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The locality of all the officers subordinate to the Director-General is determined by the extent of the force to which they may be attached. All the regimental surgeons make their reports to and consult the staff officer who is placed in their district.

[graphic]

THE

MILITARY FORCES AND INSTITUTIONS

OF

GREAT BRITAIN.

THEIR

CONSTITUTION, ADMINISTRATION, & GOVERNMENT,

MILITARY AND CIVIL.

PART II.
THE MILITIA & VOLUNTEER CORPS.

SECTION I.

The Militia.

The Militia is the only armed force which is truly national Its Origin. in England. Its origin has been described in a former section. It arose in connection with the military system of feudal tenure, which was not wholly abolished until the time of Charles the Second. From that time, a new organization of Militia was requisite in place of the feudal array. Proprietors were divided into separate classes; the most wealthy were required to furnish a horseman with his arms and equipment, those of less substance a foot soldier with his arms.

It was however only in 1756, that the dread of invasion caused serious attention to be bestowed upon the restoration to efficiency of this important branch of the public force; it was ameliorated by degrees, during the reigns of George the Second and George the Third. Under the first of these princes, the force of the militia was fixed at 37,740 men; it has since been considerably increased. The duration of

Dupin, 136.

*

the service of a militiaman, which was first three years, was increased to five by the act of 26th George the Third. Formerly also the Militia of Great Britain and of Ireland could not, under any pretext, be sent out of their respective kingdoms; but at the epoch of the rebellion of 1799, an Act of Parliament suspended a restriction so hurtful to the defence of both countries, in favour of such of the English militia as should volunteer to pass over into Ireland; and finally, in 1811, this sort of barrier, which limited the services of the Militia to particular parts of the three kingdoms, was abolished for ever.*

“ In reflecting,” says M. Dupin,“upon these different measures, it will be apparent that they have all had for their object an organization more military than before, and adapted to the defence of all parts of the empire.”

be liable to serve

* The following is an abstract of this act, the 51st Geo. 3rd, cap. 118:An Act to permit the interchange of the British and Irish Militias respectively.

1st July, 1811. Men raised for Whereas it would materially conduce to the better defence and security the Militia shall of the United Kingdom, if the services of the regular Militia of Great in any part of Britain and the Militia force of Ireland were extended to all parts of the the United King- United Kingdom; all persons who may be commissioned, raised, and enrolled,

in and for the regular Militia of Great Britain, or in and for the Militia of Ireland, are liable to serve in all parts of the United Kingdom of Great

Britain and Ireland. Militia under this The regular Militia, in England and Scotland, and the Militia of Ireland, Act to be raised shall respectively be raised under acts of the forty-second, the forty-ninth, former Acts for and every other act relative to the Militias of England, Scotland, or raising the English, Scotch,

Ireland. and Irish Militias.

The force to be raised in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for extended to be called the service, to be called “ The Militia of the United Kingdom;" and the parts of Militia of the it to be raised in Great Britain or Ireland shall be respectively entitled to United Kingdom.

the same rank, privileges, and exemptions, civil, military, and religious, and subject to the same rules and regulations as the militias now are respectively

entitled or subject to. Officers disabled, All commissioned officers of the Militias, whose service is thus extended

to all parts of the United Kingdom, disabled in actual service, are entitled pay, &c.

to half-pay, according to their ranks; and all non-commissioned officers, drummers, and privates, are entitled to the benefit of Chelsea Hospital, and the widows of commissioned-officers killed in service are entitled to pensions for life given to widows of officers in regular forces. *

* The 17 Vic. c. 13, sec. I, does not secm to apply to this section.

entitled to half

The spirit in which the Militia has been established, is pointedly marked out by the preamble to the General Militia dct. It

says, " that a respectable military force under the command of officers who possess a property in the soil of the country, is essential to the Constitution; and that the Militia, as by law established, being always in readiness to render effectual service with the least delay, has been found of the utmost importance for the interior defence of the country.”

Great Britain and Ireland are divided into counties, in Lordwhich the defensive force and conservation of the public

Lieutenant.

No corps of British or Irish Militia shall continue to serve in Ireland or Limiting the Great Britain respectively, for any longer period than two years successively; period for which and no greater number than one-fourth part of the Militia of Great Britain British or Irish can, any one time, be employed in Ireland ; nor any greater number than serve in Ireland one-third part of the Militia of Ireland be at one time employed in Great or Great Britain

respectively. Britain. In case of any actual invasion or rebellion, or of a state of war, of and in any part of the United Kingdom, the Queen employs, in great Britain or Ireland, any number of the Militias of either part of the United Kingdom, necessary for defeating or suppressing invasion or rebellion, or carrying on war; or retains in either part of the United Kingdom, during the continuance of rebellion or invasion or war, any corps of Militia of either part of the United Kingdom, although that corps may bave, previously to the suppression of rebellion or invasion, served its full period of two years in the other part of the United Kingdom; anything in this act to the contrary, notwithstanding. So soon as any invasion or rebellion has been defeated or suppressed, or war ceased, (signified by proclamation), every corps of Militia having served its full period of two years, is to return to that part of the United Kingdom for which it was originally serving.

No corps of British or Irish Militia, having once performed its period of service in Ireland or Great Britain respectively, can be again liable to serve in Ireland or Great Britain, until the expiration of six or four years respectively, calculated from the termination of such period of service, in case of any actual invasion or rebellion or state of war.

No corps of the Militia of Great Britain shall be called upon to serve in Ireland, nor any of the Irish Militia in Great Britain, until the Queen's pleasure has been signified by the Secretary of State, or by the LordLieutenant of Ireland.

peace are confided to men of high birth and great fortune, and in former years having their property in the province where they exercise their authority, under the names of Lords-Lieutenants in Great Britain, and Governors in Ireland. Their functions are gratuitous. They are appointed by the Queen, in England and Scotland; and by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in his government.* Each Lord Lieutenant presides over the arming, arraying, training, exercising, formation, instruction, and disbanding, of the Militia; † and subject to regulations made by the Secretary of State, (limiting the ages of persons appointed officers, and for securing officers qualified to discharge their duties,) the Lord Lieutenant names the officers, and certifies their names and future rank to the Queen; but that his choice of them and also of Deputy Lieutenants may be valid, it is necessary that in the fourteen days which follow the presentation of the nomination to the Privy-Council, they shall not have been disapproved by the Sovereign; or in Ireland by the LordLieutenant of Ireland. The appointments are then published in the London Gazette.

When however the new Militia was called out, all officers then holding commissions in the Militia were allowed to continue to hold them, and take rank from the original date of their commissions. Even those who did not chose to continue in the active service of the Militia were allowed to continue their rank and allowances for past services, &c. || No com

** 17 and 18 Vic. c. 106, sec. 2.

† 42 Geo. III. c. 90, sec. 2. In Ireland, however, it is provided, that the Commanding Officer of each regiment has the chief command, and not the Governor of the county; 49 Geo. III. c. 120, sec. 12.

$ In Ireland, may be made by the Lord Lieutenant; 17 and 18 Vic. c. 107, sec. 4.

$ 42 Geo. III. c. 90. sec. 3; 15 and 16 Vic. c. 50, sec. 1; 17 and 18 Vic. (Scot.) c. 106, sec. 13 ; 49 Geo. III. c. 120, sec. 10.

|| 17 and 18 Vic. (Scot.) c. 106, sec. 14; 17 and 18 Vic. (Ireland), c. 107, bec. 10; 15 and 16 Vic. c. 50, sec. 7.

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