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thrown off, in order to renovate the air by its union with the nitrogen rejected by animal respiration. They also absorb hy. drogen from water, and disengage the oxygen, which is attended with the beneficial effect just mentioned. The whole of the oxygen, however, is not given out by vegetables, but part is retained, which, together with carbon and hydrogen, forms sugar, oil, wax, gum, &c. The upper side of the leaf is the organ of respiration; hence some plants, which close the upper surfaces of their leaves during the night, give out oxygen only in the day. In addition to the usefuhess of vegetables for the renovation of the atmosphere, many insects assist in the accomplishment of the same purpose, and convert to their own support such substances as, by the exhalation of their putrid miasmata, would in time destroy the whole animal creation. So wonderfully is the balance kept up, that the air of the most crowded cities has been found to contain as much oxygen gas as that of other places. .In general, bodies contract, and become of greater specific gravity, in cooling; but water affords a remarkable exception: for it actually becomes increased in bulk, and its specific gravity continues to lessen, as it cools. Ice is lighter than water, partly owing to air-bubbles produced in it while freezing ; but it has been supposed, that the increase of bulk is owing to a different arrangement of its particles, ice being a chrystallization composed of filaments, which are found to be uniformly joined at a particular angle, and by this disposition occupy a greater volume than if they were parallel. Were water subjected to the usual law of nature, it would have sunk as it froze, and the beds of rivers would have been congealed; but by swimming upon the surface, the ice preserves a vast body of caloric in the subjacent fluid from the effects of the cold. It is equally worthy of notice, that the upper stratum of water in rivers and lakes, by giving out caloric to the currents of cold air passing over them, becomes, in consequence of the arrangernent just mentioned, of greater specific gravity than the substratum, and therefore sinks; and this occasions the rise of a portion of warmer water, which gives out its caloric in like manner, and this. constant circulation very much contributes to moderate the rigour of winter throughout the temperate zones. In the ocean, and other deep bodies of water, this circulation goes on for a considerable time, and an immense quantity of caloric is thus thrown into the atmosphere: but, apparently in order to preserve the creatures which inhabit this element, its specific gravity no longer increases by the further diminution of its temperature when the whole mass arrives at about 42 degrees of Fahrenheit, and the circulation of which we have been speaking entirely ceases. Though fresh water freezes when reduced to the temperature of 32 degrees, sea water does not freeze till cooled down to about 28 degrees, which may have been designed in order to keep the ocean open at all seasons. If snow be placed before a fire, it will

Vol. I.

receive no increase of temperature till the whole of it is melted, though it has an accession of caloric, which is necessary to give it fluidity: if this were not the case, whenever the atmosphere becomes warmer than 32 degrees, the ice and snow would be melted in an instant, and all cold countries would be subject to dreadful inundations.

“A confined body of air being a non-conductor of caloric, the advantage of snow, as a covering for the earth in winter, is owing to its being so lightly spread as to hold an abundance of air within its interstices, and to preserve the warmth of the vegetable world.

“There are many striking facts relating to the earth, alkalies, and metals, a few of which I shall mention.

“Phosphate of lime, which is .a salt composed of phosphoric acid and lime, and is one of the chief ingredients in bones, is found also in milk, and assists in the formation of bones in the young animal; but after its bones are sufficiently strengthened, the milk of the mother loses this property : so that, in this instance, there not only appears to be a provision, but that provision is withdrawn when there is no longer any use for it. This salt is also found in the eggs of birds, though not in all other shells, evidently for a similar reason; and likewise in the farina of wheat, while the straw, which was not intended for food, contains carbonate of lime only.

“ Animal bile contains soda, which is an alkali, and therefore combines with the oily substances taken into the stomach, and renders them soluble.

“ To the principle of caloric, metals owe their malleability and ductility; for in very intense artificial colds the most ductile metals, such as gold, silver, and lead, lose their malleability, and become brittle. To show likewise with what inconvenience a small deviation from the order of nature would be attended, it may be remarked, that caloric is one of the weakest of all known affinities; and it is owing to this circumstance that organized bodies have no difficulty in separating a sufficient portion from the substances around them, and securing to themselves the quantity necessary for their wants.

“I cannot conclude this paper without observing, that the sim- , ple or elementary bodies of which the world is formed, and which give rise to such an infinite variety of objects around us, are very few, in number; and if we reflect on the indestructibility of matter, and its perpetual changes into new and endless combinations, we cannot but admire the beauty and economy of nature, and adore the wisdom as well as the power of the Creator.

- “F. S."



(Continued from page 29.)
To Mr. George Mair, a Methodist preacher.


. Your favour of the 10th of April, I had the pleasure of receiving yesterday. The regard you express for me, merits my thanks; and be assured your piety and zeal have gained you my affection. I fervently pray that you may be the peculiar object of the love of God; that yourself and family may be blessed with his spiritual and temporal favours; that you may never be “weary in well-doing ;" that you may daily behold an increase of success of your “labours of love ;” and that in due season, you may shine as a star of the first magnitude, in the celestial regions, because you shall have been instrumental in turning many persons from the commission of vice, to the practice of virtue!

0! the bright, the dazzling prospects the faithful servants of God have before them, when they look beyond the things of time and sense. Let a due respect to the “recompence of reward" of the faithful; a sense of the love of Christ towards us, and of the importance of the souls of men, cause us to be animated, with new zeal, to promote the interests of religion; occasion us to disregard the reproaches of the unrighteous; and with resignation and patience, bear whatever cross, God, in his good providence, may suffer to be laid upon us.

You mention you have lately had some severe condicts with the powers of darkness, and who is without such trials among the righteous ? But, happily, you have been preserved from destrue. . tion; you have experienced the all-sufficiency of the grace of

God, for your comfort and safety. I praise the Lord that he hath been a “present help to you in time of trouble." Doubtless, in future, you will hereby be emboldened, whatever temptations or afflictions you may be exercised with, to “trust in the Lord Jehovah,” as “in him there is everlasting strength.” And, for your peace and safety, in time to come, you will, I conclude, if possible, be more observant of the apostolic injunction, to “ quench not the Spirit, and to pray without ceasing.” Our security and joy depend much on our duty regarding these words of wisdom and friendship of saint Paul.

May God, in his mercy, grant that both of us may be more cireumspect in all our ways; “ redeem the time,” we may yet be favoured with ; enjoy much of the divine presence ; glorify the Almighty on earth, and be glorified by him in Heaven.

Heaven ! pleasing word! blessed place! The habitation of the righteous. Though we meet not again here, there, even there, I trust, we shall embrace each other never more to part. Delightful idea! Let it solace the soul. Let it give us that happiness we are deprived of through our separation from each other.

I do not regret the countenance I have shewn the Methodists; nor shall I cease to be friendly towards them, as I am persuaded they are instrumental in advancing the divine glory, and the salvation of mankind.

I have not yet received the pamphlet written by the Rev. Mr. Knox; though I expect to be favoured with it by Mr. Roe, in a few days. ' Ever shall I be happy to hear from you, and with punctuality and pleasure, answer your letters. Believe me to be,

Dear Sir,

Your sincere friend,

And very humble servant, Newtown, 10th July, 1783.


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To Lucas Van Beverhoudt, Esq. at Beverwyck, Morris caunty. ..
DEAR AND Worthy Sir,

Two days ago I had the pleasure of receiving your favour of the 5th instant.

It gave me very sensible happiness to be informed therein, that my letter and pamphlet were acceptable to you, and that God, indeed, of his infinite mercy, hath made you truly sensible of your undone state, through sin, and caused you to perceive the necessity of fleeing to Jesus, by repentance and faith, as to a city of refuge, that through the atonement of his blood, you may escape the condemnatory sentence of the divine law.

Happy escape this truly, if through the grace of God, we shall be enabled to effect it. And of this, never let us indulge a moment's despair; as, in the language of Saint Paul, Rom. viii. 32, “ He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, will also freely give us all things ;''--not only, I presume, “ali things,” which pertain to that glory and happiness Christ hath purchased for us; but, likewise, every thing which shall be necessary to assist us in obtaining a saving interest in the benefits of his passion.

Many are the gracious promises in the sacred writings, to hum-, ble penitents, or those who wish to devote themselves to the service of God. We are assured, for instance, that the “broken and contrite heart shall not be despised,” by the Lord of compassion; Psalms li. 17, That “the high and lofty one who inhabiteth eternity, whose name is holy; who dwelleth in the high and holy

place, will dwell also with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit; to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones." Isaiah lvii. 15. “A bruised reed Christ will not break, and smoaking flax he will not quench, till he send forth judgment unto victory.” Matt. xii. 20. Our Lord, in mercy, declares to us, that such as “ mourn” for their sins, shall be “comforted,” Matt. v '4; and that those who hunger and thirst after righteousness shall be filled," ibid. v. 6. To name no more places, Saint James, chap. v. 7, 8, informs us, that if “we resist the devil, be will flee from us; and if we draw nigh to God, he will draw nigh to us." '.

We cannot but have observed, I trust, that it is our duty to " draw nigh to God," for his spiritual favours, before we can reasonably expect the enjoyment of them; as the Almighty mentions he will be “inquired of by us,” for the communication of heavenly blessings. Ezek. xxxvi. 37. And we have not the promise that we shall “ have” any of God's favours, unless we shall “ask” for them; that we shall “ find” his mercy until we “ seek" it. Matt. vii. 7. And for our encouragement to approach God by supplication, we are assured, by our Saviour, that “all things whatsoever we shall ask in prayer, believing, we shall receive.” Matt. xxi. 22. That whatever we shall ask in his name, he will do it.” John xiv. 14. And, saith Saint James, “If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not, and it shall be given him," chap. i. 5.

As in our spiritual warfare we have numerous foes to encounter; we fighting, or “ wrestling, not against flesh and blood only, but against principalities; against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, and spiritual wickedness in high places;" Eph. vi. 12, not any thing can be of greater consequence than for us frequently to approach the Almighty for his aid, in all those ways, which, in condescending goodness, he hath prescribed to us; particularly by prayer, and in the holy sacrament of the Lord's Supper. These are means of grace which are extremely efficacious, as I myself can testify from the experience of more than twenty years; and whoever neglects these means, not only sins against Ciod, but also his own soul.. The apostle Paul enjoins us to pray, even without ceasing," 1 Thess. v. 17; that is, not only to appoint to ourselves certain stated times of prayer each day, but by frequent ejaculatory addresses to God, to preserve in us, at all seasons, the spirit of devotion: And the holy apostle mentions prayer as a part of the Christian's armour, Eph. v. 13, &c. which is necessary for the soldier of Christ to be invested with, if he would be successful in his conflict with sin and Satan; receive of God “the palm of victory and crown of glory which fade not away." Rev. vii. 9. 1 Pet. v. 4.

Obstacles and impediments, my dear sir, you must expect to meet with in the path of salvation; but by an holy and incessant,

ally; and un let him And, saithe shall askus,

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