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White is not more contrary to black, nor heat to cold, than Chrysostom's interpretation. It is this : “Their souls shall not be annihilated : their being shall be preserved; but it shall be preserved in fire, the fire of hell.” Whether this explication be the true one, is of no importance to my present argument. It is directly opposed to the popish interpretation, and that is enough.
In the preceding letter I have also said, that Auricular Confession must have been unknown to Chrysostom. In his admirable Treatise on the Priesthood, be discusses at large the various duties of a Priest, and the difficulties to which he is exposed. In the fourth chapter of the sixth book, speaking of these duties and difficulties, he says. “Of the sins which are committed, not a thousandth part can become known to him; for how can he be , acquainted with their sins, to whose faces, for the most part, he is an utter stranger ?” In one of his discourses against the Anomæan Heretics, (I think it is the fifth,) he states the same thing, and he states it at greater length. It is well known, that in every Roman Catholic congregation every man, every woman, and every child, after a certain age, confesses regularly to a Priest. If this had been done in the time of Chrysostom, I think it is impossible that he could have written such a sentence. Let it be observed, that he did not write it after he became a Bishop, but when he was a young man; and that he is not speaking of the duties which attach to the Bishop of a Diocese, but of the duties of a Priest.
Some of the Fathers ascribe a priority, and a precedency, to the Church of Rome. The Papists eagerly grasp at this, but it does not much avail them. Irenæus, who was one of the most ancient Fathers, says that the Church of Rome ought to take the lead, but unluckily he gives the reasons. These reasons are not the same as those, or, rather, as that one grand reason, which the Roman Church now alleges. A Council was held in Constanttinople, shortly after the famous Council in 381. In this it was decreed, that the Roman Church should take precedence of the other Churches. But the circumstance of its being then decreed, evinces that it was not established before. Soon after this period, Gregory wrote a long Poem, containing the history of his life. We there find him speaking of the superior rank and au hority of the Church of Rome. Our concern however, is not with the rank, but with the doctrines which it held in the fourth century. The reader should ever bear in mind, that both Chrysostom and Gregory were orthodox Prelates of the Church, as it existed in that century. Let him also remember, that the Church of Rome holds every one of her doctrines to be equally essential. If, then, we could prove that any one of her doctrines was un known to the primitive Church, it would be sufficient to annihilate her pretentions.
In my Letter, I have mentioned that Gregory excludes from the sacred Canon all the books which we reject. Besides them, however, he rejects two more. He entirely omits the Apocalypse; and if my memory be accurate, he omits the book of Esther: He concludes his catalogue with this line,
Ει τις δε τετων εκτος, ουκ εν γνησιους. “But if there be any book beside these, it is not among the genuine."
The Apocalypse was rejected, not only by Gregory, but by other eminent writers of the fourth age; and yet it was recognized by some of the earliest Fathers. Its subsequent rejection was, probably, owing to these two causes : Ist, the great difficulty. of comprehending it; 2dly, the improper use which was made of it. If the Revelation of St. John contain an abstract of the history of the Church, from his time to the consummation of all, things, it must have been far more difficult to understand in the second and third centuries, than it is at present. Perhaps this circumstance, together with the love of allegorizing which then prevailed, gave birth to the wild and extravagant interpretations with which the world was deluged.
Some years ago, I met with a curious instance in Methodius Banquet of Virgins. One of the prophetic numbers, (I think it is the 1260 days,) is explained to mean the doctrine of the Trinity! It was probably owing to such interpretations, and to the difficulty of the book itself, that some well-meaning, but too hasty Christians, rejected the Apocalypse altogether. July 23d, 1822
H. S. Boyd.
Religious and Missionary Intelligence.
WYANDOTT MISSION. To the Rev. Thomas Masón, Corresponding Secretary of ihe " Missionary Society of
the Methodist Episcopal Church.” REV. AND DEAR SIR,
Being persuaded that I could render more effectual service; by visiting the frontier settlements in the Western Country, and especially the Indian Mission, than by continuing my tour to the north, I availed myself of the company of the preachers from the Baltimore Conference, who were going west of the mountains, and accordingly set out with them; having no one to travel with me, and my afflictions rendering it improper for me to travel alone.
I reached the state of Ohio on a lame horse, unfit to carry me farther. However, a worthy friend, Brother John Davenport of Barnesville, furnished a horse, took the expense of the journey on himself, and accompanied me to the Mission and back to New-Lancaster, a journey of about three weeks.
Our Missionary establishment is at Upper-Sandusky, in the large national reserve of the Wyandott tribe of Indians, which contains 147,840 acres of land; being in extent something more than nineteen miles from east to west, and twelve miles from north to south. Through the whole extent of this tract; the Sandusky winds its course, receiving several beautiful streams. This fine tract; Vol. VI.
with another reservation of five miles square at the Big-Spring, head of Blanchard's river, is all the soil that remains to the Wyandotts, once the proprietors of an extensive tract of country. The Mission at Upper-Sandusky is about sixty. five or seventy miles north of Columbus, the seat of government of Ohio. To the old Indian boundary line, which is about half way, the country is pretty well improved. From thence to the Wyandott reserve, the population is thinly scattered, the lands having been but lately surveyed and brought into market.
On Saturday the 21st of June, about ten o'clock in the morning, we arrived safe, and found the Mission family and the School all in good health ; but was much fatigued myself through affliction and warm weather, which was quite oppressive to me in crossing over the celebrated Sandusky Plains, through which the road lies.
In the afternoon we commenced visiting the Schools, and repeated our visits frequently during the five days which we staid with them. These visits were highly gratifying to us, and they afforded us an opportunity of observing the behaviour of the children, both in and out of School, their improvement in learning, and the whole order and management of the school; together with the proficiency of the boys in agriculture, and of the girls in the various domestic arts. They are sewing and spinning handsomely, and would be weaving if they had looms. The children are cleanly, chaste in their manners, kind to each other, peaceable and friendly to all. They promptly obey orders, and do their work cheerfully without any objection or murmur. They are regular in their attendance on family devotion and the public worship of God, and sing delightfully. Their proficiency in learning was gratifying to us, and is well spoken of by visitors. If they do not sufficiently understand what they read, it is for the want of suitable books, especially a translation of English words, lessons, hymns, &c. into their own tongue.
But the change which has been wrought among the adult Indians, is wonderful! This people," that walked in darkness have seen a great light,--they that dwelt in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined.”— And they have been “called from darkness into the marvellous light” of the gospel. To estimate correctly the conversion of these Indians from heathenish darkness, it should be remembered that the Friends (or Quakers) were the first to prepare them in some degree for the introduction of the Gospel, by patiently continuing to counsel them, and to afford them pecuniary aid.
The first successful Missionary that appeared among them, was Mr. Stewart, a coloured man, and a member of our Church. The state of these Indians is thus described by him, in a letter to a friend, dated in June last.
“ The situation of the Wyandott nation of Indians when I first arrived among them, near six years ago, may be judged of from their manner of living. Some of their houses were made of small poles, and covered with bark; others of bark altogether. Their farms contained from about two acres to less than balf
The women did nearly all the work that was done. They had as many as two ploughs in the nation, but these were seldom used. In a word they were really in a savage state.”
But now they are building hewed log houses, with brick chimneys, cultivating their lands, and successfully adopting the various agricultural arts. They now manifest a relish for, and begin to enjoy the benefits of, civilization; and it is probable that some of them will, this year, raise an ample support for their families, from the produce of their farms.
There are more than two hundred of them who have renounced heathenism and embraced the Christian Religion, giving unequivocal evidence of their sin. cerity, of the reality of a divine change. Our Missionaries have taken them under their pastoral care as probationers for membership in our church ; and are engaged in instructing them in the doctrine and duties of our holy religion ; though the various duties of the Missionaries prevent them from devoting sufficient time for the instruction of these inquirers after truth. But the Lord hath mercifully provided helpers, in the conversion of several of the interpreters and a majority of the chiefs of the nation. The interpreters feeling themselves the force of divine truth, and entering more readily into the plan of the Gospel, are much more efficient organs for communicating instruction to the Indians. Some of these chiefs are men of sound judgment and strong penetrating minds; and having been more particularly instructed, have made great proficiency in the knowledge of God and of divine truths; and being very zealous, they render important assistance in the good work. The regularity of conduct, the solemnity
and devotion of this people, in time of divine service, of which I witnessed a pleasing example, is rarely exceeded in our own worshipping assemblies.
To the labours and influence of these great men, the chiefs, may also in some degree be attributed the good conduct of the children in School. Three of the chiefs officiate in the school as a committee to preserve good order and obedience among the children. I am told that Between-the-logs, the principal speaker, has lectured the School children in a very able and impressive manner, on the design and benefit of the school, attention to their studies and obedience to their teachers. This excellent man is also a very zealous and a useful preacher of righteousness. He has, in conjunction with others of the tribe, lately visited a neighbouring nation, and met with encouragement.
On the third day after our arrival, we dined with Between-the-logs and about twenty of their principal men, six of whom were chiefs, and three interpreters; and were very agreeably and comfortably entertained. After dinner we were all comfortably seated, a few of us on benches, the rest on the grass, under a pleasant grove of shady oaks, and spent about two hours in council. I requested them to give us their views of the state of the School; to inform us without reserve of any objections they might have to the order and management thereof, and to suggest any alteration they might wish. I also desired to know how their nation liked our religion, and how those who had embraced it were prospering?
Their reply was appropriate, impressive and dignified, embracing distinctly every particular in quiry, and in the order they were proposed to them. The substance of their reply was, that they thought the school was in a good state and very prosperous; were perfectly satisfied with its order and management, pleased with the superintendent and teachers, and gratified with the improvement of the children. It was their anxious wish for its permanence and success. They gave a pleasing account of those who had embraced religion, as to their moral conduct and inoffensive behaviour, and attention to their religious duties. They heartily approved of the religion they bad embraced, and were highly pleased 'with the great and effectual reformation which had taken place among them.
In the close they expressed the high obligations they were under to all their kind friends and benefactors; and in a very respectful and feeling manner thanked their visitors, and the superintendent and teachers for their kind attention to themselves and to their children ; and concluded with a devout wish for the prosperity and eternal happiness of them and all their kind friends. It was an affecting scene; and tears bespoke their sincerity.
In this School there are Indian children sent to it from Canada. Others which were lately sent, were detained and taken into another School, at the rapids of Maumee, under the direction of the Presbyterians. An apology was written by the superintendent thereof to ours, stating that the detention was made on the presumption that our School was full, &c.
When we reflect upon the state of the Wyandotts, compared with their former savage condition, we may surely exclaim, “What hath God wrought!" “ The parched grouvd hath become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water, the wilderness and the solitary place is made glad, and the desert blossoms as the rose.” The marks of a genuine work of grace among these sons of the forest, accords so perfectly' with the bistory of the great revivals of religion in all ages of the church, that no doubt remains of its being the work of God.
That a great and effectual door is opened on our frontier, for the preaching of the Gospel to the Indian nations which border thereon, and that we are providentially called to the work, I have no doubt. The only question is,- Are we prepared to obey the call? The success of our Missionary labours does not depend on the interference of miraculous power, as in the case of the apostles, but on the ordinary operations and influences of the Holy Spirit, through the instrumentality of a Gospel Ministry, supported by the liberality of a generous people.
We have lately received an invitation from a distinguished officer of the Government, to extend our Missionary labours to a distant nation of Indians. A gentleman of this state who has visited New-Orleans has taken a deep interest in its favour; and from the great increase of population from other states, and the great probability of doing good at least among them, he urges another attempt. And from his influence, his ability and disposition to minister to its support, we entertain a hope of success.
From a general view of our Missions, and of what the Lord is doing by us, we certainly have abundant cause to "thank God and take courage,” and to perseyere faithfully and diligently in the great work; looking to the Great Head of the Church, that He may bless our labours and crown them with success. Yours in the bonds of the Gospel of peace,
WILLIAM MʻKENDREE. Chillicothe, Ohio, August 13, 1823.
Extract of a letter from Johą Johnston, Esq. Agent for Indian Affairs, to Bishop
Dated Upper-Sandusky, Aug. 23, 1823. 'I have just closed a visit of several days, in attending to the state of the Indians at this place, and have had frequent opportunities of examining the progress and condition of the School and Mission, under the management of the Rev. James B. Finley. The buildings and improvements of the establishment, are substantial and extensive ; and do this gentleman great credit. The farm is under excellent fence, and in fine order; comprising about one hundred and forty acres, in pasture, corn and yegetables. There are about 5fty acres in corn, which, from present appearances, will yield three thousand bushels. It is by much the finest crop I haye şeen this year-has been well worked, and is clear of grass and weeds. There are twelve acres in potatoes, cabbages, turnips and garden. Sixty children belong to the school, of which number fifty-one are Indians. These children are boarded and lodged at the Mission-House. They are orderly and attentive; comprising every class, from the alphabet to readers in the Bible. I am told by the teacher, that they are apt in learning, and that he is entirely satisfied with the progress they have made. They attend with the family regularly to the duties of religion. The Meeting-House, on the sabbath, iş numerously and devoutly attended. A better congregation in behaviour, I have not beheld: and I believe there can be no doubt, that there are very many persons, of both sexes, in the Wyandott nation, who have experienced the saving effects of the Gospel upon their minds. Many of the Indians, are now settling on farms, and have comfortable houses and large fields. A spirit of order, industry and improvement, appears to prevail, with that part of the nation which has embraced christianity; and this constitutes a full half of the whole population,
I do not pretend to offer any opinion here, on the practicability of civilizing the Indians under the present arrangements of the government :-But, having spent a considerable portion of my life, in managing this description of people, I am free to declare, that the prospect of success here is greater than I have ever before witnessed—that this mission is ably and faithfully conducted, and bas the strongest claims upon the countenance and support of the Methodist Church, as well as the Christian public at large.
I am authorized and requested, by this nation in council, to present to the Conference, and through them, to the members of the Church, their thanks for the aid and assistance rendered unto them, by the Mission-Family, in their spiritual and temporal affairs. From personal observation, together with the opinion of the sub-agent and interpreters, I am induced to request, that the Conference will be pleased to continue Mr. Finley and family in the superintendence of the School and Mission. Let it not be believed, that I make this request, from any partiality, favour or affection. It arises from a conviction of his qụalifica tions for the duty. I am, &c. &c.
JOHN JOHNSTON, Agent for Indian Affairs
ACCOUNT OF A CAMP, MEETING ON THE OGEECHEE DISTRICT.
Washington, Wilkes Co. Ga. Aug. 21, 1825, DEAR BRETHREN,
On the 25th ult. I had a camp-meeting at Tabernacle in Abbeville Çt. SouthCarolina, which was graciously owned and blessed of God. We had quite a large encampment and many souls attended on the occasion. On the first night of the meeting the work of the Lord commenced and continued to increase during