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In the time of king Edward, the Sixth, the presses were employed in favour of the reformed religion, and small tracts were dispersed over the nation, to reconcile them to the new forms of worship. In this reign, likewise, political pamphlets may be said to have been begun, by the address of the rebels of Devonshire ; all which means of propagating the sentiments of the people so disturbed the court, that no sooner was queen Mary resolved to reduce her subjects to the Romish superstition, but she artfully, by a charter *, granted to certain freemen of London, in whose fidelity, no doubt, she confided, entirely prohibited all presses, but what should be licensed by them ; which charter is that by which the corporation of Stationers in London is at this time incorporated.
Under the reign of queen Elizabeth, when liberty again began to flourish, the practice of writing pamphlets became more general ; presses were multiplied, and books were dispersed; and, I believe, it may properly be said, that the trade of writing began at that time, and that it has ever since gradually increased in the number, though, perhaps, not in the style of those that followed it.
In this reign was erected the first secret press against the church as now established, of which I have found any certain account. It was employed by the Puritans, and conveyed from one part of the nation to another, by them, as they found them
* Which begins thus, ' Know ye, that We, considering • and manifestly perceiving, that several seditious and here
tical books or tracts-against the faith and scu:d catholick • doctrine of holy niother, the church,' &c.
selves in danger of discovery. From this press is, sued most of the pamphlets against Whitgift, and his associates in the ecclesiastical government ; and, when it was at last seized at Manchester, it was employed upon a pamphlet called More Work for a Cooper
In the peaceable reign of king James, those minds which might, perhaps, with less disturbance of the world, have been engrossed by war, were employed in controversy; and writings of all kinds were multiplied among us. however, was not wholly engaged in polem cal performances, for more innocent subjects were some times treated; and it deserves to be remarked, bes cause it is not generally known, that the treatises of Husbandry and Agriculture, which were pub. lished about that time, are so numerous, that it can scarcely be imagined by whom they were written, or to whom they were sold.
The next reign is too well known to have been a time of confusion, and disturbance, and disputes of
every kind ; and the writings which were produced, bear a natural proportion to the number of questions that were discussed at that time ; each party had its authors and its presses, and no endea, vours were omitted to gain proselytes to every opinion. I know not whether this may not properly be called, The Age of Pamphlets; for, though they, perhaps, may not arise to such multitudes as Mr Rawlinson imagined, they were, undoubtedly, more numerous than can be conceived by any who have not had an opportunity of examining them.
After the Restoration, the same differences, in religious opinions, are we!l known to have sub
sisted, and the same political struggles to have been frequently renewed ; and, therefore a great number of pens were employed, on different occasions, till, at length, all other disputes were absorbed in the popish controversy.
From the pamphlets which these different periods of time produced, it is proposed, that this Miscellany shall be compiled; for which it cannot be supposed that materials will be wanting ; and, therefore, the only difficulty will be in what manner to dispose them. Those who have gone before us, in undertakings
, of this kind, have ranged the pamphlets, which chance threw into their hands, without any regard either to the subject on which they treated, or the time in which they were written ; a practice in no wise to be imitated by us, who want for no materials ; of which we shall choose those we think best for the particular circumstances of times and things, and most instructing and entertaining to the reader.
Of the different methods which present themselves, upon the first view of the great heaps of pamphlets which the Harleian library exhibits, the two which merit most attention are, to distribute the treatises according to their subjects, or their dates ; but neither of these ways can be conveniently followed. By ranging our collection in order of time, we must necessarily publish those pieces first, which least engage the curiosity of the bulk of mankind; and our design must fall to the ground, for want of encouragement, before it can be so far advanced as to obtain general regard : by confining ourselves for any long time to any single subject, we shall reduce our readers to one class ;
and, as we shall lose all the
grace of variety, shall disgust all those who read chiefly to be diverted. There is likewise one objection of equal force, against both these methods, that we shall preclude ourselves from the advantage of any future discoveries ; and we cannot hope to assemble at once all the pamphlets which have been written in any age, or on any subject.
It may be added, in vindication of our intended practice, that it is the same with that of Photius, whose collections are no less miscellaneous than ours ; and who declares, that he leaves it to his reader, to reduce his extracts under their proper heads.
Most of the pieces which shall be offered in this collection to the publick, will be introduced by short prefaces, in which will be given some account of the reasons for which they are inserted ; notes will be sometimes adjoined, for the explanation of obscure passages, or obsolete expressions, and care will be taken to mingle use and pleasure through the whole collection. Notwithstanding every subject may not be relished by every reader; yet the buyer may be assured that each number will repay
THE original of this celebrated performance lay in manuscript above a century and a half. Though it was read with the greatest pleasure by the learn. ed of Italy, no man was hardy enough, during so long a period, to introduce to the world a book in which the successors of St Peter were handled so roughly: a narrative, where artists and sovereiga princes, cardinals and courtezans, ministers of state and mechanics, are treated with equal impartiality;
At length, in the year 1730, an enterprizing Neapolitan, encouraged by Dr Antonio Cocchi, one of the politest scholars in Europe, published this so-much desired work in one volume quarto. The Doctor gave the editor an excellent preface, which, with very slight alteration, is judiciously preserved by the translator, Dr Nugent; the book is, notwithstanding, very scarce in Italy: the clergy of Naples are very powerful; and though the editor