have been extremely hand- “Æolina ;" by wliich name it was some."-(Ibid. p. 141.) He “had a introduced here about two years ago very fine skin, and fresh complexion. from Germany. Some of these instruHis hair was of a light brown; and, ments, by breathing gently into the parted on the foretop, hung down in small pipes of which they were formed, curls upon his shoulders. His features gave ihe sound of a single chord; were regolar; and, when turned of forty, others extended to two; and afterhe has himself told us, he was gene

wards thręc chords could, with the rally allowed to have had the appear- same ease, be produced, with sweet ance of being ten years younger. He and fascinating effect. has also represented himself as a man The reputation of these instruments of moderate stature, neither too lean soon spread very widely, till at length nor too corpulent; and “so far endued amateurs of more mature judgment with strength and spirit, that, as he and science began to consider them always wore a sword, he wanted not, worthy of notice. They accordingly while light revisited his eyes, the examined narrowly into the construcskill or the courage to use it."-(Ibid. tion of the Æolina, with a view to its p. 147.) The testimony of Aubrey re- improvement, and application to higher specting the person of Milton is hap- purposes. In the" Liverpool Merpily expressed : “ His harmonicall cury," of the 15th of August, 1828, and ingeniose soul did lodge in a beau- the following intimation appeared : tiful and well-proportioned body.” , “We have seen this singular invention, Milton's voice was musically sweet, as and we venture to predict, from the specihis ear was musically correct. Wood that we shall soon see that great desidescribes his deportment to have been deratum, a keyed instrument, which shall aflable, and his gait erect and manly, remain perfectly in tune.” " bespeaking courage and undaunted- How far this prediction has been ness."-(Ibid). This is the very figure verified, the following account will and manner for Comus. It is deserve show : ing of remark, that, while the poet has At a lecture upon sound, delivered bestowed great encomniumis upon the in May last, by Mr. Farraday, at the persons and accomplishments of The Royal Institution, several musical inBrothers and the Lady, he has said no- struments, constructed upon entirely thing respecting Comus. This might be new principles, were produced in illusfrom the inodesty of Milion, who tration of the discourse, under the fol. would not lavish praise upon the cha- lowing names; viz. the Ærophone, racter he himself was 10 perform. by Dietz, of Paris ; Dowbis's Glosso Dryden, in his “ Alexander's Feast,” phone; Day's Eolian Organ; and represents his Bacchus as “ever fair ihe Symphonia, by Wheatstone: of and young.” Comus was probably the all which Day's Æolian Organ was

stated to be by far the most perfect. To this it may be added, that, if this The whole were performed upon by conjecture should really have been the the younger Wesley, who made such a case, Milion likewise, probably, per- selection of pieces as would best show fornied The Genius of ihe Woods, in the comparative meriis of the several the Masque at Harefield, the year be- instruments. fore, and not Lawes, as has been supe That four persons, in different places, posed.

should set about the construction of Probably, Mr. Urban, some of your an instrument, exactly upon the selfnumerous and more intelligent curre- same principle, and all at one time, spondents may be able to throw farı her without the least knowledge of each light upon this subject from this hint. Other, is extraordinary; get such is the In which hope, I remain, with great faci. respect, yours, very truly, J. P. To these I have to add another

strange coincidence of invention, com

municated 10 me by a friendly corMr. URBAN,

August 6.

respondent, the recording of which in loys which have been invented a new æra in inusic, I judged 'might from time to time, so please the juvenile prove acceptable 10 such of your amateur, none have been found to ap- readers as are lovers of that enchanting proach in excellence that called the seience. I allude to the successfut at

same.

[ocr errors]

508
CLASSICAL LITERATURE,

(Dec. tempt of Mr. Nixon (a native of, and the trombone, horn, bassoon, hautboy, resident in Liverpool), in the construc- clarionet, and other instruments, are lion of an instrument of a similar de- so associated as lo bafile all power of scription to those just mentioned, but description in its harmonic effect. in some respects more remarkable. Mr. There is one grand difference be. Nixon is represented as an euthusiast tween Mr. Nixon's æolian, and the in music; but his other avocations, as ordinary church organ; some of the a private literary tutor, have prevented metal pipes of the bass of the latter are his extending his knowledge beyond fifteen' feet long, nine or ien inches the theoretical principles of the science. diameter, and weigh about a hundred

At its earliest iniroduction one of pounds, at a cost of 10l, and upwards the liule boys before inentioned by each. One of the metallic pipes of the chance came in his way; and, delighted Æolian, prodacing the saine note, is with the souud, an improvement only seven inches long, and weighs no thereon, upon a grand scale, instantly more than two pounds and a half. suggested itself to his mind. After This instrunient, it is fairly preiwo years' perseverance, (assisted by the sumed, will never deviate in tone from best artificers, under his own imniedi- the effects of changes in the temperaale direction,) he has produced an in- ture of the atmosphere ; as Mr. Nixon, strument which, in the opinions of all after hearing one of the pipes, found who have privately heard it, bids fair that the tone was not perceptitly 10 astonish the world with its powers changed. Arrangements, it is under of harmony.

slood, are making by Mr. Nixon, with It is described to be six feet long, the aid of his friends, for a public disfour feet night, and iwo feet six inches play of the powers of his instruinent deep; and has six oclaves, and an odd inmediately upon its completion.* nole, or seventy-threeæolians. Though

J. W. very powerful, it is sweet, and clear in its ione. The bass notes resemble the There appear to be rivals in the field; human voice closely; the upper notes

as we find from the Literary Gazette of Dec. are very fine. It has bellows, a wind

4, that " The Æolophon, which is played like chest, and three swells ; one the coin.

a piano-forte, in its nutes resembles the n

It non organ swell, ihe others are of Mr. lio, but has much greater compass. Nison's owu invention. The instru. James's Palace, when her Majesty's par

was performed upon, last Saturday, at St. ment, in its present unfinished stale, , tiality for the simple style in music was approduces a most delighilul combination

parent. There are daily performances at Ms. of sounds, in which the finest loves of Chapell's."-Edit.

CLASSICAL LITERATURE.

contest.

Micatio Digitorum, 'Etárragos Auxtunwy, Tsoey-Moey. T!

HERE is a curious coincidence Tsoey-moey, (says Sir T. Staunton, in

observable between a game dle- his Notices of China,) is most usually scribed in Adams's Antiquities, p. 458, played during entertainments at which as cominon among the Romans; and wine is served, the guests severally one which is at this day in universal challenging their neighbours to the and familiar use among the Chinese.

Both parties raise their hand Adams observes, that “there was a at the same instant, and call out the game of chance (which is still common number of fingers they guess 10 be in Italy, chiefly

, however among the jointly held up by themselves and their vulgar, called the game of morra), adversaries; and when any one calls played between iwo persons, by sud- the right number, his adversary drinks Jenly raising or compressing the fiu- off a cup of wine by way of a fine. yers, and at the same instant guessing The hst closed indicates 0, the thumb each at the number of the other. alone 1, the thumb and one finger 2, When doing this, they were said, “mi: and so on. As the action of the hand care digitis;" Cic. Divin, 11, 41. Off. and utterance of the number, when

the game is played fairly, are perfectly The game called by the Chinese simultaneous, there appears no room

3, 23.

1930.]
Game of Micutio Digitorum," &c.

509 open for the exercise of skill or judg- micaretur.'--Cic. Off. 3, 77, c, 19. Hoc ment; yet an experienced and quick- non turpe est dubitare philosophos, quod de sighted Chinese will almost always rustici quidem dubiteni? A quibus natum beal an European, or a novice at the

est id, quod jam tritum est vetustate provergame, which seems to arise from the

bium ; quuin enim fidem alicujus LouitaJaller betraying bis intention 100 soon,

temque laudant, dignum esse dicunt, quicum

in tenebris mices.'-Idem de Fin. 2, 52. Cur through the want of a certain quickness or adroitness in the motion of the justitia laudatur ? aut unde est hoc contri

tuin vetustate proverbium, quicum in tenehand, wbich is possessed by the former.

bris?' Nempe in tenebris micanti simpli-In a note to Cicero's Of. 3, 90, the

citer fides habenda, cum nulla re convinci Roman gaine is thus noticed :

possit."-J. M. Gesneri, Thes. L. L. “ Sic ludentes, simul digitos alterius ma- “ Speciatim micare est digitis sortiri, ginus quot volunt, citissime eriguat, et simul

vocare, fare alla 'mora, Azyzávervo cum ambo divinant quot simul erecti sint, quod porrectis invicem crebro digitis, certantium qui definivit lucratus est. Uode acri visu

uterque numerum eorum divinat ; item cum opus est, et multa fide ut cum aliquo in te- extensis subito digitis, ex eorum numero denebris mices."

cernitur, uter ex duobus, aut quis ex pluribus The lower classes of the Chinese at in re quapiam habenda, aut facienda sit prior. Canton (says Sir Thos. Staunton) are

Quod vos Longobardi dicimus fare, o givopassionately fond of this game, and the care, o buttare al tocco. Græce izárražus fines reciprocally imposed are too apt

dicitur."-Forcellini Lexicon. to betray them from their customary

“ 'Encaražus, Alternatio; item, Indissobriety; but it is not very probable cretus ab altero in alteruin transitus, Altethat they have ever such confidence in rius vicissim et alterius motio indiscreta, each other, as 10 play at the game in ita ut oculum fallat. Sic apud Aristot. darkness, as above alluded to.

δακτύλων επαλλαξις, Celerrimus motus The amiable and learned Baronet, as duorum digitorum, cum alternos tollimus et well as the commentator on Cicero, demittimus, Bud. 602. In vulg. Lex. has taken a proverbial expression in επάλλαξις των δακτύλων, exponitur etiam wo serious a light. The Romans never Micatio digitorum. Εt της επαλλάξεως did play at this game in the dark; that dáxtudos, Digiti mutatis vicibus impliwhich required quick-sightedness could cati.'"-H. Steph. Thes. 1, 354. not have been played in the dark, because then it would have ceased to be

Micare, par impar ludere, Off. 3, 19.

• Dignus quicum in tenebris mices,' cf. Div. a ganie of chance, and would have be

2, 41. Vide Gronov. Obs. 3, 13, p. 546. come a game of honour, where the one

Inde est sortiri, Off.3, 23. Quasi sorte aut party would rely, not on his ability to micando victus.' "-J. A. Ernesti, Clav. Cic. guess right, or on his own eye-sight, Biit on the integriiy of his adversary. lologist in general, is here greatly mis

But Ernesti, though so correct a phiAnd for this reason iu characterise any

taken. Digilorum micatio is not the one as a person with whom you could, in a game which requires the sharpest game of odd or even, but what I have

described above by the preceding quovision, play in the dark, was iu reality

tations. The 10 compliment him, but in a bumorous

game of“ odd or even, manner, and by way of rustic wit (for is by Plato in Lyside called áztonomos, it was a rustic proverb, according 10

and it is accurately described by J. PolCicero) as a man of the greatest possi- Jux, 7, c. 9. See Bulenger, I. c. p. 15. ble integrity :

From the preceding observations*, we

learn that mication was a game prac“ Micare digilis, lusas genus quoddam

tised by the ancient Greeks, as well as aut sortis, quod adhuc apud Italos durat, re

the ancient Romans and the modern pente porrectis digitis certantium, uter nu

Chinese ; that the Greek lerm, nitaamerum diviset. Hujus Cicero mentionem facit, de Divin. 2, 85. Quid enim sors est? 2ažis tūv daxtúlwr, referred to the ula Idem propemodum quod micare, quod talus Ternation of the fingers ; and that the jacere, quod tesseras.' -M. Varro, ap. Non. Latin term, micare digilis, for which I 4, 303, • Micandum erit cum Græcu,

have at hand no correspondent English utrum ego illius numerum, au ille meum se- expression, referred to the quick movequatur.'--Sueton. Aug. 18.

« Patrem et ment of the fingers. filium pro vita rogantes sortiri vel micare

E. H. BARKER. jussisse.'-lteruin Cic. Off. 3, 23. "Sed quasi sorte aut micando victus alteri cedat * We have been compelled to abridge our alter.' Hinc qui certissima esset fide, eum learned correspondent's extracts from various untiqui dignum dicebant, quicum in tenebris lexicographers.--Edit.

« السابقةمتابعة »