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any law of Christ's which forbiddeth kings and rulers of the earth to have such sovereign and supreme power in the making of laws either civil or ecclesiastical? If there be, our controversy hath an end. Christ, in his church, hath not appointed any such law concerning temporal power, as God did of old unto the commonwealth of Israel; but leaving that to be at the world's free choice, his chiefest care is, that the spiritual law of the gospel might be published far and wide. They that received the law of Christ were, for a long time, people scattered in sundry kingdoms, Christianity not exempting them from the laws which they had been subject unto, saving only in such cases as those laws did enjoin that which the religion of Christ did forbid. Hereupon grew their manifold persecutions throughout all places where they lived; as oft as it thus came to pass, there was no possibility that the emperors and kings under whom they lived, should meddle any whit at all with making laws for the church. From Christ, therefore, having received power; who doubteth, but as they did, so they might bind them to such orders as seemed fittest for the maintenance of their religion, without the leave of high or low in the commonwealth ; forasmuch as in religion it was divided utterly from them, and they from it. But when the mightiest began to like of the Christian faith; by their means, whole free states and kingdoms became obedient unto Christ. Now the question is, whether kings, by embracing Christianity, do thereby receive any such law as taketh from them the weightiest part of that sovereignty which they had even when they were heathens : whether, being infidels, they might do more in causes of religion, than now they can by the laws of God, being true believers. For, whereas in regal states, the king, or supreme head of the commonwealth, had, before Christianity, a supreme stroke in making of laws for religion; he must by embracing Christian religion utterly deprive himself thereof, and in such causes become subject unto his subjects, having even within his own dominions them whose com. mandment he must obey; unless his power be placed in the hand of some foreign spiritual potentate : so that either a foreign or domestic commander upon earth, he must admit more now than before he had, and that in the chiefest things whereupon commonwealths do stand. But apparent it is unto all men which are not strangers unto the doctrine of Jesus Christ, that no state of the world receiving Christianity, is by any law therein contained bound to resign the power which they lawfully held before: but over what persons, and in what causes soever the same hath been in force, it may so remain and continue still. That which, as kings, they might do in matters of religion, and did in matter of false religion, being idolatrous and superstitious kings, the same they are now even in every respect fully autho

rized to do in all affairs pertinent to the state of true ChristT.C. ian religion. And, concerning the supreme power of makp. 51. ing laws for all persons, in all causes to be guided by, it is

not to be let pass, that the head enemies of this headship are constrained to acknowledge the king endued even with this very power, so that he may and ought to exercise the same, taking order for the church and her affairs, of what nature or kind soever, in case of necessity: as when there is no lawful ministry, which they interpret then to be (and this surely is a point very remarkable), wheresoever the ministry is wicked. A wicked ministry is no lawful ministry; and in such sort no lawful ministry, that what doth belong unto them as ministers by right of their calling, the same is annihilated in respect of their bad qualities; their wickedness is itself a deprivation of right to deal in the affairs of the church, and a warrant for others to deal in them which are held to be of a clean other society, the members whereof have been before so peremptorily for ever excluded from power of dealing for ever with affairs of the church. They which once have learned thoroughly this lesson, will quickly be capable perhaps of another equivalent unto it. For the wickedness of the ministry transfers their right unto the king; in case the king be as wicked as they, to whom then shall the right descend? There is no remedy, all must come by devolution at length, even as the family of Brown will have it, unto the godly among the people, for confusion unto the wise and the great by the poor and the simple ; some kniperdoling, with his retinue, must take this work of the Lord in hand; and the making of church-laws and orders must prove to be their right in the end. If not for love of the truth, yet for shame of gross absurdities, let these contentions and trifling fancies be abandoned. The cause which

moved them for a time to hold a wicked ministry no lawful ministry; and in this defect of a lawful ministry, authorized kings to make laws and orders for the affairs of the church, till it were well established, is surely this : first, they see that whereas the continual dealing of the kings of Israel in the affairs of the church doth make now very strong against them, the burden whereof they shall in time well enough shake off, if it may be obtained, that it is indeed lawful for kings to follow these holy examples; howbeit no longer than during the case of necessity, while the wickedness, and in respect thereof, the unlawfulness of the ministry doth continue. Secondly, They perceive right well, that unless they should yield authority unto kings in case of such supposed necessity, the discipline they urge were clean excluded, as long as the clergy of England doth thereunto remain opposite. To open therefore a door for her entrance, there is no reason but the tenet must be this: that now when the ministry of England is universally wicked, and in that respect hath lost all authority, and is become no lawful ministry, no such ministry as hath the right, which otherwise should belong unto them, if they were virtuous and godly, as their adversaries are; in this necessity the king may do somewhat for the church: that which we do imply in the name of headship, he may both have and exercise till they be entered which will disburden and ease him of it: till they come, the king is licensed to hold that power which we call headship. But what afterward? In a church or- T.C. lib.i. dered, that which the supreme magistrate hath to do, is to P. 192 see that the laws of God, touching his worship, and touching all matters and orders of the church, be executed and duly observed; to see that every ecclesiastical person do that office whereunto he is appointed; to punish those that fail in their office. In a word, that which Allen himself acknow- Apol. 1. ledged unto the earthly power which God hath given him it doth belong to defend the laws of the church, to cause them to be executed, and to punish rebels and transgressors of the same; on all sides therefore it is confessed, that to the king belongeth power of maintaining the laws made for church-regiment, and of causing them to be observed; but principality of power in making them, which is the thing we attribute unto kings, this both the one sort and the other do withstand.

Touching the king's supereminent authority in command-command

fol. 40.

pag. 2.

Power to

unto all men which are not strangers unto the doctrine of Jesus Christ, that no state of the world receiving Christianity, is by any law therein contained bound to resign the power which they lawfully held before: but over what persons, and in what causes soever the same hath been in force, it may so remain and continue still. That which, as kings, they might do in matters of religion, and did in matter of false religion, being idolatrous and superstitious kings, the same they are now even in every respect fully autho

rized to do in all affairs pertinent to the state of true ChristT.C. ian religion. And, concerning the supreme power of makp. 51. ing laws for all persons, in all causes to be guided by, it is

not to be let pass, that the head enemies of this headship are constrained to acknowledge the king endued even with this very power, so that he may and ought to exercise the same, taking order for the church and her affairs, of what nature or kind soever, in case of necessity: as when there is no lawful ministry, which they interpret then to be (and this surely is a point very remarkable), wheresoever the ministry is wicked. A wicked ministry is no lawful ministry; and in such sort no lawful ministry, that what doth belong unto them as ministers by right of their calling, the same is annihilated in respect of their bad qualities; their wickedness is itself a deprivation of right to deal in the affairs of the church, and a warrant for others to deal in them which are held to be of a clean other society, the members whereof have been before so peremptorily for ever excluded from power of dealing for ever with affairs of the church. They which once have learned thoroughly this lesson, will quickly be capable perhaps of another equivalent unto it. For the wickedness of the ministry transfers their right unto the king; in case the king be as wicked as they, to whom then shall the right descend? There is no remedy, all must come by devolution at length, even as the family of Brown will have it, unto the godly among the people, for confusion unto the wise and the great by the poor and the simple; some kniperdoling, with his retinue, must take this work of the Lord in hand; and the making of church-laws and orders must prove to be their right in the end. If not for love of the truth, yet for shame of gross absurdities, let these contentions and trifling fancies be abandoned. The cause which

moved them for a time to hold a wicked ministry no lawful ministry; and in this defect of a lawful ministry, authorized kings to make laws and orders for the affairs of the church, till it were well established, is surely this: first, they see that whereas the continual dealing of the kings of Israel in the affairs of the church doth make now very strong against them, the burden whereof they shall in time well enough shake off, if it may be obtained, that it is indeed lawful for kings to follow these holy examples; howbeit no longer than during the case of necessity, while the wickedness, and in respect thereof, the unlawfulness of the ministry doth continue. Secondly, They perceive right well, that unless they should yield authority unto kings in case of such supposed necessity, the discipline they urge were clean excluded, as long as the clergy of England doth thereunto remain opposite. To open therefore a door for her entrance, there is no reason but the tenet must be this : that now when the ministry of England is universally wicked, and in that respect hath lost all authority, and is become no lawful ministry, no such ministry as hath the right, which otherwise should belong unto them, if they were virtuous and godly, as their adversaries are; in this necessity the king may do somewhat for the church : that which we do imply in the name of headship, he may both have and exercise till they be entered which will disburden and ease him of it: till they come, the king is licensed to hold that power which we call headship. But what afterward? In a church or- T.C. lib.i. dered, that which the supreme magistrate hath to do, is to P. 19% see that the laws of God, touching his worship, and touching all matters and orders of the church, be executed and duly observed; to see that every ecclesiastical person do that office whereunto he is appointed; to punish those that fail in their office. In a word, that which Allen himself acknow- Apol. 1. ledged unto the earthly power which God hath given him it doth belong to defend the laws of the church, to cause them to be executed, and to punish rebels and transgressors of the same; on all sides therefore it is confessed, that to the king belongeth power of maintaining the laws made for church-regiment, and of causing them to be observed; but principality of power in making them, which is the thing we attribute unto kings, this both the one sort and the other do withstand.

Touching the king's supereminent authority in command-command

fol. 40.

pag. 2.

Power to

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