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But since that time his experiments have been proven false. Human tuberculosis has been transferred from man to other animals, and the bacilli of the bovine type have been found in the lesions of human beings.
Now that we have the plain facts, are we simply to ignore them and find fresh reasons for condoning such a menace to the public health? Are we to allow milk to be sold that is obtained from cows where fifty to ninety per cent. of the herd has tuberculosis? Must we use meat from diseased hogs and cattle? Is this to go on without the least restriction? There seems to be no immediate answer to these questions unless it is the majority of the medical profession does not sufficiently recognize and warn the people of the grave and immediate dangers which surround them from such gross oversight on the part of our law makers.
We have numerous instances of authentic cases of infection from the lower animals to man and the transmission of human tuberculosis to the lower animals.
It is a sad fact that most of the bacilli of the bovine type are found in young children. The bovine bacilli are pathologically more active, they are more virulent to most animals and the conclusion is drawn that they are more virulent to man than the bacilli of the so-called human sort.
It is a fact that human bacilli are not so virulent as those obtained from other mammalian sources, and that the human organism has the power to overcome and graduaily to render these bacilli less harmful; but this infuence for good is constantly being counteracted by the fresh infection with the lower animal tuberculosis. Far be it from us to discourage any of the efforts to stop this infection from man to man, but we should be more strict and careful in regard to the infection from tuberculous lower animals.
Herewith is submitted some information concerning the prevalence of tuberculosis.
Slaughterhouse statistics of Prussia show 14.6 per cent. of cattle and 2.14 per cent. of swine to be tuberculous.
Slaughterhouse statistics of Saxony show 29.13 per cent. cattle 3.10 per cent. of swine.
Slaughterhouse statistics of Leipsig City show 36.4 per cent, cattle and 2.17 per cent. of swine.-(Siedamgrotzky.)
In Belgium 20,850 animals were tested with tuberculin; 48.88 per cent. reacted.--(Strubbe.)
Denmark, 1893 to 1895—49.3 per cent. reacted. Denmarn, 1896 to 1898-32.8 per cent, reacted.-(Bang.)
In Great Britain 20,330 cattle either slaughtered and examined,
post-mortemed or tuberculin tested snowed 5,441 or 26 per cent. in. fected with tuberculosis.
MacFadyean estimates that 30 per cent of the cows in Great Britain are tuberculous.
Extent of bovine tuberculosis in the United States disclosed by the tuberculin test can be gathered from the statistics compiled by Russell and Hastings of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station:
Experiment Station Tests--Suspected herds
for shipment to States regniring tuber-
The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis is more marked in civilized communities where there are more numerous sources of infection.
Cattle in cities deprived of proper sanitary measures are always menaced by the disease, for when the infection is once introduced there is great danger of the entire herdi sooner or later falling victims to the disease.
Experiments have been maủe showing that within six months healthy cattle have contracted the disease from two or three infected cows, placed in different portions of the barn, boxed off in stalls six feet high, without ever coming in contact with the diseased animals.
Before the experiments were made the healthy cattle were tested with tuberculin and showed negative reaction.
The first public test of a large herd in this State for tuberculosis was made by the writer at the Central Kentucky Lunatic Asylum at the instigation of Dr. M. K. Allen, Louisville health officer, for the purpose of demonstrating the amount of infection existing in a seemingly healthy collection of milch cows. The first test was made in April with results showing a reaction of 46 3-4 per cent. The percentage of diseased animals was so great that the officials of the asylum were alarmed and refused to believe that the test was correct. This necessitated a second test, which was conducted during the following October. Percentage reacting from this test was 40 per cent. This encountered more opposition from the officials, and they refused to have the condemned animals slaughtered. The matter was then referred to the State Board of Health who ordered a third test which was to be final. This test was made in December, and as a result 30 1-3 per cent reacted. Including the cows which were chronically infected and failed to react to the second and third tests, and those which contracted the disease from April to December, the result of the three tests showed that 63 per cent. of the entire herd were infected with tuberculosis. Milk taken from eleven of the condemned cows was examined bacteriologically by Dr. Vernon Robbins, Louisville bacteriologist, who reported the presence of the bacilli of tuberculosis in three samples. Upon the strength of this report the State Board of Health called a meeting and ordered all cows that reacted to be immediately slaughtered. At the post-mortem without an exception every one of the thirtynine cows killed presented the various lesions, characteristic of bovine tuberculosis. Of the numerous tests that have been made by the writer, this particular case has been selected, because of its public character, to demonstrate the prevalence of tuberculosis in herds apparently Sound. Examination of milk for tuberculosis has shown a variation in infectiousness of 5.5 per cent. to 66.6 per cent. Four years ago the Illinois State Board of Live Stock Commissioners had milk from thirty cows examined, and the milk of eight of them, or 26 per cent., was found to harbor the bacillus of tuberculosis. The bacillus is nearly always found in cows suffering from mammary tuberculosis, and has been often demonstrated in milk without udder inflammation. Authenticated statistical reports plainly indicate that a large share of human tuberculosis, especially in children, originates from the ingestion of the bacilli with contaminated food.
Many instances are recorded proving that human beings have been accidentally infected from bovine sources through the handling of tuberculous material and milk; when such does occur the disease is more virulent from this source of infection than from tuberculosis caused from human infection. Tuberculin as a diagnostic feature for the detection of tuberculosis in milch cows can not be over-rated. In the trained hands of the competent veterinarian its efficiency to detect tuberculosis in cattle is practically infallible. With the knowledge that a great per cent of the cows supplying milk to the city of Louisville are infected with tuberculosis, we should no longer for a moment tolerate the sale of milk unless it can be shown to be the product of cows which have reacted negatively to tuberculin. Louisville's city ordinance requires quarterly inspection of dairy cows supplying milk for city consumption by competent veterinarians who must certify to the health of the animals, character of food proVided, sanitary handling of milk, etc. Since this ordinance has gone into effect about two hundred thousand cows have been examined and of this vast number, less than twenty (20) cases of tuberculosis have been reported. This indicates that the milch cows are distressingly healthy or that the qualified (?) veterinary inspectors are either ignorant of the character of the disease or lax in their method of inspection. Dr. M. A. Purdy, of Shelbyville, who reported the cows above referred to as having tuberculosis, is the only man on record in the louisville health office who has found the disease among the cows inspected, supplying milk to the city, and from this condition of affairs it appears that one inspector at least is familiar with the duties of the inspection, and pursues his work conscientiously. There can be no improvement in the character of the milk supply of Louisville until the State Board of Health has full authority to appoint competent veterinarians whose efficiency and integrity can be vouched for, and the formation of laws demanding that all milch cows from which the city's supply of milk is drawn shall be subjected to the tuberculin test. It is the especial duty of every physician to explain and impress upon his patients and associates the grave dangers which lurk in milk that has been taken from cows which have not been subjected to the tuberculin test, so that the people will understand and see for themselves the great danger from tuberculous milk, and demand a certified milk from their dealers. The writer herewith presents the following resolutions which were drafted at the last meeting of the Kentucky Veterinary Medical Asso
ciation, held at Lexington, Ky., December 27, 1904, and hopes that all the medical profession, both the physicians and veterinarians, will heartily endorse and recommend the adoption of the suggestions and the plan of action recommended by the following resolutions:
"In view of the fact that the Royal Tuberculosis Commission has issued the statement that in its final report it will give as its opinion that bovine tuberculosis is transmissible to the human race by the consumption of tuberculous milk, therefore, be it
"Resolved, That, it is the sense of the Kentucky Veterinary Medical Association that it is dangerous and a menace to human life to use milk from cows which have not been tested with tuberculin and shown negative reaction.
"Whereas, the Kentucky Veterinary Medical Association, now convened, has determined, after taking the testimony of competent and qualified veterinarians, that at least 20 per cent of the cows now supplying milk to the various cities in the State of Kentucky are tubercular, therefore, be it
"Resolved, That we hereby suggest that the Boards of Health in all towns and cities throughout the State, on and after January 1, 1905, take stringent measures to stamp out the dread disease and require of ali dairymen the testing semi-annually of all dairy cows with tuberculin by a competent and regularly qualified veterinarian."