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two last chapters. But “ when the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him, and the Redeemer shall come to Zion.” (Isa. lix. 19, 20.) During the alarming progress of the antichristian powers, the Christian forces are not idle or unemployed. The vision proceeds to exhibit their efforts to check, and at length finally to subdue, the enemies of the Church. The Lamb,' to apviov, appears upon Mount Sion, upon the place of true religious service ;o the site of the heavenly Jerusalem; the seat of the throne of the Messiah. (Ps. ii. 6; Heb. xii. 22; Isa. ii. 23, &c.; xi. 9, 10; lvi. 7; Ezek. xvii. 22, &c.; xx. 40; Micah iv. 1, 2; Luke iji. 5, 6.) He comes attended by his Church; by the hundred and forty-four thousand, who had been sealed as “ Israelites indeed.”3 He comes in the likeness of his suffering state, leading his followers to conquer by suffering, * not yet by his vengeance.
This then appears to be the true, persecuted, and suffering Christian Church, which, throughout the reign of the dragon, beast, and false prophet, refuses to worship the image, and receive the mark of the beast. These are marked holy unto God; the precious price of Redemption has not been paid for them in vain. (1 Cor. vi. 20.) And “there is joy in heaven,” on beholding their array. The voice of Deity from the throne, awful and sublime, acknowledges them; the heavenly chorus breaks forth into songs of praise and exultation. They sing“ a new song, the song of the Lamb, a song mysterious, unfit for impure and worldly ears (ite, BeBndoe); in which those only can be initiated who are pure and faithful: and the delights of the heavenly harmony
1 See note, ch. v. 6.
? See note, ch. viii. 8.
4 Note, ch. ï. 7. 6 See pote, ch. ii. 17; i. 12.
are unutterable; “none knoweth, but he that receiveth it. (Rev. ii. 17.)
Ver. 4, 5. These are they who, &c.] Here follows a description of that pure Church, which alone Christ acknowledges for his own, during the usurpation of antichrist. 'H yuvn, signifies generally a married woman; the crime committed with such is adultery; which may be taken, in a literal sense, to represent in general, all the defilements of the flesh; or in a metaphorical sense, a woman is a Church, or congregation of religious persons;' which, keeping itself pure from idolatry, is styled a virgin; but, defiled with such abomination, is denominated harlot or adulteress. They called,” says Hegisippus, “ the Church a virgin, when it was not corrupted by vain doctrines."? Every part of this description may be found applied in other places of Scripture :1. By Saint Peter; “ they have escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.” (2 Pet. i. 4.) 2. By our Lord ; they “ follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth,” that is, “ take up their cross and follow him.” (Matt. x. 38.) 3. By Saint Paul; are redeemed, " bought with a price.” (1 Cor. vi. 20.) 4. By Saint James; “ a kind of first fruits of God's creatures.” (James i. 18.) Lastly, “ speaking no deceit,'
,” “ blameless before God.” (1 Pet. ii. 22; iii. 10; 2 Pet. iii. 4 ; Phil. ii. 15; Luke i. 6.) And this description agrees nearly with that of the prophet Zephaniah : " I will leave in the midst of thee an afflicted and poor people, and they shall trust in the name of the Lord; the remnant of Israel shall not do iniquity, nor speak lies, neither shall a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth. They shall feed and lie down, and none shall make them afraid.” (Zeph. iii. 12, 13.)
1 See note, ch. ii. 20. 2 Euseb. Hist. Eccl. lib. iv. cap. xxvi.
The first Angel proclaims.
Chap. xiv. ver. 6, 7, 6 And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting Gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people,
7 Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him, for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.
The character of the true, faithful Christian Church, having been exhibited, its history now begins to be generally set forth ; while solemn warnings, and instructions, and encouragements, most useful to the faithful during the times of the beast, are delivered. And first, an angel, flying in mid-heaven, proclaims the Gospel, as an everlasting rule of faith and of conduct. It has been the endeavour of the antichristian powers to corrupt or secrete this Gospel, which is to lead all nations and languages to the knowledge and worship of the almighty Creator. So the progress of the Reformation seems here to be prefigured, which, from its first dawnings, ever appealed to the everlasting Gospel as the sole rule of faith, and preached the restoration of Gospel worship in opposition to the reigning impurities and superstitions.
Ver. 7. Judgment.] See note, ch. xi. 18. 1 See note, ch. viii. 13.
! Mahomet and his followers have corrupted,—the papal hierarchy have secreted it.
The second Angel proclaims.
CHAP. xiv. ver. 8.
8 And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nation's drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.
Another angel follows, proclaiming the fall of “ Babylon, that great city,” which had intoxicated, seduced, and corrupted the nations with her impure religion. This city, and her fall, will be more particularly represented in chapters xvii and xviii. It is sufficient in this place to observe, that this is one very formidable born of the second antichristian beast, the false prophet; the fall of which is here prophetically anticipated, for the comfort and encouragement of the suffering Church, engaged in opposing her. And the progress of the Reformation seems still to be generally described; for the purer Christians, the Albigenses and Valdenses, in the twelfth century, pronounced the church of Rome to be this very “ Babylon, the mother of harlots, and abominations of the earth.' From this discovery is to be dated the beginning of her fall.
i See Mede's Works, pp. 517, 722, &c. Thuan. Hist. lib. vi. cap. 16. Bishop Newton's Dissert. vol. iii. p. 258, 8vo.
The third Angel proclaims.
CHAP. xiv. ver. 9-12.
9 And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand,
10 The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture, into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone, in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb:
11 And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever; and they have no rest day nor night who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.
12 Here is the patience of the saints : here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.
A third angel proclaims just and eternal vengeance upon those who “ worship the beast;” who knowing their duty and their allegiance to God, sacrifice them to their worldly views and interests. They are threatened with “ the wine of the wrath of God;" the wine, which is at first strong of itself, unmixed, (akparov,) has no diluting liquor put to it to reduce its strength, as was common in the eastern nations of antiquity. But, secondly, it is κεκερασμενον, rendered still stronger by the mixture of powerful, intoxicating ingredients. (Compare Isa. li. 17-23; Psa. lxxv. 8.) " The Hebrew idea of which St. John expresses in Greek, with the utmost precision, though with a seeming contradiction in terms, KeKepaojevov akpatov, merum mixtum ; pure wine made yet stronger by a mixture of powerful