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their last acquiescence, to employ the resources of Italy, Constantinople had fallen, before the squadrons of Genoa and Venice could sail from their harbours! Even in his own capital the intreaties and tears of the emperor could not prevail on the Byzantine nobility and the rich citizens to contribute their aid and their money to the defence of the walls, and to the payment of the garrison, and supply of provisions, and repairs of the fortifications. They folded their arms as if resistance was hopeless, they shut their purses, and hid their treasures, to preserve them from the enemy, and the two factions, for, and against the union with the Church of Rome, were hotly disputing the point; one party attributing their calamities to their uniting, the other to their not uniting; when the Turks broke in and settled the controversy, by destroying or enslaving both.” Hales' Analysis of Chronology, Vol. iii. p. 417.

ANCIENT OF DAYS.-The eternal Father. Dan. vii. 9. I beheld till the thrones were set, and the Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow. This represents the spiritual assize or session of the Father on the Papacy at the Reformation of the Christo-Judaic Church by Luther, A. D. 1518, and is expressed by the Angel with the everlasting gospel at Rev. xiv. 7, by The hour of his judgment is come. Why the Father is represented in particular as the Judge in this instance is very clear. They repented not of the works of their hands that they should not worship devils and idols of gold,&c. ix. 20. The angel, therefore, calls them off from demonolatry or Mahuzzim-worship to worship him that made heaven and earth, and the sea and the fountains of waters, so that the Father might be reinstated in his ancient throne of the Faith of the Church; for the predicted judgment on papal idolatry was arrived. The synchronisms of this session are the descent of the mighty angel with the rainbow, Rev. x. l; the three angels, xiv; the angel with great power, xviii. l; and the standing up of Michael for his Christo-Judaic people. Dan. xii. 1.

ANGEL.--A presiding minister or priest, or succession of them, put also for the body over which he presides. Compare Rev. ii. 8. with ii. 10; and ii. 18. with ii. 24. See King.

1. The seven Angels. The seven presiding ministers of the seven Churches in the Lydian Asia. Rev. i. ii. iii.

2. The four Angels standing on the four corners of the earth. The four chief ministers of the Roman Empire, the Prætorian Prefects. Rev. vii. l. And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree. “ According to the plan of government instituted by Diocletian, the four princes had each their Prætorian Præfect; and after the monarchy was once more united in the person of Constantine, he still continued to create the same number of Four PRÆFECTS, and entrusted to their care the same provinces which they already administered. 1. The præfect of the East stretched his ample jurisdiction into the three parts of the globe which were subject to the Romans, from the cataracts of the Nile to the banks of the Phasis, and from the mountains of Thrace to the frontiers of Persia. 2. The important provinces of Pannonia, Dacia, Macedonia, and Greece, once acknowledged the authority of the præfect of Illyricum. 3. The power of the præfect of Italy was not confined to the country from whence he derived his title ; it extended over the additional territory of Rhætia as far as the banks of the Danube, over the dependent islands of the Mediterranean, and over that part of the continent of Africa which lies between the confines of Cyrene and those of Tingitania. 4. The præfect of the Gauls comprehended under that plural denomination the kindred provinces of Britain and Spain, and his authority was obeyed from the wall of Antoninus to the foot of Mount Atlas." Gib. ill. xvii. n. n. 99. But as it is of singular use for the right understanding of the geography of prophecy, I will here insert this division of the Roman Empire out of the book called Notitia Imperii, said to be written about the time of Arcadius and Honorius, where the whole empire is divided into thirteen dioceses, under four PræfectiPrætoris ; and about an hundred and twenty provinces contained in them, in the manner and form following :

The Præfectus-Prætorio Orientis, and under him five

Dioceses, viz. the Oriental, Egyptian, Asiatic, Pontic, and Thracian Dioceses. I. In the Oriental Diocese, are contained fifteen Pro

vinces. 1. Palæstina. 2. Phænice. 3. Syria. 4. Cilicia. 5. Cyrus.' 6. Arabia. 7. Isauria. 8. Palæstina Salutaris. 9. Palæstina Secunda. . 10. Phænice Libani.

11. Euphratensis. 12. Syria Salutaris. 13. Osrhæna. 14. Mesopota

mia. 15. Cilicia Secunda. II. In the Diocese of Egypt, six Provinces. 4. Libya

Superior. 2. Libya Inferior. 3. Thebais. 4.

Ægyptus. 5. Arcadia. 6. Augustamnica, . III. In the Asiatic Diocese, ten Provinces. 1. Pam

phylia. 2. Hellespontus. 3. Lydia. 4. Pisidia. 5. Lycaonia. 6. Phrygia Pacatiana. 7. Phrygia

Salutaris. 8. Lycia. 9. Caria. 10. Insula

Cyclades. IV. In the Pontic Diocese, eleven Provinces. 1. Ga

latia. 2. Bithynia. 3. Honorias. 4. Cappadocia Prima. 5. Paphlagonia. 6. Pontus Polemoniacus. 7. Helenopontus. 8. Armenia Prima. 9. Armenia Secunda. 10. Galatia Sa

lutaris. 11. Cappadocia Secunda. V. In the Diocese of Thrace, six Provinces. 1. Europa.

2. Thracia. 3. Hæmimontis. 4. Rhodope. 5. Mäsia Secunda. 6. Scythia.

The Præfectus-Prætorio of Illyricum, and under him

two Dioceses, Macedonia and Dacia. VI. In the Diocese of Macedonia, six Provinces. 1.

Achaia. 2, Macedonia. 3. Creta. 4. Thessalia. 5. Epirus Vetus. 6. Epirus Nova, and Pars

Macedoniæ Salutaris.
VII. In the Diocese of Dacia, five Provinces. 1. Dacia

Mediterranea, 2. Dacia Ripensis. 3. Mæsia
Prima. 4. Dardania. 5. Pars Macedoniæ
Salutaris and Prævalitana.

The Præfectus-Prætorio of Italy, and under him three

Dioceses, viz. Italy or the Italic Diocese, Illyricum, IX. In the Diocese of Illyricum, six Provinces. 1. Pan

and Africa. VIII. In the Italic Diocese are contained seventeen Pro

vinces. 1. Venetiæ. 2. Æmylia. 3. Liguria. . 4. Flaminia and Picenum Annonarium, 5. Tuscia and Umbria. 6. Picenum Suburbicarium. 7. Campania. 8. Sicilia. 9. Apulia and Calabria. 10. Lucania and Brutü. 11. Alpes Cottiæ. 12. Rhætia Prima. 13. Rhætia Secunda. 14. Samnium. 15. Valeria. 16. Sardinia. 17. Corsica.

nonia Secunda. 2. Savia. 3. Dalmatia. 4. Pannonia Prima. 5. Noricum Mediterraneum.

6. Noricum Ripense. X. In the Diocese of Africa, six Provinces. 1. By

Zacium. 2. Numidia. 3. Mauritania Sitifensis. 4. Mauritania Cæsariensis. 5. Tripolis. 6. Africa Proconsularis.

The Præfectus-Pretorio Galliarum, and under him three

Dioceses, viz. Hispania, Gallia, Britannia. XI. In the Spanish Diocese, seven Provinces. 1. Boetica.

2. Lusitania. 3. Gallæcia. 4. Tarraconensis. .

5. Carthaginensis. 6. Tingitania. 7. Baleares. XII. In the Gallican Diocese, seventeen Provinces.

1. Viennensis. 2. Lugdunensis Prima. 3. Germania Prima. 4. Germania Secunda. 5. Belgica Prima. 6. Belgica Secunda. 7. Alpes Maritimæ. 8. Alpes Penninæ and Graiæ. 9. Maxima Sequanorum. 10. Aquitania Prima. 11. Aquitania Secunda. 12. Novem Populi. 13. Narbonensis Prima. 14. Narbonensis Secunda. 15. Lugdunensis Secunda. 16. Lugdunensis

Tertia. 17. Lugdunensis Senonia. XIII. In the Britannic Diocese, five Provinces. 1. Maxi

ma Cæsariensis. 2. Valentia. 3. Britannia Prima. 4. Britainia Secunda. 5. Flavia Cæsariensis. Bingh. Ch. Antiq. ix. 1, 5.

“ After the Prætorian Præfects had been dismissed from all military command, the civil functions which they were ordained to exercise over so many subject nations, were adequate to the ambition and abilities of the most consummate ministers. To their wisdom was committed the

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