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Concludes with a Remark on a Pa may be very injurivus to his Patron, by per of his, intitled, A Discourse on In weakening that Principle upon which fidelity, fign'd SOCRATES (see p. 1071.) alone he seems to have any Credit with Whatever imaginary Deity he would be. A any Part of Mankind, and even with stow on Virtue and Morality, in Oppo Socrates himself. fition to the Principle of Self-Love, he is actually espousing the Cause of im

London Journal, Jan. 6. No. 706. morality, by destroying the natural and Of Tyranny, Anarchy, and Free Gogenuine Principle by which alone it

vernments.

B Dolizers of Power have fo debauch'd Individual proposes to himself, in the doing a virtuous and friendly Action, tions of human Nature, Morals, and be not the Motive upon which he acts, Politicks, that some celebrated Writers it's impossible any Principle should be have supposed Mankind so ill made, found in human Nature, upon which that they could not subsist without Morality can be fupported. It will c Subjection to Power. Anaroby, or the therefore be incumbent on him to State of Man without Government, prove, that “ the Concern which a they have represented as Chaos and friendly Man feels at the Misfortunes Confusion; and a State of Nature, as of one he has a Regard for, proceeds a continual War of every Man against from any other Motive, than the Plea every Man. Thus human Nature, sure he proposes to himself of being Truth, Justice, and the Honour of freed from the Uneasiness he feels on D God, are prostituted to the Support of Account of his Friend; and that the

arbitrary Power; altho'a State of NaRelief he gives him is not acting upon ture is infinitely preferable to Tyranny the Principle of Self-Love : Since, if and arbitrary Power. the Misfortunes of his Friend gave him A State of Nature is, where every no Uneasiness, he could have no Mo Man's allowed to do what he will with tive to relieve him.”

his own Person and Property, confifTo say, that a benevolent Man and E tent with other Men's; and those common a selfish Man are distine Characters, is Rights are so easily discerned, that the saying nothing. They are indeed di Indians live much better than Men unItinct in the Ellimation of Mankind, der any Tyranny and arbitrary Governand in Nature too, while the benevo ment. Their Virtue and Happiness are lent Man's Uneasiness is produced by owing to their being untaught by those the Rezard he has for his Friends, and F whose highest Interest it is to deceive the selfish Man's by the Regard he them. has for himjelf; but does this prove The great Inequality of Property is Self-Love is not the immediate Motive the Source of almost all Murders, Robof both their Actions ? Are they not beries, and other Vices among our. both prompted to Action from some selves; which the wiser and happier Uneasiness

, in the removing of which G Savages knowing nothing of, are blesa Good is proposed to each Individual ? sed with Security and Eafe : For, they The Cause of this Uneasiness is not naturally assent to that divine Truth, material. Socrates can't distinguish be- fufficient unto the Day is the Evil, and tween the immediate Spring of moral The Good thereof too ; every Man proAstions, which is the Desire of Good vides for himself and his Offspring, founded upon Uneafiness, and that H and, invading no Man's Property, is which produces this Uneasiness. When vaded by no Man; and they are he has thought of this, he will hardly content to die as they live, not worth burt his Head again in a Controversy, a Groat; when they have no Occahon which, in the Manner he conducts it, for it, they have no Occafion for Go,

vern.

vernment: For all Government owes its
Necessity to the Inequality of Property..

Universal Spectatoz, Jan. 6. No. 222.
They who have learnt to admire

Of ACTION.
the Power of Tyranny as Sacred and CTION is the Art of proper

A A

Gesture, expressing our Ideas and
Religion as Morals: Publick Good, in Conceptions in the most graceful and
their Apprehension, is as little the intelligible Manner; and deserves the
Measure of Government in the Uni clotest Application of a Performer. By
verse, as in the State. Omnipotence, this the Powers and Faculties of Na-
they think, would hardly be itself, was ture are taught to exert themselves in
it not at liberty to dispense with the B a proper and becoming Manner. Sup-
Laws of Equity, and change at Plea pose, for inftance, an Actor, by the
sure the Standard of moral Reétitude. poetical Justice of an Author, is in the

That Government only is just and fame Person and Play, obliged to per-
perfe&tly free, where there are no Laws sonate the different Parts of a King
but what relate to the Security of and a Begger. Before he can be Mlaf-
Person and Property ; where the Sub-C ter of the Action proper for each Per-
ject may do what he pleases with his sonage, he muft lay down certain Prin-
Person and Property, confiltently with ciples by which he is to govern him-
the Rights of others; and where there felf in the Representation : As thus :
is no Power but the Civil, where there He considers that the Person of a King
are no Laws but of a Civil Nature, is attended with Magnificence, Gran-
and those Laws the sianding Measure D deur, and Majesty ; his Speech wise,
of Government and Obedience; and grave, and solemn; his Deportment
where there is also a dernier Refort, or itately and majestick; and his Actions
real Power left in the Community to . great and heroic : But the fame Man
defend themselves against any Attack reduced to the calamitous Circumftan.
on their Liberties.

ces of a Begger, speaks, acts, and be.
The Government of England comes E haves in a Manner suitable to such a
the nearest to this Plan of any in the Condition. Thus, by a Propriety of
World. We have our Defects indeed; Gesture, the Actor will poffers the ve-
and one is, a Spiritual Power extend. ry Souls as well as the Eyes and Ears
ing to Men's Persons and Properties, of an Audience, and communicate to
illuing out Writs and Processes in its them the fame Fury and Pafíion by
own Name, by virtue of an Authority which he himself is agitated. The

F
which seemed diftinet from Civil. There * intelligent Actor considers the Gestures
Tould be no Power Spiritual, but that are proper to express that parti-
what relates to Spirits or Minds, such cular Species of Humour allotted him
as turning out disorderly Members ; by the Poet, enters upon it with a be-
and that should be without any conse coming Assurance, and performs it
quent Penalties relating to Body or E with that Life and Energy, that our
state.

G Eyes are apt to give our knowledge the
We have other Defects, such as be Lie, and almost to perswade us, that
ing unequally represented, the Ufelel that is real which we know to be Fic-
ness of some I.aws, the Unreasonable tion, Representation, and Nature at
ness of others, &c. But with all our second hand.
Defects, our Government is so good,
that it deserves to be well guarded.

The celly Miscellanp, Jan. 6. No. 4.
We should guard against the Growth of

On the Test Act

HE
Ecclefiaftical Power; but above all,

to
gainst Corruption in ourselves, by li desist from their attempt to get the Core
ving within our own Fortunes.

fora-

poration and Teft Aas repcaled ; but ciple advanced in a Paper pretended to
as they have only postpond their Defigns be written by a Friend of his Majesty,
the Author thinks proper to give it a viz. That the People are the Foun-
Place.

A tain of all Power and Authority ; (See
The common Question in all Com p. 950.) and then the Parliament being
panies is, Do the Dissenters go on with the Representatives of the People, all
their Design of petitioning the Parlia Applications ought to be made to them.
ment for a Repeal of the Corporation An uncommon Zeal for the Honour of
and Test Aa?] For my Part, says this Religion is another of their Pretences.
Writer, I could never think they had B For some Time they have been all fi-
any such Design. The Style of their lent about the Repeal, and now many
Resolutions and Writings shew the con of them think it an improper Time.
trary. For a Petition is always used in Why? Their Pamphlets allign Rea-
the Nature of a Prayer, and the Sub fons of Policy. If, as they affirm, the
ject Matter of a Prayer is some Favour. making the Sacrament a Teft, is pro-
But the Dissenters openly declare, that c faning and perverting the most folemn
what they mean to apply for, is not Act of Christian Worship, the Repeal
Matter of Favour, but of frict Juftice. of it ought not to be deferred upon any

What Methods they intend to use Consideration, because sinful in itself.
they best know (tho' History is not filent It has been juftly observed by the Aue
in this Point) but with respect to the thor of the Dispute adjusted, That they
Ministry they speak plainly, that unless offer'd a Clause a little after the Redia

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they will do them Juitice, they will op lution, that the receiving the Sacrament,
pose them at the next Election for in their own Meetings should be a Quali-
Members of Parliament. This is de- fication ; as if the Place occafion'd any
clar'd by way of Menace; as thinking Alteration in the Aition.
their Interest of such Consequence, We have lived with them inoffen-
that the Ministry dares, not disoblige fively for many Years ; they have en-
them. By these moderate Measures the E joyed their Opinions, and the Profes-
Constitution was over-turned in the fion of them uninterrupted and unen,
Reign of K. Charles I.

vied; even the Liberty of voting in
They would be thought to have a Elections for our Preachers; which is
particular Regard for his Majesty's Per a greater Instance of our Moderation
Ton, and Affection for his Government. than of their Modesly. From His Ma-
But they manifestly flight his Majesty's Fjelly they have met with as much
Person, and shew more Attachment to Grace and Favour as is consistent with
their own Interest than bis. In all their our Constitution; from our Conftitu-
late Meetings, and Pamphlets, no No tion as much Indulgence as the Legi.-

tice is taken of the King ; no Talk of lature thought safe to grant them :
addressing his Majesty, tho' this is a Yet so far are they from being thankful,

Point which immediately affects his that they accuse the Legislature of Ope
Majesty's Safety, as well as the In preffion; the Bishops and Clergy of
tereit of the Nation ; especially in mat Tyrannical Pride and Ambition ; the
ters of Religion, where the Supremacy whole Communion with the Want of
of the King is more peculiarly con. the Spirit of Religion, Honour, and
cerned ; and highly fitting it was, in Liberty; the whole World, who think
Reason and Decency, they should first Establishments and Disqualifications
have resolved upon addressing his Ma. H Jawful, of Bigotry and Self-Interest.
jesty concerning the Qualification of If by sober Arguinent they can new
his own Servants, on whose Integrity the Unlawfulness of all Disqualificati-
and Abilities so much depends. But ons, or this particular Teft, let them do
ihcir Conduct is agreeable to that Prin it; they have tried heretofore and were

foiled.

foiled. However, 'tis great Chance of the late K. James, who paid no but the Legislature will agree with Regard to the repeated Advices from the judicious Author of the Dispute France, concerning the Pr. of Orange's edj:yled, “That whenever the Tolera Designs, till the Prince declared it him• tion breaks in upon the Establish

A

self, and was ready to set Sail. ment, or the Ettablishment upon the As to K. James's Fleet lying Wind• Toleration, the Peace of this King bound in the Mouth of the Thames, dom will be at an End.'

when the Pr. of Orange fail'd by, its

doubted whether our Deliverer was not 'The Craft finan, Jan. 6. No. 340.

as much obliged to the Affections of Of the Navy and MIlitia.

B

the Officers and Seamen, who comON

N these two Bulwarks our Ance pos'd that Fleet, as to the Winds.

stors have safely rclied for inany But granting that some foreign Power Generations ; even during the long in the Interest of the Pretender should and bloody Wars between the Houies

conjure up a great naval Armament on of York and Lancaster, the Party that a Sudden, and steal it into England in a prevailid disbanded their Army, as dark Night, or by a favourable Wind, foon as the Action was over, and (corn' what are they to do? to secure themselves by a military Go “ The Cale then is thus, says Mr verrment.

Trenchard, that 20,000 Men, of which I suppose, says D'anvers, it will not few can be Horse, are landed in Engbe denied that we have at present the land, without any human Probability finest Navy, and the bravest Seamen of being supply'd from Abroad. This in the World; and I hope the former

D

Army shall never march 20 Miles into will not be suffer'd to decline, nor the the Country ; for they cannot put latter by being discourag'd or ill Ulage themselves in a marching Poiture in less be forc'd into foreign Service. But the than a Fortnight or 3 Weeks, by which common Method of Manning our Time we may have 100,000 Militia Fleets by Impressing, I am perswaded, drawn down upon them ; whereof is inconsistent with Magna Charta, the e 10,000 Mhall be Horse, and as ma. Rights of Englishmen, and of pernicious ny Dragoons as we please; and if this Consequence to Trade.

Militia does nothing but drive the Whilst we are able to keep up such Country, cut off their Foragers, and a naval Power, we shall easily maintain intercept Provisions, their Army mult the Sovereignty of the Seas, and safely be destroy'd in a short Time.” despise any Attempts from Abroad. F If then our Militia is backd only

But Mr Wallingham says there can with 5 or 6000 regular Troops, what be no absolute Dependance on a naval Danger can we apprehend from an InForce, to oppole or defeat an Invasion ; vasion! -- This was the Opinion of see p. 652. Vol. II.] Nobody can be the late D. of Marlborough, who deignorant that the necesary Preparati clared he would undertake to defeat any ons for such an Enterprize tahe

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Body of Men, which could be poi great deal of Time, and require such a fibly landed on us by Surprize, with Number of Ships, that all Europe must only his own Regiment of Guards, be alleep, if it should pass unobserved. two or three of Dragoons, and such a The Spanish Armada confiited but of Train of Artillery as he could easily 18,000 Men ; and K. William brought draw out ; whereas they could not

in 6 or 700 Ships ; so that bring any with them of Contequence; nothing but the moit egregious In nor stand long, having no fortify! dolence can expose us to such an At Towns to secure themselves. tempt, without some Warning and The Success of the Revolution was Time for Defence. This was the Case entirely owing to the Dilaffection

spread

lip a

H

but 14,000

с

{pread amongst all Ranks and Degrees The Difficulty is, in getting them of People.

disbanded, as Mr Gay observes : Militia are the natural, strongest and

Soldiers are perfect Devils in their way, [laxa most proper Defence of free Countries; When once they're rais’d, chey're cursed hard to and were always rely'd upon in Eng- A

The Daily Courant, Jan. 9. land, till the Reign of K. Charles II. Sir Robert Cotton, in his Advice to

Remarks on the Craftsman. , K. Charles I. lets him know how

the THE Inconfiftency of the Crafts People resented his keeping up an Army in the Winter ; tho' we were then in only compare his Journal of the 15th War both with France and Spain.

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of April last (see p. 701) with the When the D. of Alençon came to foregoing of the 6th Inftant. the Court of Q. Elizabeth, and for Supposing, as he affirms, that the some Time had admir'd the Riches of Militia were the only Forces made use the City, the Conduct of her Govern of in the Wars between the Houses of ment, and the Magnificence of her York and Lancaster; how does this Court, he ask'd her, amidst so much prove,

that our Ancestors relied wholSplendour, where were her Guards? ly on the Militia against an Invasion Pointing to the People, (who received of foreign regular Troops ? Or, supher in Crouds with repeated Acclama- posing the Militia in those Days, os tions) These said she, my Lord, are my even in the Reign of Q. Elizabeth, Guards. These have their Hands, were to be relied on against a foreign Hearts, and Purses always at my Com Invasion, will the Craftsman affert;

D mand,

that the Militia of these Days, (who, To this it has been objected by the he acknowledges, are good for nothing Hon. Gentleman and his Advocates, that but cramming their Guts) equals in the Circumstances of Affairs in Europe Bravery the Militia in those Reigns? are entirely alter'd in this Respect. But, says he, nothing can be more

This Alteration took place when absurd than to suppose that the Milimost of the free States of Europe were E tia can't be made useful; yet comconverted into absolute Monarchies. plains, that it's in vain to propose any Yet still in Holland and other free States Scheme of this Kind, whilst no Pains the inland Towns are defended by their are spared to make the Militia conMilitia and Burghers only.

temptible; tho' in the Paragraph just I would not be thought to mean, before, he had himself called them adds D'anvers, that our Militia are fit F « Men fit for no Service, besides cramto defend our Country or indeed for any ming their Guts at the Expence of Thing, besides furnishing the Town their industrious Fellow-Subjects. with a ridiculous Diversion, and cram Mr Tre is his great Oracle. ming their Guts at the Expence of their In the Quotation which Mr D'anvers industrious Fellow-Subjects. For this takes from him, two Things are to be Reason they are laid aside every where G observed; one, that Mr Trenchard but in Middlesex. See p. 208. Vol. I. supposes 20,000 regular Forces may be

But it's absurd to suppose that the landed upon us in a dark Night; the Militia cannot be made useful.-From other, that the 100,000 Militia are not whence is our present Army rais'd but supposed to have been made useful, but from the Budy of the People? Do's Men fit for no Service but tramming clapping a red Coat upon a Man's Back H their Guts: With which, no doubt, the make him a Soldier ? May not a great Nation would be better pleased than Part of the present Army when dif 18,000 regular Forces. For, suppose handed be incorporated into the Mi chele 20,coo regular Forces landed in

Scotland, what is to be done? Draw

down,

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