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Licenses to Oyster Cellars. 241

the sound of genuine poverty; nor will he spare his best exertions to alleviate the afflictions of the unfortunate, the wretched, and the debased; the knot of his purse can be loosed to give as well as to receive; and he would blush, indeed, if his hands were not sometimes open to bestow as well as to accept. He has learned, from the practice of his profession, the pleasure of doing good; and he only demands for his exertions, especially public exertions, those pecuniary supplies which may still enable him to practice and to study his science, to support his family, to benefit his friends, and to give to all those who in the hour of need, he knows will be relieved and comforted by the silent gift of benevolence.

LICENSES TO OYSTER CELLARS.

It will be seen, from the following extract, that the Grand Jury for the city of Philadelphia, have, in their inquest to the Mayor's Court, protested against the iniquitous law for licensing oyster cellars to retail ardent spirits.

To the Mayor's Court. The Grand Inquest inquiring for the city of | Philadelphia, respectfully represent: *

That in the discharge of their duties during the present term, they* have with much pleasure observed a sensible diminution of such cases as usuaHy have their origin in those sinks of vice, tippling houses; this they attribute in a great measure to the effects produced by the different acts of the Legislature hitherto passed with a design to limit the number of taverns, and to confine licenses to such only as necessity absolutely requires. The Inquest cannot, howeves, withhold the expression of their deep regret at the manifest evidence they have discovered of the pernicious consequences likely to result from the granting of licenses to oyster cellars, and thereby in effect legalizing an extensive source of vice; they are satisfied that the Legislature would not have passed the act referred to, had they been folly acquainted with the wishes of the citizens regarding it, and distinctly appreciated the practical mischief to the youth of the city that will inevitably follow. Circumstances coming under the notice of the Inquest during the present term, fully justify the alarming apprehensions of the community concerning this matter; they therefore earnestly hope that this important subject, particularly as it affects the rising generation, may again arrest the serious attention of the Legislature, and that in their wisdom they may see meet to alter the law, which to this Inquest appears to be of paramount importance.

The senator, who thought himself safe in slandering the Temperance Society, under the supposition that its doctrines were not popular with the people, and that from its numbers it could not exert any controling influence at an election, will find that he has mistaken the feelings of the citizens of Philadelphia. His misrepresentations of the time and manner of holding the town meeting, to protest against the obnoxious law, are now signally exposed; and he will, we fervently hope, find it less difficult than heretofore to ascertain public opinion in Philadelphia, a point at which he professes himself to be always greatly puzzled. The most clear and decisive manner for their expressing their wishes to the next Legislature, respecting the legalized encouragement of drunkenness, will be for the citizens of the city and county of Philadelphia, (for they have a common interest in this mat242 Notices, fyc.

ter,) to allow the representatives wtio have betrayed their trust to stay at home. The members from this city and county, ought to have at least asked for time to obtain information, had they been ignorant of the pernicious consequences of the proposed law. In mere party measures they are Wide awake; why should they be asleep when the morals and happiness of the entire community are at stake!

"Monthly American JodrnAl Of Geology Auto Natural Science, &c. &c Conducted by G. W. Featherstonhaugh, Esq. Fellow of the Geological Society of London; Member of the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, &c. &c. March, 1832. Published by the Editor. Subscriptions received at Mr. Judah Dobson's, 108 Chesnut street.—Price $3 50, payable in advance."—We are pleased to see that the zealous editor of this work is determined, despite the culpable mismanagement of the former publisher, H. H. Porter, to continue it, and to finish the first volume at his own expense. The public will, we trust, reciprocate, in a becoming spirit, the desire of Mr. Featherstonhaugh to do them full justice, in completing an engagement which not he, but the publisher, had contracted with them. Happily for the cause of science and letters, other motives than the hopes of lucre are constantly impelling their votaries to extend their domain, and to multiply their useful and pleasurable applications.

The present number of the Journal of Geology, delayed in its publication by the causes adverted to above, will be found, on perusal, to be fully as entertaining and instructive as any preceding one. The description of the Natural Bridge, in Rockingham county, Virginia, obtains additional interest and value by a beautifully executed lithographic print of that sublime object, second only to the Falls of Niagara in the feelings of admiration and awe, which it excites in the mind of the traveller, gazing on it for the first time. The first article of this number is geological—being, On the constituent Minerals, and the structure of the Primary Bocks. This is followed by a paper on the comparative Encouragement given to the study of Notural History in Europe and North America. A Philadelphian will rise from its perusal with feelings of allowable pride at the contribution of his city towards furthering the progress of science. A letter from the celebrated Audubon to the Editor, contains a melange of personal adventure, and details in natural history, which that writer is so felicitous in introducing.

THE HEALTH ALMANAC FOR 1833.

Key, Mielke And Bidole will soon have ready for the trade, the Health Almanac for 1833. This work will be, as heretofore, under the direction of the Editors of the Journal of Health, by whom the maxims and rules for the preservation of health will be furnished.

The Editors would observe that the substitution of other publishers for H. H. Porter, is a measure called for, not merely by the failure, but by the gross misconduct of this individual, whose name will, in future, be any thing but a passport to public favour and patronage.

NOTICE.

Whereas by assignment, bearing date the 14th of March, 1832, Henry H. Porter assigned all his estate and effects to the subscriber, in trust for the benefit of such creditors, (amongst others,) as shall make and execute a release within sixty days from and after the date of such assignment. Notice is hereby given to all persons indebted to the said Henry H. Porter, to make immediate payment to the subscriber, and creditors are invited to call at his Counting-house, No. 27 Minor street, where the release is ready for execution.

SHELDON POTTER, Assignee.

THE

JOURNAL OF HEALTH.

CONDUCTED BY AN ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICIANS.

Health—the poor man's riches, the rich man's bliss.

Vol. HI. , Philadelphia, April 25, 1832. No. 16.

The interest which flowers have excited in the breast of man from the earliest ages to the present day, has never been confined to any particular class of society, or quarter of the globe. Nature seems to have distributed them over the whole world to serve as a medicine to the mind—to give cheerfulness to the earth, and to furnish agreeable sensations to its inhabitants. The savage of the forest, in the joy of his heart, binds his brow with the native flowers of his woods, whilst a taste for their cultivation increases in every country in proportion as the blessings of civilization extend. From the humblest cottage enclosure to the most extensive park and grounds, nothing more conspicuously bespeaks the good taste of the possessor than a well cultivated flower garden: and it may very generally be remarked, that when we behold a humble tenement surrounded with ornamental plants, the possessor is a man of correct habits, and possesses domestic comforts; whilst, on the contrary, a neglected weedgrown garden, or its total absence, marks the indolence, and unhappy state of those who have been thus neglectful of Flora's favours.

Of all luxurious indulgences, that of flowers is the most innocent. It is productive not only of rational gratification, but of many advantages of a permanent character. Love for a garden has a powerful influence in attaching men to their homes; and on this account every encouragement given to increase a

Vol. III.—31 243

244 Flowers.Free Schools.

taste for ornamental gardening is an additional security for domestic comfort and happiness. It is likewise a recreation which conduces materially to health, promotes civilization, and softens the manners and tempers of mem It creates a love for the study of-nature, which leads to a contemplation of the mysterious wonders that are displayed in the vegetable world around us, and which cannot be investigated without inclining the mind towards a just estimate of religion, and a knowledge of the narrow limits of our intelligence, when compared with the incomprehensible power and wisdom of the Creator.

Flowers are, of all embellishments, the most beautiful; and of all created beings, man alone seems capable of deriving enjoyment from them. The love for them commences with infancy, remains the delight of youth, increases with our years, and becomes the quiet amusement of our declining days. The infant can no sooner walk than its first employment is to plant a flower in the earth, removing it ten times in an hour to wherever the sun seems to shine most favourably. The school boy, in the care of his little plot of ground, relieves the tedium of his studies, and loses the anxious thoughts of the home he has left. In manhood our attention is generally demanded by more active duties, or by more imperious, and perhaps less innocent, occupations; but as age obliges us to retire from public life, the love of flowers, and the delights of a garden, return to soothe the later period of our life.

To most persons, gardening affords delight as an easy and agreeable occupation; and the flowers they so fondly rear, are cherished, from the gratification they afford to the organs of sight and of smell; but to the close observer of nature, and the botanist, beauties are unfolded, and wonders displayed that cannot be detected by the careless attention bestowed upon them by the multitude. In their growth, from the first tender shoots which rise from the earth through all the changes which they undergo to the period of their utmost perfection, he beholds the wonderful works of creative power; he views the bud as it swells, and looks into the expanded blossom, delights in its rich tints and fragrant smell, but, above all, he feels a charm in contemplating movements and regulations before which all the combined ingenuity of man dwindles into nothingness.

FREE SCHOOLS.

When noticing, some little time back, the will of the late Stephen Girard, and his legacies to the city, we entered most into a detail of the description of the edifice which he directs to be built for a college. We took occasion also to praise the plan of Free Schools. 245

its construction for durability, and as in accordance with correct hygiene. It may not be amiss to give his instructions in respect to the conditions under which orphans, for whom the institution is intended, shall be received, before we note, as is our intention agreeably to a former promise, foundations of a similar benevolent nature abroad.

"When," says Mr. Girard in his will, " the college and appurtenances shall have been constructed, and supplied with plain and suitable furniture and books, philosophical and experimental instruments and apparatus, and all other matters needful to carry my general design into execution ; the income, issues and profits of so much of the said sum of two millions of dollars as shall remain unexpended, shall be applied to maintain the said college according to my directions.

1. The institution shall be organized as soon as practicable; and to accomplish that purpose more effectually, due public notice of the intended opening of the college shall be given—so that there may be an opportunity to make selections of competent instructors, and other agents, and those who may have the charge of orphans, may be aware of the provisions intended for them.

2. A competent number of instructors, teachers, assistants, and other necessary agents, shall be selected, and when needful, their places from time to time supplied : they shall receive adequate compensation for their services: but no person shall be employed, who shall not be of tried skill in his or her proper department, of established moral character, and in all cases personsshall be chosen on account of their merit, and not through favour or intrigue.

3. As many poor white male orphans, between the ages of six and ten years, as the said income shall be adequate to maintain, shall be introduced into the college as soon as possible; and from time to time as there may be vacancies, or as increased ability from income may warrant, others shall be introduced.

4. On the application for admission, an accurate statement shall be taken in a book, prepared for the purpose, of the name, birth-place, age, health, condition as to relatives, and other particulars useful to be known of each orphan.

5. No orphan should be admitted until the guardians or directors of the poor, or a proper guardian or other competent authority, shall have given, by indenture, relinquishment, or otherwise, adequate power to the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of Philadelphia, or to directors, or others by them appointed, to enforce, in relation to each orphan, every proper restraint, and to prevent relatives or others from interfering with, or withdrawing such orphan from the institution.

6. Those orphans, for whose admission application shall first be made, shall be first introduced,.all other things concurring—and at all future times, priority of application shall entitle the applicant to preference in admission, all other things concurring; but if there shall be at any time, more applicants than vacancies, and the applying orphans shall have been born in different places, a preference shall be given—-first, to orphans born in the city of Philadelphia; secondly, to those born in any other part of Pennsylvania; thirdly, to those born in the city of New York (that being the first port on the continent of North America at which I arrived;) and lastly, to those born in the city of New Orleans, being the first port on the said continent at which I first traded, in the first instance as first officer, and subsequently as roaster and part owner of a vessel and cargo.

7. The orphans admitted into the college, shall be there fed with plain

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