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peace of mind,) she repeated the following reign will pardon the sins I have committed extract from the celebrated Yagar-veda *:- by my will, by my memory, by my hand, by “ If he that is pure or not pure, in whatever my feet, by my breasts! * Eiyoh ! eiyoh ! trouble he may be, thinks upon him who has the world is dark—the sky has no sun- -why the eyes of Niluphart, he shall have peace, bast thou forsaken me? what evil bave I and be pure within and without.” Luchsmi done that thou leavest me at this untimely Sita bowed her head, and did not refuse the age? what did I leave undone ? who henceproffered food, although she appeared to take forward will take thought for me? woe is it without considering what she was doing. me!” In such pathetic and broken appeals After a short time, she slowly raised her sad did the wretched girl give way to her feelbut beautiful face, and looked enquiringly ings, sometimes breaking forth into violent at the old attendant, who immediately saw, screams, at others pouring forth torrents of by her change of countenance, that she was reproaches against the gods who, she said, recognised ; for a moment the poor girl stared had deprived her of all that she valued in the wildly, then rubbed her eyes to make sure world. Suddenly she became calm and silent, she was not dreaming, and dropping her and stood for some time as if considering; then hands listlessly by her side, looked down as turning to Maiya, who had tried unsuccessfulif trying to recollect herself; after a short ly every method of consolation, she enquired, pause, her wretched state appeared suddenly in a calm tone, the situation of the shooto Aash across her memory, and she burst dookadoof where the body of Madhoo Row forth in a tone of anguish and severe distress would be burnt, and having received a satis

_“ Narayana Nama (Vishnu preserve me), factory description, rushed out of the house. woe is me! what ashes have fallen upon my As the spot where this ceremony was to take head!—my eyes are dim. O, Marana Davi! I place was not far distant, she was soon there, why thus afflict my heart—my house is deso- with her beautiful dark hair flowing loosely late. In the name of God, and in the name about her person, her large bright eyes glarand for the feet of my Guruli, assist your ing with the wildness of despair. She rushed slave! Maiya, is it you? may your shadow through the crowd, apparently unconscious of never be less—may prosperity ever enter your what she was doing, and would have thrown door. Tell me, as you hope to enter Satyakolaş, herself upon the pile of her lover, which had tell me, dearest Maiya, that my brother-my already been burning some time, had she not poor mutilated brother, is safe.”

been restrained by the European police autho“ Praised be to Vishnu, dear Sita, Anun- rities. Such a sacrifice, no doubt, would have tya is safe; has even enquired after you, and been acceptable to the friends of Madhoo would have visited his sister, but the tongue Row, as it would have been considered a of unkindness whispered that admission into sufficient expiation for his sins; as it was, the Vaikuntha (or Paradise of Vishnu), would they were highly incensed by her intrusion, be denied, if he ventured to hold converse it being considered a bad omen, and perempwith—”

torily forbid that a woman should witness “ The impure, you would say, Maiya; the the burning of the dead; by some she was disgraced, one who has suffered expulsion from even cursed, as their anger was doubly exher caste, with whom no one will eat or offer cited by the knowledge that she was an outeven a drop of water, though she waste away cast, scorned by friends and relations, and like the Karssura. I Dust be upon my heart expelled from her caste. Such is the effect - may my tongue burn-I have spoken false; of the bigoted idolatry of the Hindoos. is there not Madhoo Row who resembles the When the wretched girl was foiled in this Chintamini, and possesses all good qualities. attempt to put an end to her sufferings, and Speak Maiya, tell me, let me hear that he is perform a sacrifice that would expiate the well—only say that he lives-one word-oh, sins of her lover, her mind and strength, gave Swami ! ** Swami! is it so ? Nama Siraya way, and she fell apparently lifeless near the (bail to Siva!)-my face has become black - blazing pile, where only the ashes of him woe is me! my breath is not to be borne. she had so faithfully loved in life remained. Hail, Kesava, may the sun, may the sove- The tale is told. A few days afterwards the

body of the unhappy girl was found in the * One of the daily prayers of the Hindoos.

Thir-Kolum, or sacred lake, near her own # He who has the eyes of Niluphar is Vishnu. old home.

Goddess of Death.
I Guru signifies Priest.

* Part of one of the prayers of the Hindoos. $ Paradise of Brahma, and signifying world of truth.

+ Exclamations invariably used by the Hindoos

when in grief or pain. Karssura is the lodian Camphire.

The name given to the piece of ground appropri. ** I.ord! Lord!

ated for the burning of the dead.



Jouam WOLFGANG GOETHE was, without nothing in him was assumed, or even modiexception, the most extraordinary writer of his fied relatively to others. Every thought and age; and, as such, we cannot refrain from word was stamped with his own strong indioffering our humble tribute to his memory. vidual nature or idiosyncrasy, and that idioTo develope the peculiarities of his genius, syncrasy, although peculiar, was intensely little understood in this country; to examine German. He was profound in knowledge, the design and character of the forty volumes in feeling; profound even in his imagination already published of his works, is no under- and wit; and if his writings unhappily too taking for us. The length of enquiry, and the often breathe an immoral or irreligious spirit, metaphysical discussion required in such a even these faults arose in him from conformtask, would be as unsuited to our pages, as ing to every impulse of his own nature, not some parts of his productions are unfit for from a desire to captivate the presumptuous or female perusal. But we do wish to endea- the vicious; and he may at least be acquitted vour briefly to give our readers some general of endeavouring to disseminate noxious prinidea of Goethe's peculiar and immense in- ciples. His own, bad and good, were the result fluence over the literature of his country; of deep, if ill-directed, study and meditation. an influence continuous through all his own Thus much as to Goethe's predisposition, Auctuations of views and opinions; and for as contra-distinguished from Voltaire's. Now this purpose we shall speak of some few as to his influence. particulars of his life, and of some of his Goethe found his countrymen, literate and leading works.

illiterate, enthralled by a blind admiration of In versatility of genius, supremacy of in- every thing French-French manners, French fluence, and prolonged enjoyment of such clothes, French books, French opinions, and influence, Goethe may be compared with even French words; for the German language Voltaire; but in all, except wil, he was im- was in those days scouted in Germany, as measurably his superior. If Voltaire wrote unfit for well-bred persons, and French was upon as many and as various subjects as

the universal medium of polite* intercourse, Goethe, he treated them all superficially, until French conquest wider Napoleon prowhilst the German was thoroughly master of duced a sudden and violent re-action. Deevery one upon which he touched, even the spite this Gallomania, Goethe, from the most scientific. The lively Frenchman, as moment he began to write, wrote in a spirit head of a school, long ruled, a despotic sove- as German as his language; and from that reign, over the tastes and opinions of his coun- moment, although French was still talked, trymen, and, through them, of Europe. But and worn, and mimicked, in the drawinghe had previously adopted the principles of the room, the library became essentially German. school which afterwards acknowledged him The circumstances of Goethe's birth were as its head, and that school has already dis- of all others those that might least have apseminated those principles: or, it might better peared to have promised a bold and original be said, the writers of that school found the genius. He was the son of a wealthy and French court and its imitators throughout respectable citizen of the free imperial city France, throughout Europe, profligate, .im- of Frankfort. These free imperial cities, such moral, and irreligious, not from erroneous as they had come down even to the nineteenth reasoning, but either from a wish to disbe- century from the middle ages, are now no lieve a future state of retributive justice, or from the vanity of assuming a superiority to

* This may be well exemplified by an anecdote, for vulgar prejudice; and these writers, swayed which we are indebted to an old lady who recollected perhaps by the same, especially the latter, the occurrence. Upon the presentation of a German

ambassadress to Queen Charlotte, her majesty, pleased motive in the path they chose, and seeing the

with an opportunity of speaking her native tougue, easiest road to literary success, gave a pre- addressed the presentée in German, and was answered tended philosophical sanction to the crude in French. Again the queen spoke German, again was infidel notions that had been idly sported. the royal interlocutor somewhat impatiently asked,

she answered in French ; and again, and again ; until Thus Voltaire ruled absolutely, because he Why do you answer me in a foreign language, when humoured and flattered the inclinations and

I speak to you in our own!" When the pattern of

German politeness replied, still in French, “ Your prejudices of his slaves.

Majesty knows we rever speak Gerinan in good conNothing of the kind applies to Goethe, for pany."

more. Another generation, and they and schoolmaster. We hold that to mediocrity their peculiarities will be altogether forgot only is superlative excellence of education ten. Nay, even in the present, few English important, and that the nascent master-spirit readers probably have any very distinct idea is merely cramped by incessant tuition. Itis the upon the subject, wherefore a word or two of rose-bush or the jessamine that needs the garexplanation may not be unacceptable. dener's care to prevent distortion, or prostra

The free imperial cities of Germany were so tion on the earth, the giant oak shoots straight many tiny republics, federally connected with up, heavenward, unfashioned, unnoticed even, the German, or, more properly, the Holy Ro- in his forest, until the strength of his stem, man Empire. As members of the empire, they and the luxuriant magnificence of his foliage, had voices in the deliberations of the Imperial attract universal admiration. Now we find Diet, at the assemblies of which they were enough in the scene of Goethe's childhood to represented by their deputies. As free states counteract the narrow views of his direct inthey were governed by elective municipal structors, and to explain at least one early officers, analogous to our mayors and alder- bias of his unind. men. But these republican towns were no Frankfort is rich in feudal recollections and scenes of anarchical liberty or democratic remains, both in matter and in form. There licence. They were ruled by an endless and are, or were, for we know not how much may inflexible code of laws. The civic magistrates, have survived the Holy Roman Empire, walls, of innumerable gradations, and the rich citi- and fortresses within fortresses, of the olden zens, from whose body they were chosen, held time. There resided the Frank monarchs of themselves as incalculably superior to the the Merovingian and Carlovingian dynasties; humbler classes of their undignified fellow- there was the Roemerburg where so many citizens, or subjects rather, as could the baron emperors had been crowned, and where, in of sixteen quarterings to the serf upon his his fifteenth year, Goethe witnessed the estate: and amongst themselves they stood solemn coronation of Joseph II. as king of as stiffly upon their respective ranks and pre- the Romans. Thither, too, did the yearly cedencies; they were as hopelessly shackled fairs bring the natives of distant eastern by the bonds of hereditary decorum, as all climes with their unwonted garb and rare the barons in the empire, with all their six- merchandise; who, on their arrival, were forteen quarterings together. Moreover these mally met and ushered into the city by a burgher dignitaries repaid with at least equal burgher cavalcade; the continuation of a contempt, and infinitely more aversion, the practice begun when merchants dared not contempt and aversion entertained for them move unescorted by warriors pledged for their by the nobles and petty princes, their imme- safety, and the free imperial city would addiate neighbours; so that in a very pretty mit no foreign escort within her domains. German novel (of which we unluckily forget We leave it to the reader to consider how the name, but think it was one of August much and how variously all this must have Lafontaine’s), the course of true love between stirred the imagination of the yet unconscious the son of a rural baron and the daughter of poet. Then for the gathering of knowledge a city bürgermeister, is yet more inveterately that should enrich, for the cultivating of thwarted by burgher than by feudal pride.

those faculties that should govern, a powerful Now it was in one of the better houses of imagination, Goethe's father took one very a city thus constituted, that Goethe, in the effective step. He was a stern man, a lawyer, year 1749, opened his eyes upon the dull who sought to make his son a lawyer, (how light dimly reflected from opposite walls, many poets by the way have been fugitives across a narrow street, through the small from the banners of law !) and he never pereasement windows of an old-fashioned room. mitted any thing once begun, however worthAnd in such a scene, amidst all the trammels less, not the most trivial book, to be laid aside of traditional formalities, of obstinate pre- unfinished. judice, unsoftened by general intercourse, Is there not in what we have said of Frankand afterwards amidst the pedantic routine fort enough to awaken a poetic mind? Is of an unimproved German university, did his there not an evident explanation of Goethe's mighty genius develope itself!

love for German antiquities, as also for OriDo we state this to make our hero a sort ental subjects? One word more in elucidaof miracle? By no means. Whilst we think tion of another peculiarity of his mind and much of the action of external and extrane- writings. Goethe appears to be deficient in ous circumstances upon the growing mir that peculiar reverential feeling towards we are no believers in the omnipotence of the women which has distinguished the German


or Gothic branch of the great human family, fate. Goethe himself had been in love (a from the days of Tacitus downwards. He fourth or fifth passion) with a betrothed never, with the almost single exception of Charlotte, and had moreover been seized Iphigenia, gives elevation of character to his with an inclination, all but irresistible, for

He paints them often sweet and self-slaughter. And it should seem that the good, sometimes impassioned, but never in- only way he could devise to save his own life, tellectual, never lofty in virtue or in vice; and was thus to satisfy his suicidal appetite by those whom he describes, we think, the most deputy, and kill himself, without pain or incon amore, are notable housewives. And in convenience, in the person of Werter. The confirmation of this opinion, we may quote a

novel is said to have instigated others to the little poem of his addressed to a friend who crime from which it preserved its author. had complained that he could not put How that may have been we know not, but Goethe's poems into his daughters' bands. this we know, Goethe, at twenty-two years The poet answers, were your daughters pro- of age, in the year 1771, by this publication perly employed, the one with the kitchen, an- at once founded a school; for Germany was other with the linen, the third with the forth with inundated with novels whose heroes garden, &c. the immorality of my poems and heroines, even when killing themselves, would be harmless, since they would not or otherwise yielding to temptations, were have time or wish to read them. Now too diligent in analysing their unbridled whence this un-German feeling as to women? passions and incurable sorrows to awaken a Goethe's first two loves were two low-born, very lively sympathy in any but metaphysical uneducated, but innocent girls.

readers, and the disease spread, though less We are now to speak of the influence of virulently, into France and England. Goethe's character upon his works, and of The next work that asks our notice, is that of his works upon the reading and writ- Goetz von Berlichingen, best known in Enging world; but, as we originally said, very land, we believe, as Goetz with the Iron shortly and generally.

Hand; the evident offspring of Frankfort asOf course every author writes according to sociations. The feudal times, since they had his character as well as according to his passed away, had been despised as coarse and opinions; but this does not describe the over- ignorant; but this vivid picture of their bold powering influence of an author's idiosyncrasy features and simple manners, of the forcible upon the creations of his genius, which the extinction of the Faustrecht, which the reader, Germans term subjectiveness, in opposition who deems“ fisty-cuff law” a vulgar translato objectiveness, or the natural impression of tion, may English as the law of the strongest, external objects upon the mind. The terms at once changed the current of opinion. Ritter are borrowed from grammar (the subjective spiele, and Ritterromane (Chivalry, Plays, and and objective cases), but may best be ex- Romances), forth with supplanted every other plained by examples. Shakspeare wrote style, save the philosophically sentimental objectively; we cannot, from the various cha- (for, be it observed, many of Goethe's schools racters he has delineated, guess at his own. managed to co-exist), and we have even Lord Byron wrote subjectively, stamping heard it whispered, that the bent of Sir every hero, and every scene he touched, with Walter Scott's genius was derived from Ironhis own temper, passions, and prejudices. Sanded Goetz. But Lord Byron's subjectiveness is self- Goethe now visited Italy, where his profound evident, by the uniformity of colouring it study and ardent admiration of ancient sculpgives his works. Goethe's, though quite as ture produced the fancy that all works of art, powerful, is not so immediately apparent, especially tragedies, should partake of the since the fluctuations of his feelings and tranquil character of the plastic art. In this opinions produced great variety in the style classic style he wrote Iphigenia in Aulis, a of his productions.

beautifully sentimental version of the old Goethe's first publication, at least of any story, well suited to the new view; and, in note, was Die Leiden des Jungen Werthers, the same tranquilly plastic fashion, he The Sorrows of Werter. It was always known moulded the unplastic, untranquil Italian that Werter was partly composed upon the frenzy of the poet of the south, Tasso, into a history of the author's friend, Jerusalem; drama. Forth with up started a classic school but not till the appearance of his Autobio- throughout Germany. graphy was it suspected that his own adven- Then came the much-admired Wilhelm tures and private feelings impelled him thus to Meister's Lehrjuhre, or Apprenticeship. This commemorate and idealise poor Jerusalem's novel has been translated, and the reader who recollects its incessant philosophical disquisi- the wild mysticism in question we see much tions upon all manner of subjects, scarcely in the few German novels that have lately interrupted by the slender thread of story, fallen in our way. connecting them, need hardly be told that it Here let us close this little sketch, for of possesses the tranquil plastic character. But Faust we would not speak. It founded no to this it superadded a novelty which founded school, -it could not,—for who should attempt another school. Here Goethe first, philoso- to imitate it? Besides, it so fearfully developes phically and poetically, portrayed the vicissi- the whole mind and character of its author ; tudes of the artist's life and his professional his depth of feeling, his abundance of knoweducation as a subject for romance, or novel ; ledge, his intellectual mastery, his extravaand Germany now swarms with artist-novels. gance of fancy, his richness of imagination,

We have been assured, that as he advanced and his cynicism; including that bitter satire in years, Goethe became religious. For his which too often springs from mental superiown sake we hope he did, and we incline to ority unsupported and unregulated by relibelieve it for two reasons. One is, that we gion, or hy high moral principle, that to say trust powerful minds are likely end by more of it than these few words, would adopting religious opinions; the other, that necessarily involve us in every thing we orisuch a change explains the wildness and ginally professed our resolution to avoid. mysticism pervading Wilhelm Meister's We must not, however, omit to mention, Wanderjahré, or Years of Travel. In Ger- ere we conclude, that Goethe's fame and many, be it observed, religion is mysticism. genius early gained him the friendship of the This continuation is as different as darkness (irand Duke of Weimar, which, happier from light, from the cheerful reality, the ac- than Voltaire, he never forfeited ; and with tive human nature, that charmed the fancy whom his influence was not limited to matin the Lehrjahre, despite its faults; and of ters of taste, literature, or even philosophy.


“Oh she loved the bold dragoons,
With their broad swords, saddles, bridles, &c."


“ She'll be a soldier too; she'll to the wars."


THERE was not a finer woman in Eng- But I knew her predilection for the “ dear land than my cousin Georgiana. She had delightful military,” and, therefore, to spare a dark eye and a white hand, a good figure, her the pain, and myself the mortification pretty ankle and well turned arm; and in consequent upon a refusal, I did not pop. consequence of the latter gift of nature, had Her admiration of the “ gallant defenders patronised Dizzi and Bochsa, until her per- of their country," as she called all the miliformance on the harp might have excited tary of her acquaintance, whether regulars, the admiration and envy of King David him- militia, volunteers, or yeomanry, was in fact self. When I add, that Georgiana possessed a passion. She talked of them, she dreamed a very respectable independent property, my of them, she lived but for them. Her inclireaders will, I am sure, place implicit cre- nation was evident in her conversation, in dence in my assertion, that, had I not been her costume, and more especially in the fitting aware of her positive determination never to up of her boudoir, where, in the place of marry a civilian, I should long since have puling love-sick poets, and pastoral valleys sought to convince her of the euphony of my sacred to love in cottages, battle-pieces and patronymic, and have used my best powers of grim-visaged warriors graced the walls. eloquence to induce her to change her maiden It was indeed the beau ideal of the boudenomination of Georgiana Dash wood, into doir of a colonel's lady, and such Georgiana the more musical and matronly one of Mrs. hoped one day to see it. Consequently, her George Frederick Augustus Higginbottom. flirtations were innumerable and incessant;

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