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cuum;" Mr Stokes.—Colonel Everest — M.

StbuveLatest Measures of the Earth. M. Fou-

CAULT's Pendulum Experiment page 850

§ 6. M. Encke. Cometary Astronomy-Periodic Comets
of Halley and Encke. Gambabt's and Bicla's Co-

metComets of 1811 and 1843.—Mr HindNew

Planets or Asteroids. Mr LassellNewly disco-

vered Satellites. Mr Bond page 855

§ 6. Sidereal Astronomy since 1820.—M. STBDvE—
Double Stars. Observatories of Dorpat and Pulkowa.
Sir John HebschelOrbits of Double Stars. Mag-
nitudes of Stars. Variable Stars. Earl Of Rosse
Bis Telescopes. Nebula). Hendebson and Bes-

Sel—Parallax of Stars page 861

S 1. Watt.Condition of Practical Mechanics previous

to the time of Watt. Bis genius for the application

of Science to Practice. His successive Improvements

on the Steam-Engine. Steam Navigation page 865

§ 2. RoBISon.—Application of Statical Principles to
Engineeringespecially to practical Masonry. Cou-
Lomb.Friction—Force of Torsion Page 870

§ 3. Thomas YoungStrength of Materials, and Art

of Construction (continued).—TELFoBd—Introduc-

tion of Iron into permanent Structures. Suspension

Bridges—Tredgold; Mr Hodgkinson; M. Navier.—
Mr Robert Stephenson— Tubular Bridges....page 874

§ 4. Sir M. I. Brunei,.Self-acting Machinery.Thames

Tunnel.—Mr Babbage's Calculating Engines...^age 878

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§ 6. Trevithick.George Stephenson.The Loco-

motive Steam-Engine.Site and Progress of Rail-

ways.—M. de Pambour on Locomotives P"ge

§ 6. Bydrodynamics—Dubuat, Ventuei, Professor
Stokes.Friction and Sesistance of Fluids.—MM.
Webeb, Mr Scott Russell Propagation of
Waves. Their influence on Canal Navigation.—MM.

Fourneybon and PonceletImproved Hydraulic

Machines; Turbine. Reference to the subject of Capil-

lary Attraction page

§ 7. Progress of Acoustics. Chladni SavabtLa-
place's Correction of the Theory of Sound. Vibrating

Plates and Acoustic Figures. Cagniard de la Tour's

« Sirine." P"ge 891

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§ 1. Thomas Young.The Undulatory Theory of Light.
Ite HUtory from the time of Hoohe and Huygens
The Law of Interference.It* application to Diffrac-
tionto the Rainbowand to other subjects.The
Theory of Polarization referred to another section.. .page 893

§ 2. MalUs.—Discovery of the Polarization of Light by

Reflection.Early HUtory of Double Refraction and

Polarization page 901

§ 3. Fresnel.—77w Undulatory Theory of Light con-
tinued.Diffraction.Transverse Vibration*; Young.
Polarization and Double Refraction explained.
Lighthouse Illumination page 903

§ 4. Abago.Short Account of hi* Scientific CareerHe

ducover* the Colour* of Polarised LightLaw* and

Theory of Depolarization; M. Biot; Young; Fres-

nel.—Non-interference of oppositely Polarized Ray*

Rotatory Action of Quartz.—H. Foucault's Experi-

ment on the Velocity of Light page 907

§ 1. Black.Latent and Specific Heat.—Irvine.—Hut-
ton.—Doctrine* of Heat applied to some Natural Phe-
nomena page 925

§ 2. Cavendish.—His Singular Character and Attain-
mentsEminent Chemical DiscoveriesObservations
on Heat and on other Branches of Physic*.Lavoi-
SierThe CalorimeterTheory of Combustion and of
Oxidation page 928

§ 3. I)ALTon.— Theory of Oases and Vapour*Law of
Expansion by Heat—Atomic Theory of Chemistry.
Gay Lussac page 933

§ 4. RUMFoUd.—Economical applications of Heat—Point
of Maximum Density of Water; Hope.—Friction as a
source of Heat. Theory that Heat is convertible into
Mechanical Energy; Mr Joule page 940

§ S. Sir John Leslie.Establishment of certain Laws

of Radiant Heat.—Pictet.—Prevost page 942

§ 5. Sib David BrewsterProgrett of Experimental
Optic*Law* of PolarizationDouble Refraction pro-
duced by Heat and CompressionDiscovery of Biaxal
Crystal*Laws of Metallic ReflectionAbsorption of
Light; and Lines of the Solar Spectrum; Fraun-

Uofeb.—Seebeck; M-BloT page 911

§ 6. Mr Aibt, Sir William R. Hamilton, and Profes-

sors LLoYd and Maccullagh.Confirmation of

FresneV* TheoryInvestigation of the Wave Surface
completed; Conical Refraction.—M. CauchyMe-
chanical Theory of Elastic Media, and of Ordinary and
Metallic Reflection; M. Jamin.—Theory of Dispersion;

Professor Powell page 917

§ 7. RlTTEB.—Chemical Rays of the Spectrum.Niepck;

Daguebbe; Mr Talbot. Art of Heliography or

PhotographyDaguerreotypeCalotype.—Professor

Stokes. Chemical Rays rendered visibleFluores-

cence page 921

§ 6. Fourier.Mathematical Theory of the Conduction
of Heat—Lambert; Poisson.—Temperature of the
Earth and of Space page 946

§ 7. Dulong.The Law of Cooling.Progress of the Sci-
ence of Radiant Heat between Leslie's and McllonC*
Discoveries; transmission of Radiant Heat through
Class. Herscbel; De la Roche; Professor Powell.
Theory of Dew; Wells page 952

§ 8. MELLonI.—Recent History of Radiant Heat
Transmission and Refraction of Heat; Properties of
Heat analogous to ColourExperiment* in Great
Britain on the Polarization and Double Refraction of
Heat page 955

§ 9. M. Reonault.Numerical Laws of Expansion by
Heat; Rudberg.—Vaporization ; Dulong.—Latent

Heat; Hygrometry page 957

mical Decomposition Volla-Electric Induction
Magneto-ElectricityDiamagnetismOptical Change*
induced by Magnetism.—Professor Plucker—Magne-

optic Action page 977

§ 6. OhmDaniell— Mr Wheatstone—M. Jacobi.

Laws of Electrical Conduction;Constant Battery;

Applications of Electricity to Telegraph*Clocks

Motive Enginesthe Electrotype page 982

§ 7. CavendishCoulomb.On the Distribution of Sta-

tical Electricity, and on the Mathematical Theory of

the same.Poisson.Mathematical Theory of Stati-

cal Electricity and of Magnetism generalized. Green;

Professor William Thomson page 987

§ 8. Professor Hansteen—Baron A. Von Humboldt

Gauss—Major-General Sabine—Captain Sir J. C.

Ross.—Progress of our Knowledge of Terrestrial Mag-

netitminthe Present Century page 990

To THK

PRINCIPAL NAMES AND SUBJECTS* MENTIONED IN THE FOLLOWING DISSERTATION.

Chladni, 434.

Civil Kngineering, 312-431.

Clairaut, 235.

Clock, Electric, 231. 862.

Coloration of Heat, 713.

Combustion, 608, 775.

Comets, 262; Halley's, 263; Encke's, 267; Gambart's or Biela's, 276; Comets of 1811 and 1843, 281.

Conduction of Heat, 661, 4c.

Conduction of Electricity, 813, 842.

Cornish Steam Engines, 323.

Conical Refraction, 551.

Cooling, Law of, 654, 694.

Coulomb, 339, 413, 873.

Daguerre, 569.

Dalton, 6~10, 721, note.

DanieU, 852.

Davy. Sir H., 758, 4c.; 792, 808.

Declination of the Needle, 881.

Delambre, 164, 4c.

De la Roche, 704.

Density of the Earth, 154, 4c,

Depolarization, 505.

Detrusion, 346.

Diamagnetism, 823.

Diffraction of Light, 458, 486, &c.

Dip, Magnetic, 882, note; 883.

Discontinuous functions, 31, 685.

Dispersion of Light, 559.

Double llefraction, 475, 4c.

Du Bois-Reymond, M., 739.

Dubuat, 410.

Dulong, 693, 721.

Earth's Figure, 163, 234, 249,4c.; Density, 154, 4c.; Rotation, 258.

Earth, Proper Heat of the, 675.

Economical application of Heat, 634.

Elastic Solids, 342, 4c.

Electricity, 728, 4c.; Animal, 734, 738, 872; Atmospheric, 743; Mathematical Theory of, 869, 4c.; Distribution of, 871, 874.

Electric Telegraph and Clock, 856, 4c.

Electro-Chemistry, 751, 754, 763, 811.

Electrodynamic Machines, 866.

Electro-Magnetism, 786, 4c.

Electrotype, 868.

Ellipticity of the Earth, 256.

Ellis, Mr Leslie, 20, note; 86.

Emanation of Radiant Heat, 651, 667.

Encke, M. 262, 4c.; Encke's Comet, 267.

English Arc of Meridian, 167.

Tl»e References are to tho Ankles or Paragraph!, not to the Pages.

Abel, 98.

Absorption of Light, S36.

Acceleration of the Moon, Secular, 62.

Acoustics, 433, Ac.

Adams, Mr, 127, 4c.

Airy, Mr, 82,115,228,4c.; 421, 649,879.

Ampirt, 792, 794, 4c.

Arago, 166, 500, 792.

Asteroids, 282. List of, 283, and Additions, p. 996.

Astronomy, Physical, 41, &c.; Practical, 149, &c.; 218, 4c.; Sidereal, 172, 4c.; 289, Ac.

Atomic Theory, Dalton's, 618.

Attraction of Spheroids, 99, 4c.; of Mountains, 154, 4c.

Attractions, Theorems about, 99, 4c.; 877, 905.

Babbage, Mr, 377.

Baily, 158, 242, 4c.

Balloon ascents, 630, and note.

Barlow, Mr, 879.

Berzetius, 763, 767, and note.

Betel, 221, 310.

Biaxal Crystals, 529; Theory of, 493.

Biot, M„ 645, 662.

Black, 318, 583.

Block Machinery, 370.

Borda. 237, &c.

JSowditch, 126.

Brewster, Sir David, 519, 4c.

Bridges, Suspension, 351; Wooden, 356;

Girder, 358; Tubular, 359, 4c.
Brinkley, 307, and note.
Brunei, Sir M. 1., 366.

Cagniard de la Tour, M., 441.

Calculating Engine, 377.

Calorimeter, 88, 607.

Calotype, The, 571.

Canal Navigation, 422.

Capillary Attraction, 88, 432.

Catenary, 353.

Cauehy, M., 656.

Cavendish, 156, 593, 4c.; 871.

Cavendish Experiment, 156, 4c.

Chances, 83.

Chemical Subjects connected with Natural Philosophy, 682, 596, 618, &c.; 763, 4c.; 811.

Chemical action of Light, 662.

Chemical Equivalents, 628.

Chemical Theory of Galvanism, 751, 763, 811.

Erman, M. Ad., 886.

Evaporation, 613, 744.

Everest, Colonel, 250.

Expansion of the Gases, 617, 721, and

note.
Fabbroni, 751.
Fairbairn, Mr W., 363.
Faraday, Dr, 798, 807, 4c.
Fechner. 861.
Figure cf the Earth, 163, 4c.; 234, 4c.

249, 4c.; Results, 256.
Flame, 770.

Flexure of Beams, 347, 4c.
Fluids, Friction and Resistance of, 410.
Fluorescence, 579.
Foucault, M., 258, 514.
Fourier, 663, 4o.
Fourneyron's Turbine, 427.
Fraunho/er, 538.
French Arc of Meridian, 165.
French experimenters, Skill of, 720.
Fresnel, 468, 485, 4c.
Frog, Electricity of the, 734.

GaUe, M., 137.

Calloway, 212.

Galvani, 728, 4c.

Galvanism, Discovery of, 732.

Gases and Vapours, Dalton's Theory of,

613, 615, 617.
Gauss, 48, 866, 896.
Gay-Lussac, 617, 625, 630.
Green, 658 and note, 878.
Greenwich Observatory, 150, 159, 227.
Gregory, Duncan, 31, note.

Jlalley, 882.

Hamilton, Sir W. R., 550, 552, nolt.

Hansen, M., 67, note; 122, 4c., 261.

Hansteen, Professor, 881, 4c.

Heat, 682, 4c.; Economical Applications of, 634; Hypothesis on the Nature of, 639; Radiant, 641, 4c.; 692, 4c.; Mathematical Theory of, 661, &c.; Motion in a Sphere, 673; Solar, 679.

Heliometer, 310.

Henderson, 304.

Herschel, Caroline, 269, note.

Herschel, Sir J. F. W., 294, 649.

Herschel, Sir William, 172, 4c.; 702.

Hind, Mr, 282.

Historic periods in Science, 2, 4c.

Hodgkinson, Mr, 352, 353, 363.

Hooke, 452.

Hope, 636.

* For the Grounds of Selection of these, and on the Use of the Index, see Articles (13) and (23).

Humboldt, Baron A. von, 734, 892, &c.

Ilutton, 591.

Huygens, 453, 475. The Principle of,

454.
Hydrodynamics, 408, 4c.
Hygrometry, 614, 727.

Indian Arc of Meridian, 250.
Induction of Electric Currents, 816.
Inequalities, Secular and Periodic, 47.
Intensity, Magnetic, 885, 911.
Integration, 31, 97.
Interference of Light, 460; of Chemical

Rays, 565.
Isothermal Lines, 894.
Irvine, 586, 589.
Ivory, 103.

Jacobi, C. G. I., 98.

Jacobi, Mr M. H., 848, 868.

Jamin, M., 557.

Joule, Mr, 640.

Jupiter and Saturn, Theory of, 65.

Kelland, Professor, 421, 690.
Kater, 240.

Lagrange, 20, note; 41, 4c., 90.

Lalande, 162.

Lambert, 661.

Lambton, 250.

Laplace, 51, 60, 4c., 199, 235, note, 433.

Lassell, Mr, 284.

Latent Heat, 584, 4c., 699, 724.

Lavoisier, 605.

Lcgcndre, 85, 95, 4c.

Leslie, Sir John, 641, 4c .

Leverrier, M , 127, 4c.

Libration of the Moon, 57.

Lines of the Spectrum, 538.

Lighthouses, 496.

Lloyd, Dr., 550, 4c., 900, 910.

Locomotive Engine, 383, &c.

Lubbock, Sir J. W., 79, 117.

Luminous Waves, Length of, 463.

Lunar Observations, 152, 229.

Lunar Theory,,61, 4c., 118, 4c., 229.

Maccullagh, 553.

Magne-crystallic Force, 832.

Mngne-optic Force,' 831.

Magnetism, Terrestrial, 880,4c.; Theory

of, 903.
Magneto-electricity, 819.
Magnifying Power, 179,180.
Mains, 474.
Uaskelyne, 150.

Mathematics, Pure, 20, 24, 28, 4c.
Mathematical Theory of Heat, 661, 4c.;

of Electricity, 869, 4c.; of Magnetism,

903.
iiatleucei, 739.
"Mecanique Celeste," 89.
Mechain, 166.

Mechanical Arts, 11, 32, &c .
Mechanical Notation, 378.
Mechanics, 312,4c.
Melloni, 707.

Metallic Polarization, 534.
Michtll, 86, note, 156, 340.
Milky Way, 201, 4c.
Miller, Potrick, 325.
Modulus of Elasticity, 345.

Natural Philosophy, its Connection with

Mathematics, 24; with the Mechanical
Arts, 32, 4c.

Nautical Almanac, 153.

Navier, M., 354.

Nebula;, 190, 302.

Nebular Theory, 198, 4c.

Neptune, Discovery of, 127, 4c.; Ele-
ments of, 143.

Nicholson and Carlisle, 754.

Niepee, Nicephore, 569.

Nobili, 708, 738, 802.

Oersted, 786, 4c., 803, 4c.
Olbers, 161.
Ohm, 840.
Optics, 444, 4c.

Parallax of Stars, 188, 306, 4c .
Parameters, Variation of, 44.
Pendulum Observations, 236; M. Fou-

cault's Pendulum, 258.
Perturbations, Planetary, 46.
Peters, M., 311.
Photography, 567.
Pictct, 648.

Pile of Volta, 750, 752.
Plana, M., 118,4c.
Planets, New small, 282, &c.
Play/air, 16, note.
Plenitude of Stars, 203.
Plueker, Professor, 831.
Poinsot, M., 113.
Poisson, 55, 112, 4c., 689.
Polarization of Light, 474,4c., 625, 4c.;

affected by Magnetic Actions, 834 ; of

Heat, 717; of Chemical Rays, 565;

Circular, 491; by Metals, 534.
Poles, Terrestrial Magnetic, 882, 884.
Poncelct, M., 431.
Pond, 227, 307.
Potential, 877, 905.
Powell, Professor, 560, 705.
Prevost, 649.
Probabilities, 83.
Proper Motions of Stars, 209, 4c .
Pulkowa, Observatory of, 293.

Quartz, Optical Properties of, 611.
Quaternions, 552, note.

Radiant Ueat, 641, 4c., 692, 4c .

Railways, History of, 398.

Rainbow, Theory of the, 465.

Reflection and Refraction of Light, 490.

Refrangibility of Heat, 714.

Refractions, Astronomical, 107.

Regnault, M., 719, &c.

Rheostat, 848.

.Sitter, 563.

Rivers, Theory of, 410.

Jlobison, 329, 4c., 749.

Ross, Sir J. C, 884, 910.

Rosse, Earl of, 299.

Rotation of the Earth, 258.

Royal Institution, 637.

Rumford. 632, 4c.; Rumford Prize, 637.

Russell, Mr J. S., 421.

R usso-Scan ui n u v ian Arc of Meridian ,25 4.

Sabine, Major-General, 238, 246, 909.

Safety Lamp, 393, 770.

Satellites, New, 284.

Savart, 441.

Schehallicn Experiment, 155.

ScheuU, M., 380.

Sehwtigger, 802.

Scebeck, 612, 544, 801.

Ships, Magnetism of, 879.

"Sirene," 441.

Slide-Rest, and Planing Machine, 372.

Solar Heat, 679.

Somerville, Mrs, 566 and note.

Sound, Theory of, 433.

Specific Heat, 588, 599, 607, 727.

Spectrum, Lines of the, 638; Heat of the,

702, 715.
Stability of the Solar System, 60.
Stars, Double, 187, 291, 296; Proper

Motions of, 209, 292; Parallax of, 188,

306; Brightness of, 297; Variable,

298.
Steam, Elastic Force of, 699.
Steam Carriage, 384.
Steam Engine, 317, 4c .
Steam Navigation, 325.
Stephenson, George, 392, 4c .
Stephenson, Mr U., 355, 4c .
Stereoscope, 581.
Stokes, Professor, 235, note; 247, 416,

579, 691.
Struve, M. W., 209, note; 252, 290, 4c .
Sun, The, 185.
Suspension Bridges, 351.

Talbot, Mr Fox, 571.

Telegraph, Electric, 856.

Telescopes, 178, 4c., 299, 4c.

Telford, 351.

Thermo-electricity, 801.

Thermo-multiplier, 709.

Thomson, Professor W., 878.

Tides, 69, 4c .

Torpedo, 872.

Torsion Balance, 157, 340, 874.

Transverse Vibrations, 488.

Tredgold, 352.

Trevithick, 385, 4c .

Turbine, 425.

Tunnel, The Thames, 373.

Undulatory Theory of Light, 452, 4c.
Uranus, Discovery of, 183; Perturbations
of, 132, 4c .

Variahlo Stars, 298.

Variation or Declination of the Needle,

881.
Variation of Parameters, 44.
Venturi, 413.
Venus and the Earth, long Inequality of,

115.
Vision, 471, 681.
Volta, 740, 4c.

Volta-electric Induction, 817.
Voltaic Pile, 749.

Waves, Theory of, 419, 4c.

Water, Composition of, 597; Maximum

Density of, 636.
Water Wheels, 426.
Watt, James, 312, 4c., 597.
Weber, The MM., 420, 856, 899.
Wells, 706.

Wheatstone, Mr, 581, 853, 4c.
Whewell, Dr, 19, 79.
Wilson, P., 185.
Wollaston, 476, 538, 564, 780, 4c .

Young, Thomas, 80, 342, 4c., 445, 4c.,
488, 606, 780.

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