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A.D.

A.D.

A.D.

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Theodore

642 Martin I. 649

Eugenius I. 654 Constantine III. 668 Vitalian

658 Adeodatus... 672 Donus

676 Agatho

679, Leo II.

682

Benedict II. 684
Justinian II.. 685 John V....... 685

Conon..... 686
Leontius .. 694
Apsimar, or Ti Sergius ... 687
berius . .... 697

John VI.

701 Justinian II.

John VII. .... 705 again

704

Sisinnius.... 708

Constantine 708
Philippicus 711
Anastasius II. 713 Gregory II. .. 715
Theodosius III. 715 Gregory III... 731

717 Zacharias 741 Constantine IV, 741

Stephen II. 752
Paul

757

Stephen III. .. 768
Leo IV.... 775
Constantine V. 780

Adrian

772 Irene

797

Leo III..... 795 Nicephorus 802

Stephen IV. .. 816 Charlemagne 6..800 Michael ... 811 Leo V.

813

Leo III. ......

6 On the coronation of Charlemagne in the church of St. Peter by Leo the Roman Pontiff, “the dome,” says Gibbon, Vol. IX. Chap. xlix. p. 174. “ resounded with the acclamations of the people, ‘ Long life and victory to Charles, the most pious

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Pascal I. 817 Louis le DebonMichael II. 821 Eugenius II. .. 824 naire

814
Valentine 827
Theophilus ... 829 Gregory IV... 827
Michael III... 842 Sergius II. .... 844 Lothaire ...... 841

Leo IV. ...... 847
Benedict III... 853

Nicholas I..... 858 Louis II. 855 Basilius .... 867 Adrian II. 867

John VIII..... 872 Charles the Bald 875
Marin or Martin Louis the Stammerer
II.

882 and Carloman 877

Adrian III. .. 884 Charles the Fat 880 Leo VI. ...... 886 Stephen V..... 885

Guy and Lambert 891
Formosus 891

Lambert alone 894
Stephen VI. .. 896
Boniface VI... 896 Arnold

896
Romanus 897
Theodore II. 898

Augustus, crowned by God the great and pacific emperor of the Romans !—The imperial dignity of Charlemagne was announced to the East by the alteration of his style; and instead of saluting his fathers, the Greek emperors, he presumed to adopt the more equal and familiar appellation of brother." “ A treaty of peace and alliance was concluded between the two empires, and the limits of the East and West were defined by the right of present possession. But the Greeks soon forgot this humiliating equality, or remembered it only to hate the Barbarians by whom it was extorted. During the short union of virtue and power, they respectfully saluted the august Charlemagne with the acclamations of basileus, and emperor of the Romans. As soon as these qualities were separated in the person of his pious son, the Byzantine letters were inscribed, 'to the King, or, as he styles himself, the Emperor of the Franks and Lombards.' The Greeks affected to despise the poverty and ignorance of the Franks and Saxons; and in their last decline refused to prostitute to the kings of Germany the title of Roman Emperors.” pp. 191. 193. 194. Concerning the dignity of the German Emperors, says Gibbon, Chap. xlix. p. 216. “ Nor was the supremacy of the Emperor confined to Germany alone : the hereditary monarchs of Europe confessed the preeminence of his rank and dignity: he was the first of the Christian princes, the temporal head of the great republic of the West : to his person the title of majesty was long appropriated ; and he disputed with the pope the sublime prerogative of creating kings and assembling councils.”

A.D.

A.D.

A.D. 898

John IX.
Benedict IV... 900 Louis IV. .... 900
Leo V. ... 903
Christopher 903
Sergius III.

904 Alexander. 910

Anastasius 911 Constantine VI. 911

Landon

... 913

Interregnum.
John X. 914 Berenger 915

Troubles.
Leo VI....... 928
Stephen VII. .. 929
John XI.

... 931
Leo VII. 936 Otho I. ...... 936
Stephen VIII. 939
Martin III. .. 942
Agapet II..... 946
John XII. First

Sovereign of
Rome

956
Romanus
960 Leo VIII. ....

963 Nicephorus II. 963 Benedict V. 964 John Zimisces 969 John XIII. 965

Benedict VI... 972
Boniface VII. 974

Donus II. 974
Basilius II.

976 Benedict VII. 975 Otho II....... 973

John XIV. .. 984 Otho III. 983
John XV. 984
John XVI..... 986
Gregory V.

996
John XVII. ... 997
Sylvester II. .. 999
John XVIII. 1003 Henry II..... 1002
John XIX. . 1003
Sergius IV... 1009

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A.D.

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Benedict VIII. 1012 Constantine

Conrad II. callVII. ...... 1026 John XX. 1024

ed the Salic 1024
Romanus II. 1028
Michael IV... 1034 Benedict IX. 1033 Henry III. 1039
Michael V. 1041 Gregory VI... 1044

Clement IJ. 1046
Constantine
VIII. 1042

Benedict IX.

reinstated .. 1047 Damasus II... 1048 Leo IX.

1048 Theodora ...

1054 Victor II..... 1054 Isaac Comne Stephen IX... 1057 Henry IV. the 1057 Benedict X...

Great

1056

1058 Constantine IX.1059 Nicholas II... 1058 Romanus III. 1068

Alexander II. 1061
Michael VI. 1071
Alexius Com-

Gregory VII. 1073 Rodolph 1078 1078 Victor III.

1085 Herman 1086 Urban IT..... 1087 Egbert

1088 Pascal II.

1099 Henry V..... 1106 Nicephorus III.1115

Gelasius II. .. 1118 John Comnenus 1118

nus

nenus

Competitors

nenus

1143 Lucius II.....

Callixtus[l...

1119 Honorius II. 1124 Lothaire II. . 1125

Innocent II.., 1130 Conrad III. .. 1138 Manuel Com

Celestinus II. 1143

1144
Eugenius III. 1145 Frederic I.called
Anastasius IV. 1153

Barbarossa 1152
Adrian IV... 1154
Alexius Com-

Alexander III. 1159

Lucius III 1181 nenus II... 1180

Andronicus 1183
Isaac Angelus 1185

Urban III.

1185

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A.D.

Gregory VIII. 1187

Clement III. 1187 Alexis 1II. .. 1194 Celestinus III. 1191 Henry VI. -. 1190

Innocent III. 1198 Philip of Suabia 1197 Theodore Las Honorius III. 1216 Otho IV...... 1208 caris

1204 John Ducus .. 1222 Gregory IX. 1227 Frederic II... 1211

Celestinus IV. 1241

Innocent IV. 1241 Theodore II. 1255

Conrad IV... 1250 Alexander IV. 1254 John Lascaris 1258

William

1250 Michael Paleo

Troubles and InUrban IV. .. 1261 logus...... 1259

terregnum 1257

Richard of Eng-
Clement IV... 1264

land

1257 Gregory X. ..

Alphonso of 1268

Castile 1257 Innocent V... 1276 Rodolph of

Hapsburg.. 1273 Adrian V.

1276 John XXI. 1276

Nicholas III. 1277
Andronicus II. 1283 Martin IV... 1280

Honorius IV. 1285
Nicholas IV, 1289

Adolphus of
Celestinus V. 1292

Nassau 1292

Albert 1. of
Boniface VIII. 1294

Austria 1298

Benedict X or
XI.

1303

Henry VII. of Andronicus III.1320 Clement V... 1305

Luxemburg 1308 Interregnum .. 1313

Frederic III. of John Paleologus1341 Nicholas V... 1328 Austria 1314

Louis V. of Ba..

varia

1314

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