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Italian Drama at Paris.

(July, while well arranged lights and shades They are classed among the leading are necessary to produce a fine effect in performers of their couniry, and their painting, an admirer of Shakspeare is respective parts were executed with justified in maintaining by analogy, considerable dignity and propriety. That the pathos and dignity of his poe- Their well-accentuated pronunciation, tical scenes are uninjured by their juxta their grave delivery, and the bold lanposition with comic dialogues : guage of the piece, formed a striking “ Each gives to each a double charm,

conirast with the insipid jingling of Like pearl's upon an Ethiop's arm."

the libre!ti usually produced at this

theatre. If the performances do not But to return to Rosmunda, which by the way was Alfieri's favourite pro lence, we must bear in mind the great

present any striking feature of excelduction, although it is generally consi- disadvantage under which the Italian dered inferior 10 his other pieces. drama labours: every person of talent Many persons who had never read the Italian anthor, but who were in some

is drawn to the Opera by the exclusive degree familiar with English bistory, sentation enjoys. Madame Pasta is an

patronage which ihat species of repreattended the Salle Favart, fully expect illustration of ihis case ; she has clearly ing to see the enraged Queen of Henry shewn on many occasions, that is her Il. give full scope to her jealousy on the beautiful Rosamond Clifford. It eminence as a cantatrice, she would

fine voice had not placed her on an is, however, the daughter of a King of have shone as an actress. Zucchelli Lombardy who is so called : she has been compelled to marry Alboin, who

and Pelligrini are also as interesting by had murdered her father; she has ex.

their acting, as by their singing ; and cited an officer named Amalchide to

we may fairly presume that the appear.

ance of a few stars would produce redispatch him, and in recompense has given him her hand, and the crown of those which the genius of Garrick and

sults to the Italian drama, similar to Lombardy. Alboin has left a daughter by his first wife; she is vamed Ro Kemble, Lekain and Talma, bas ef.

sected on the London and Paris boards. milda, and Rosmunda discovers that

La Casa Désubitala was well adapted her husband Arnalchide has fixed his affections on her, while she is devoted tragedy. The narrative is founded on

to remove the ennui occasioned by the to Ildovaldo. Rosmunda wishes to have her step-daughter assassinated,

the ingenuity of a steward, who, wishand being unable to accomplish thai ing to enjoy the use of a house which cruel purpose, she at last dispatches her

the proprietor is desirous of selling, with her own hand. Ildovaldo and plays the part of a ghost 10 deler purAmalchide, like most rivals, are in full ihere, and with a pistol convicts the

chasers. A poor poet passes the night effervescence; and to render the conAict of their passions more intricate,

ghost of substantiality: This piece is Amalchide is' indebted to lldovaldo very lively, and abounds with sallies of for having saved his life in balile. wit; from its reception it will no doubt When the lovely object of their strife

be again represented. Taddei, who is lost to them both, by the vindictive of humour, and kept the house

performed the part of the poet, was full Queen's violence, Ildoraldo kills him- continued roar of laughter by his lu. self in despair ; while Amalchide ut. ters threats of diresul vengeance, to

dicrous pantomime. It is related that which the Queen replies, by pointing rin in 1824, before the Queen of Sardi

when this piece was performed at Tuto her victim.

According to the chroniclers of Lom- nia, a gentleman was sent to desire ihe bardy, the Queen had given her hus. pistols might not be fired. The order band a poisonous dranght; but Amal

was complied with; but instead of sub. chide having discovered the fatal qua. loaded pistol, and the ghost fell wounded

stituting a sword, ihe poet used an on. lity of the liquor, when he had swal

notwithstanding! The manager was lowed only half, he compelled his wise to finish it, and thus deprived her of having no fire arms, announced that

not so ready us ihe mountebank, who, the satisfaction of surviving him.

the battles in his booth would be fought The part of Amalchide was per: with swords and staves, instead of musformed by Paladini; that of Ildovaldo by Colomberti ; Rosmunda was repre

kets, for fear of alarming the ladies. sented by Signora Internari, and Ro- Yours, &c.

W. S. B. milda hy Signora Belloni.

1830.] Salisbury Cathedral.-On the Invention of Letters. 9

SALISBURY CATHEDRAL. except in cases of additions to the ori. "HE accompanying plate represents ginal design: those which finish the thedral, designed by Mr. Buckler. We of a period subsequent to the erection have been favoured with the engraving of the main building. : With this exby that constant patron of art and preception, we award our approval of the server of our national antiquities, Sir R. design, and add our wish that iso-obC. Hoare, Bari.

vious an improvement 'may be speedily In consequence of the distance of carried into effect. the aliar from the choir, which in the alterations effected by Wyatt, was


Grimsby, June 24. removed to the extremity of ihe Lady chapel; the communion service is now. THE origin of Letters, termed by

Galileo admirandarum omnium inread at a temporary altar placed within ventionum humanarum signaculum, is the centre arch at the eastern end of an honour for which many ancient na. the choir (vide May Mag. p. 406). tions have contended; and the HeThis arrangement naturaliy, points to brews, the Indiáns, the Chinese, the the necessity of erecting an altar-screen Syrians, the Persiavis, the Egyptians, on, or adjacent to the site of the original and others, have cach preferred an one, and which, ifexecuted, it is desira- anxious claim to the immortality wbich ble should still admit of a view of the

so useful an invention could not fail, Lady chapel from the choir of the Ca.

to convey. Yet even the people who thedral, to accomplish which was the' have ascribed to themselves this most object of the removal of the originálone invaluable discovery, are not agreed in

Mr. Britton, though an eulogist of the name of the individual whose learnthe alterations, suggests an introduction ing and industry revealed to mankind of this kind, and few who have seen the important disclosure; and able ads the cathedral in its present state can vocates have been found to support the avoid arriving at a similar conclusion.

claims of some of the most exalted cha Mr. Buckler’s design is formed with

racters in the patriarchal, Jewish, and the view of concealing as little of the heathen, world! Artabanus and Eupo. architecture at the easiern end of the lemus' attribute it to Moses; Plato and church as possible. It is composed of a Cæsar? lo' Cadmus; Diodorus 3,10, the low screen of 'sione, with simple but Syrians ; 'Philo to Abraham ; and St. appropriate ornaments in the general

' Cyprian to Saturn or Noah. Sancho, siyle of the cathedral. It will be ob niathot 10 Thoth; lamblichus ó 10 the served, that whilst it is sufficiently high same individual, under the name of to form an appropriate background to Trismegistus; Bar Hebræus to Enoch; the altar, it does not obscure the vaulting Josephus7 to the posterity of Seth, and and pillars of the matchless Lady chapel. Aben Washihs' to Adam. Amidst A partial view thus obtained will add to

these conflicting opinions, the truth the effect of this beautiful portion of the

must lie somewhere, and I will endleas building, and by separating it from the

vour to find it. I may be unsuccessful, rest of the church, it will be brought to a but I shall fail in very good company, , conformity with the ancient cathedral

In this investigation I begin with arrangement. The screen is also judi- Moses, who, I presume, was not the ciously contrived to fill up the interco

inventor of letters, though his knowlumniations without concealing the ledge of them is absolutely certain ; and bases or any part of the shafts of the proceed in the inquiry by regular grapillars of the three fine arches which dations up to the fountain head from separate the choir from the Lady chapel. whence they appear to spring. The design appears to have been

The tables coutaining the Moral taken from a row of niches in the cen-, tral division of the west fiont, imniedia,

1 Apud Euseb. de Præp. Evan.1.9, c.26. : ately above the principal entrance. The

2 L. 39, c. 24.

3 Lib. 5. embattled 6nish is however not in strict 4 Euseb. ut supra, l. 1, c. 10. accordance with the architecture of the 5 De Myst. in nota. cathedral; battlements never being met 6 Vid. Wait. Orient. Ant. p. 182. with in buildings of a period so early, 7 Ant. Jud. I. 1, c. 3.

8 Aneient Alpliabets and Hieroglyphics • Salisbury Cathedral, p. 80. explained. GENT. MAG. July, 1830.

On the Invention of Letters.

[July; Law were delivered before Moses wrote vilization which the Egyptians unthe Pentateuch, and if some knowledge doubtedly possessed, 11 although it was of letters had not existed previously to strongly impregnated with superstition, that period, the legislator would scarcely as from this source he derived his have been able to understand what was early instruction ;12 and it is doubtful there written, except by immediate in- whether all this extensive wisdom and spiration ; and he expresses nothing of knowledge, in which they surpassed that surprise and pleasure which would every nation in the world, 13 could have certainly have been elicited if those been communicated and acquired in tables had contained the first alphabe- that abridged period of human extical writing he had seen. But the istence, but by the aid of letters. circumstance is related with much ele- "The very old Egyptians used to write gance as an ordinary transaction in on linen ihings which they designed, this respect. The Tables were delivered should last long; and those characters into the hands of Moses for the express continue to this day, as we are assured use of the people of Israel, in a manner by those who have examined the which intimates that Letters were not mummies with attention. Is it unna. unknown to them.

tural to imagine that Moses, who was The general knowledge and use of learned in all the arts of Egypt, wrote letters amongst the Hebrews, is not after this manner on linen?"11 And derived, however, merely from impli- does it not hence follow that writing cation, but is plainly and explicitly de- was one of the arts of Egypt, before clared. They are directed by God the time of Moses? himself to teach the written Law to The inscription left on a column by their children; and to write it them- the Phænicians, whom Joshua drove selves on the gates and posts of their out of Canaan, 15 must prove that they houses'. Now from the slow progress were acquainted with certain intelwhich this species of knowledge made ligible characters to express their ideas, amongst other peoples and nations, it which had been reduced 10 such a discan scarcely be admitted that Moses tinct and regular form, as to be underwas the first inventor of letters, be- stood in after ages. 16 And this consicause we have direct evidence to prove deration makes it clear that letters were that the Israelites perfectly understood not a new invention in the time of their nature and application almost Joshua. For though it be affirmed immediately after the tables were deli- that the knowledge of writing was revered ; and their rapid advances in this vealed to Moses in its utmost persecart would otherwise be highly impro- tion, yet it will scarcely be urged that bable, and almost rise to an impossibi. these nations, miserably sunk in idolity. The miraculous intervention of latry, could so soon have reaped the the Deity in this case cannot be ad- benefit of that revelation. The intermitted, because the writings of Moses course between the Phænicians and do not contain the most obscure hint the Hebrews had hitherto been so lie to sanction such an hypothesis ; and if mited, that the manners and customs the legislator and the people had been of the one were litile known to the divinely instructed in the use of letters, it must follow that an endowment so

11 i Kings, c. iv. v. 30. extraordinary and beneficial would

19 Acts, c. vii. v. 22. have merited a peculiar specification, 13 Vid. Iambl. de Myst. passim. Diod. equally with the gift of tongues con- Sic. Herod. Euseb. de Præp. Evan. I. 9, ferred on the Apostles of Jesus Christ. But the Hebrew language had arrived 14 Harmer's Observ. vol. ii. at a degree of perfection which has 15 Suid. Lex. v. Xaraay, never been exceeded ; and Moses ac

16 Le Clerc has the following note on tually quotes a passage from an exist

Grotius De Ver. I. 1, s. 15. Herodotus, ing written record, called the book Terpsichore ; "IWYES Traçada Cortes dudaxñ of the wars of the Lord.”10

σαρα των Φοινίκων τα γράμματα μεταρIf Moses were the inventor of let- ρυθμίσαντες σφέων ολίγα, έχρέωντο χρεώters, we should be at a loss to account

μενοι δε έφασαν, ώσπες και το δίκαιον for the high degree of learning and ci- έφεγεν, εισαγαγόντων Φοινίκων ες την Ελ9 Deut. c. vi. v. 9.

άδα Φοινικήία κεκλησθαι. . Timor.dixit : 10 Numb. c. xxi. v. 14.

φοινικικά σήματα Κάδμα.

cap. ult.

On the Invention of Letters.

11 other; it does not therefore appear context, where Moses informs us that probable that the art of expressing ideas the Lord commanded him “to write by visible characters, at all times diffi- it for a memorial in a book.”19 “ After cult of attainment, could have been so writing was revealed,”:20 says

the author rapidly communicated as to be onder- of the work already referred 10,“ Moses stood and practised by this people, in obeyed the precept, and writ the direcabout half a century of war and public tion and reason for it in a book ;.... for commotion. But the Phænicians had at this time he knew nothing of writcultivated this knowledge before the ing." This reasoning is very far Israelites appeared on the borders of from being conclusive. Would God their land, which imparted a degree of command Moses to do that which he refinement superior to the barbarous neither understood, nor was able to nations around them, and hence they perform? Would he command him were the most polished people in the io write, when “ he knew nothing of land of Capaan. The terror naturally writing?" And under such circumarising from the intelligence that the stances would not Moses have expostu. neighbouring states were invaded by a lated, as he did at the burning bush ; powerful and victorious race; and that “ Lord assist my understanding, for ihe vanquished inhabitants were gra- thy servant is ignorant and helpless." dually abandoning their possessions, If an art so extensively useful and neand flying to other countries for safety, cessary to man in his imperfect state, would not be favourable to a new and had been revealed to Moses, I again abstruse study; for their chief solicitude, repeat, it would have been deemed under the immediate impression of this worthy of an especial notice, particudread, would be, to provide for their Jarly as every other specific revelation own securiiy, which would appear is recorded by the legislator in terms somewhat doubtful, as the general foe worthy of its divine origin. But there approached the limits of their own ter. was extant aniongst the Jews, a tradi. sitories.

tion that letters were invented before It is however said, that Moses could the flood. And therefore letters were not be acquainted with the art of known to that people prior to the time writing when he built an altar for a of Moses. memorial, and called it Jehovah-Nissi ;17

It is the opinion of eminent writers, although it will scarcely be urged that that there were records remaining of the erection of ap uninscribed altar or God's promises to the posterity of Abrapillar, in commemoration of any re- ham, in the time of Job; and they markable event, implies an ignorance think that Bildad the Shuile referred of letters, because the concurrent evi- to them in his address 22 to that padence of antiquity assures us that the triarch during his affliction. 23. Bishop contrary is true. 'It was the general Tomline conjectures, that the Book custom of those ages to perpetuate the of Job was written either by Job himmemory of any important iransaction self, or compiled from materials left by by an obelisk or pillar; and the pillar him.24 Now if it be true that Job of Absalom 18 was uninscribed, as were was the same with Jobab king of many of the triumphal monuments of Edom,25 as is the opinion of Alstedius, 26 polished Greece and Rome; and there he was the son of Zerah of Bozra, the were sew inscribed tombs in England grandson of Esau; and of course lived from the Norman Conquest to the some ages before the time of Moses. reign of Edward III. May it not be And this conjecture, as to the time of supposed that this altar was erected by Job, is rendered very probable, because Moses to mark the precise spot of his friend Eliphaz, who is represented ground on which the Amalekites were as a venerable old man, is said by defeated ; and that the particulars of Moses 27 to be the eldest son of Esau. the transaction were noted down by him in the record the he doubtless

19 Exod. c. xvii. v. 14. kept of the circumstances which at- 20 Deut. c. xxv. v. 17. tended their deliverance from Egyptian 21 Confus. of Tongues, p. 28. slavery? This conjecture is abundantly 22 Job, c. viii. v, 8. 23 Bishop Patrick strengthened, if not confirmed, by the 24 Theol. vol. i. p. 96.

25 Gen. c. xxxvi. v. 33. 17 Confus. of Tongues, p. 28. Exod. c. 26 Thes. Chron. xvii. v. 15. 18 2 Sam. c. xviii. v. 18. 27 Gen, c. xxxvi. v. 15.

12 Anecdote of Rev. W. Douglas and Lord Nelson. [July, Hence, whether Job wrote this book motion of a fellow creature, wending himself, or lest materials behind him his lonely way, slowly and sorrow fully, in a visible form, relating the principal with parched tongue and wounded feet, events of his calainitous life, he must that ever the eye of pity glanced upon. have been acquainted with the art of The name of a sailor sounded in ihe writing, otherwise his record would ear of ihis christian divine like the not have been intelligible to posterity; name of a friend, and after the strictest and all the theories of learned men on interrogatories he found the object bethe origin of this book, do not contain fore him to be faithful and honest in the slightest hint that it was trans- his report. This quickened a lambent mitted through the medium of oral Aame of benevolent generosity in his tradition. Job, in the paroxysm of his heart, and, very unlike the Jew of old, anguish and complaint exclaims,“ 0, who passed by on the other side of that my words were now written! O, the way,he ordered his servant to that mine adversary had written a alight, and stepping out of his carriage, book !"28 These exclamations can desired them both to enter, and he imply nothing less, than that writing would drive. I saw their approach 10 was practised in the time of Job; for the city; the gates of the palace soon Janguage will scarcely furnish a name closed on them, and a worthy defender for an art or science quite unknown; of our shores was thus hospitably reand this art is referred to by Job in a ceived: but he had not been used to familiar manner, as if his friends were march, and for a time he sank under perfectly acquainted with it. It is very it; and even amidst all comfort, where strongly presumed that this book was the ever bountiful hand of Providence written by Moses before the Deliver- had conducted him, he would rather ance, because no allusion whatever is bave been on the turbulent bosom of made to that miraculous event. Now that ocean and with those comrades is ibis book had been a subsequent where his courageous heart was cena composition of the great Lawgiver, and tered. written during the period when the Is- I next saw hin, Sir, ascend the steps raelites sojourved in the wilderness, of the portico of the Council House at some reference 10, or illustration of the Salisbury, and stand by the porily, ficircumstances attending their protract- gure of his benefactor, who with his ed wanderings, would hare been in- fine and sonorous voice had called evitable. And Gray, in his preface to “ Bassett" from the immense crowd Schuitens on this book, explicitly as- asseinbled to witness the ceremonial of serts that it was composed by Moses presenting the city's freedom to the during his residence with Jethro in Hero of the Nile, in his progress, with the land of Midian, from ancient re- a numerous retinue, to the Abbey of cords in the custody, most probably, of Fonthill. When introduced, the vetehis father-in-law, to comfort his afflict- was immediately recognized by ed brethren during their captivity in Lord Nelson, as one of those daring Egypt. And this would be many years and brave inen who would either vanbefore the promulgation of the writen quish or die, and who was under his law.

GEO. OLIVER. dag“ when glory like a dazzling eagle (To be continued.)

stood"* on ihe brow of the veleran, and when “ Egypt's groans and cries”+

had aroused his country to effect her Mr. URBAN, Shaftesbury, June 26. deliverance. IN IN the following fugitive fragment After his introduction to his Lord

is a trait so fraught with genuine ship, he descended the steps of the goodness, that I am induced to request portico again, and, mingling with the you to place it upon record.

crowd, with a light heart exhibited As the late Rev. William Douglas, “the King's picture in gold,” a present Chancellor of the diocese of Salisbury, from the Admiral to drink his Majeswas relurning to the palace of the ve- ty's health. nerable prelate his father, (the sun He was afterwards employed by his shining with effulgence, no cooling benefactor in the garden of his vicarage zephyr even in the shade,) he perceived at Gillingham, Dorset. on the high road the most lainentable

Yours, &c.



28 Job, c. xix. v. 23. ; c. xxxi. v. 35.


+ Bowles.

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