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years before the first English settlement (Jamestown) was made on the eastern coast. Seventy-nine years before the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock, Coronado's expedition had crossed the entire western border and had skirted the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains as far as what is now the central part of Kansas.

Few romances are more fascinating than the history of the exploration and conquest of the Southwest. The thrilling story names as chief heroes in the conquest such men as Cortez, whose spectacular conquest of Mexico is familiar; Alarcon, the discoverer of the Colorado River; Coronado, who penetrated the heart of the Southwest; Lopez Cardenas, the discoverer of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado; De Vaca, who was the first European to cross the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Then there were the old church Fathers who, with admirable sincerity, almost incredible endurance, and courage born of religious zeal, carried the crucifix and the Bible on their long marches afoot over the barren plains and rugged mountains to save the soul of the Indian. Celebrated among these are Fra Marcos, Fra Louis Cancer and Fra Juan de Padilla, who were early active in establishing missions in remote places in the Southwest.

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Photo by the Author, Utah, Arch. Exped. VIEW OF THE AUGUSTA NATURAL BRIDGE

San Juan County, Utah; 222 feet high.

Two centuries later, we have two Franciscan monks, Escalante and Dominguez, penetrating far into the northern Rockies. These hardy missionaries entered Utah valley by way of Spanish Fork canyon and explored Utah Lake, naming Jordan River in their report, Rio Santa Anna. To the lake itself they gave the name Lake Timpanogas. Returning, they passed the sites where are now located the towns of Payson, Nephi, Fillmore, Beaver, St. George, and, crossing the Colorado River, found their way back. to old Santa Fe. These men practically explored the heart of Utah. This was in 1776-the time when the colonies along the Atlantic were signing a declaration of independence and waging

a defensive war, the issue of which remotely determined the present status of the great Southwest.

An interesting series of events in the early sixteenth century preceded and led up to these exploits. After the conquest of Mexico by Cortez, Mexico City became the center of New Spain in North America. Until 1540, practically nothing was known of the country north of Rio Sonora and Rio Grande. In 1524 Cortez reported to Emperor Charles V that California was a low sandy island. He doubtless referred to the peninsula of Lower California, which to early explorers seemed to be insular. An Italian map of 1544 connects Norway to America just north

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SENTINELS OF THE COLORADO DESERT

These great spires rise from five hundred to eight hundred feet above the high plateau on which they stand. It was by these monuments that Mitchell and Myrick were killed by the Navajos.

of Florida, and makes China a part of the continent west of the Gulf of California. There is a statement on the map that all dry land of the world was one continuous body. On some early maps, the Colorado river is called the Ganges. In 1566 a map came out showing China and Zipango (Japan) apart from the American continent.

The first news of a land to the north of Mexico reached Cortez in 1530, when it was reported that to the northwest was an island inhabited by Amazons, and that to the north and northeast were to be found races of giants.

The conquest of the Amazons claimed first attention. What could be more coveted by the adventurous Spaniard than the glory of conquering a race of Amazons such as opposed the ancient. Greeks! The myth of the Amazons lured the expedition of the avaricious Guzman into disaster, and he returned to Mexico with a broken army after having discovered a few unimportant islands. along the Pacific coast of Mexico.

The myth of the "Seven Cities of Cibola" led the first expedition into New Mexico and Arizona, in 1540. Having reaped such fabulous harvests of gold from their conquests of Peru and Mexico, the Spanish conquistadors were prepared to belive any stories of gold, and of strange cities and people, that might be told. One corroborative story after another was told in Mexico of great and powerful cities to the north. It was reported that the houses were four or five stories high and that the streets were filled with goldsmiths-that even the walls and doors of the houses were set with precious stones. The most credited of these reports was brought by Cabeca de Vaca upon his arrival in Mexico from his famous eight years march across the continent from Florida. De Vaca had been a member of the army under Narvaez, sent from Spain to conquer Florida. After six years of hardship and cruel indignities from the Indians, the army was depleted to the number of four men three Spaniards and a negro. These led by De Vaca made their way through many adventures across the continent to Mexico-the first transcontinental trip to be made by Europeans since America's discovery. These men passed south of the New Mexican and Arizona pueblo towns, but they heard of them and made reports in which the truth was somewhat recklessly handled.

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Photo by Stockman, Utah Arch. Exped. THE GRAND RIVER

Near Grand Canyon, Southern Utah. The Utah Expedition crossed the river near this point.

Upon hearing De Vaca's report, Coronado, who was then in charge of affairs in Mexico, sent the Franciscan friar Marcos with a lay brother on a journey of discovery. These were accompanied by Estevanico, the negro, who had made the journey across the continent with De Vaca. Estevanico, gaily decorated with bells, bright feathers and other ornaments, pompously assumed leadership, and traveled several days ahead of Fra Marcos and the layman. Appealing to the superstitious fears of the natives,

who took him for a black god, Estevanico compelled many of the native men and women along the way to follow him to the "Seven Cities of Cibola." All walked, since the Indians had no beasts of burden, and it was a rule of the Franciscan order of monks that

they should travel afoot in carrying salvation to the heathen. Eager for the distinction of making the discovery himself, and also greedy for the gold he expected to find, Estevanico preceded Fra Marcos by several days. At last he came in sight of the famed "Seven Cities." He sent one of the natives with a gourd covered with feathers and trinkets as a notice of his approach. This was unfortunate for him, for the medicine men of the pueblo pronounced it "bad medicine"probably interpreting it to be an emblem of hostility. The chief sent the messenger back to Estevanico with the warning that if he attempted to enter the city he would be killed. Paying no attention to the warn

Photo by the Author, Utah Arch. Exped. ing, Estevanico rashly and bombastically

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WELL-BUILT CLIFF DWELLING

of a magnificent feudal castle.

Sagi-ot Sosi Canyon, Arizona. A distant view could marched within the easily have given the Spanish explorer the impression walls of the pueblo and demanded gold. The poor fellow was stripped of his decorations and held prisoner without food or drink. When his confidence began to leave him and he tried to escape, he was killed with most of the Indians whom he brought with him. The few who escaped returned to meet Fra Marcos with the sanguinary news.

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The burros are loaded with materials gathered by the Utah Expedition from the cliff dwellings.

Marcos fearfully advanced far enough to gain a view of the nearest pueblo in the distance, and then retreated, as he candidly admitted, "with more fear than victuals" to New Spain, where he reported to Coronado in Mexico. In his report he wrote:

"It (the pueblo) has a very fine appearance for a village, the best that I have seen in these parts. The houses, as the Indians had told me, are all of stone, built in stories, and with flat roofs. Judging by what I could see from the height where I placed myself to observe it, the settlement is larger than the City of Mexico. * * * * It appears to me that this land is the best and largest of all those that have been discovered."

This is a strong statement, coming from Fra Marcos, who had a reputation for veracity and who had been with Pizarro in his conquest of Peru, and had seen the splendid houses of the Incas and the Aztecs. Coronado's chronicler, Castenadas, describes the New Mexican and Arizona pueblos as being practically the same then as they are today-nearly four hundred years later.

Thus were the semi- civilized pueblo dwellers of New Mexico and Arizona first discovered by the negro, Estevanico, who was the first member of an alien race to penetrate the land of the Pueblo and Cliff Dwellers.

Today, after a lapse of centuries, the Zuni Indians tell the picturesque legend of the killing of the "Black Mexican."

The report of Fra Marcos resulted in the sending of an army of conquest northward, led by Coronado. Fra Marcos went along as guide, accompanied by other priests who were to convert the natives, bless the sick and repeat the Pater-Noster and the Ave Marie. With a splendid army of cavalliers, mounted on

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