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Typhoid fever, fall in deatlı rate from, and

causes, 28; due to impure water, 28-29;
house fly a source of danger of infection
from, 29, 57; invalidity from, and Hazen's
theorem, 35, 110, 121; effect on, of sup-
planting of horses by automobiles, 57; in
origin largely a rural disease, 59; losses
from, in British army in South Africa, 63;
more apt to attack the strong than the
weak, 100n.a; possible prolongation of life
by elimination of, 104; basis of estimates
of preventability of, 113n.b; money
of, annually, 120; cost of, to city of

Pittsburg, 121.
"Typhoid fly," the, 29, 57.

cost

U.

Uipian, life table of, 17.
United States, need of vital statistics in, 18,

126-127; relation between death rate and
duration of life in, 19-20; death rate of,
20; lowering of death rates in cities of
24; excessive death rate from tuberculosis
in, 27-28; illness statistics of, 34; insanity

in, 36. See Massachusetts.
Iniversities, investigations supported by, 15;

courses in hygiene in, 64, 128.
University settlements, 79.

Water supply, improvement of, lowers death

rate from typhoid fever, 28; importance of
a pure, 29, 86, 107; prevention of pollu-
tion of, 58; expected results of filtering of,
in Pittsburg, 121; national and State pre-
vention of pollution of, 127: measures re-

garding, to be taken by municipalities, 128.
Weber, A. F., cited, 24.
Weishardt, experiments of, 41.
Weismann, mentioned, 50, 93.
Wells, danger from, 59.
Wells, D. Collin, cited, 54n.d
Westergaard, Harald, cited, 25, 34, 112.
Westinghouse, example of, 126.
Weston, E. P., example of, 44.
Weston, William, quoted, 122.
Wheeler, Herbert L., on Children's Aid Dental

Clinic, New York, 123.
Whetham, W. C. D., cited 54.
Wigglesworth, E., life tables by, 18, 26.
Wilbur, Cressy L., on need of better vital

statistics, 63-64; estimates by, 114.
Wiley, on food preservatives, 95.
Willcox, W. F., cited, 20, 119.
Williams, Henry Smith, cited, 88.
Wing, Frank E., article by, 121.
Wisconsin, accident statistics in, 37.
Wives of diseased men, 93, 94.
Women, regulation of labor of, 59-60, 127;

clothing of, 86; effects of gonorrhea in, 94;
rate of lengthening of life greater among

than among men, 102.
Wood, Leonard, quoted, 121-122.
Wood, Mary L., centenarian, 112.
Woodbury, William R., cited, 74.
Woodman, cited, 84.
Woods, F. A., cited, 53.
Woodward, W. C., quoted, 58; estimates by,

114.
Worchester, Elwood, 71.
Working day, length of the 45-46, 60-61, 92.
Workingmen, diseases most prevalent among,

37-38; education of, in subject of hygiene,
79-80; overwork among, 92; money value

of, 118.
Wright, Carroll D., cited, 118n.d
Wright, F. W., 114.
Wyman, Walter, quoted, 62, 122.

V.

Vaccination, death rate from smallpox lowered

by, 29; present outcry against but un.
doubted efficacy of, 30, 57; individual
option as to, in some localities, 57; origin

of the misguided movement against, 68.
Vaccine, municipal distribution and administra-

tion of, 58.
Van Cise, Joel G., cited, 89.
Vegetarianism, 43, 87.
Veneral diseases, prevalence, effects, and pre-

ventability of, 35-36, 92-95, 110; possible

prolongation of life, by elimination of, 104.
Ventilation, importance of, 84-86. See Air.
Vermont, death rate in, 21.
Vienna, decrease in death rate of, 24.
Violence, as a cause of shortening of life, 105.

See Accidents.
Visiting Nurses' Association, 79.
Vitality, conservation of, through heredity and

environment, 49-50; to be considered the
first essential in ideal man or woman, 50-
51; conservation of through public semi-
public, and personal hygiene, 55-97 (see
Hygiene); results of conserving, 102-116;
money value of increased, 117-120; cost
of increased, 121-124; general value of
increased, 124.126; principal steps to be

taken toward, 126-129.
Vital statistics, crying need of better, 63-64,

126-127.
Vivisection, 65.

X

X rays, use of, in surgery, 65.

Y.

Yale, data concerning families of graduates of,

54; observation of effects of tobacco among

students at, 90.
Yellow fever, lowering in death rate from, the

United States, Habana, and Panama, 30-31;
value of discovery of transmission of germ

by mosquitoes, 121-122.
Young, T. E., “Centenarians,” by cited, 112.
Young Men's Christian Association, work of,

in interests of hygiene, 15, 47, 79.

W.

Wales, vital statistics of, 16, 18, 20.
Wallace, Alfred Russel, cited, 30.
Waring, George E., 57.
Warner, books by, 73.
Washington, D. C., lowering of death rate in,

24.

Z.

Zeiss factory, eight-hour day at, 45.

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