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1. Greek Monuments, mostly inscribed.
We may presume that these monuments, for the most part, if not all, executed during the Roman period, have been used in commemoration of Greek personages, the inscriptions on them being in that language. The first we shall notice is a Greek sepulchral or votive bas-relief, surrounded by a deep moulding, the sides being supported by pilasters, representing a father and his two sons, all three dressed in the Roman military dresses, consulting the oracle of Apollo. Their right hands are placed upon their breasts to indicate the Religious awe with which they are impressed. To the right, Apollo appears seated on the cortina or tripod cover, in the act of delivering his response; between him and the Romans stand his mother and sister, Leto and Artemis, the former holding in her left hand the offering which has been made, and which Mr. Combe conjectures to have been frankincense. Beneath these figures is a Greek inscription, containing the vestiges of two verses written in a columnar form, mentioning the name of Apollo, and probably, when perfect, that of the chief figure who makes the offering.
The next is also a Greek Sepulchral Monument, representing a Trophy, on one side of which a warrior is standing, and on the other side a female figure is feeding a serpent, which is entwined round the tree to which the trophy is attached. Behind the warrior is his horse and an attendant, whose head only is visible. Above and below the monument is a Greek inscription, recording the names of several persons who probably had fallen in some battle, with the names of the cities to which they respectively belonged. This piece of sculpture was brought to England by Mr. Topham in 1725, and was presented to the Museum in 1780 by Sir Joseph Banks and Mr. Frazer.
The next is a bas-relief to Exacestes and his wife, representing the former as a young man, seated on a chair without a back, clothed in a tunic and peplus, and his feet on a footstool. His right hand is joined in that of his wife, who is standing in front of him. A little boy leans against the seat of Exacestes, and a little girl holding a box stands near his wife. In the back-ground is a column, on which is a double cornucopias, and near it another circular column. Over the bas-relief are two crowns of laurel and a circular plate, recording that the Demus has erected this monument in honour of Exacestes, the son of Androbulus, and his wife. This monument originally belonged to Dr. Mead.
The next is a sepulchral monument of a person named Xanthippus, who is represented as an elderly man, bearded, and seated to the left in a chair. In his right hand he holds a human foot. By his side and in front of him stand two females, the first a child. On the lower cornice of a pediment which is sculptured above the figures, is inscribed, in old Greek characters, the name Xanthippus. As the eyes of the female figures are directed towards the foot, it is likely that the monument is a votive one, for the cure of some wound or injury done to that member. We have no means of determining to whom the monument refers. This monument was formerly in the possession of Dr. Askew.
The next is a sepulchral monument inscribed to Isias, the daughter of Metrodorus, a native of Laodicaea, erected, as it would seem, by the Demus of that town in her honour. It represents a female standing by the side of a tree, and holding a sistrum and situlus, draped to the feet, and wearing over the back of her head what seems to be a veil. Over the bas-relief is the inscription and the word Demus in a laurel wreath. The marble has a triangular termination, common in sepulchral monuments. It came from Smyrna, and was purchased at an auction in London, in 1772, by Mr. Duane and Mr. Tyrwhitt, and presented by them to the Museum.
The next, which also came from Smyrna, and was presented by the same two gentlemen, is in like manner a Greek sepulchral monument. The bas-relief in front represents two figures; the one to the right seated Democles, the son of Amphilochus, his right hand joined in that of Democles, the son of Democles. Two smaller figures, apparently sons, stand one behind each of the larger figures. Over each of the heads of the latter figures is a crown of laurel, inscribed with the word Demus. Beneath is an epitaph in eight elegiac verses. Montfaucon supposed that this monument was one erected at the public expense to two persons of equal desert; Mr. Tyrwhitt, on the other hand, attributes it to one person, Democles, the son of Democles, and grandson of Amphilochus, by the son of the deceased, together with the wife of either himself or the deceased.
The next is also a Greek sepulchral monument from Smyrna, and presented, likewise, by the same two gentlemen. It is sacred to the memory of Alexander, the son of Alexander, a native of Nicomedia in Bithynia. In front, within a portico, is a bas-relief, representing a funereal feast, with figures, apparently, of Alexander himself, his mother, Philipia, the daughter of Pontianus, and two children. Beneath is an epitaph, declaring that the tomb has been made for the above-mentioned persons, and ordering a fine of 2500 drachmae to the exchequer, and as many to the state, for whoever deposits any other body in the same tomb.
The next is a marble slab to the memory of Abeita, who is represented sitting, and in front of her a column, on which is a tablet with rolls of paper, and behind her a dog in a fawning attitude. At the bottom is her name in a short inscription.
The next is a fragment of a sepulchral monument to Eperia. It represents a female figure seated, her right hand joined in that of a male figure who is standing before her. Below is an inscription with her name, Eperia, the wife of Demetrius, an Antiochian. The monument appears to have been formerly arched at the top.
The next is a small sepulchral bas-relief, considerably mutilated, and representing a' youth nearly naked, with drapery round his waist, seated on a bank or a rock fishing with an angle; a basket or pannier rests on his left knee. An inscription on it states that it was erected to Asilchus, in remembrance by his comrade Agathemotaros. This marble was purchased at the sale of Lord Besborough's marbles in 1801.
The next is a sepulchral monument bearing a bas-relief, and representing a female seated beneath a circular arch, and inscribed to Musis, the daughter of Argseus, a native of Miletus. The monument has the usual triangulated top, It came from Athens, and was presented to the Museum by the Society of Dilettanti, in 1785.
The next is a sepulchral monument to a man who is represented standing draped in the Pallium, with his hand applied to his cheek: above is the name Sotnikus. The next is a bas-relief, terminating in a pediment, of a man reclining on a couch and crowning himself, below which, within a laurel wreath, is the word Demus and the words Lenaius, the son of Artemodorus; below is an inscription in one hexameter and one pentameter verse, recording that he has formerly commanded a fort in which he is now buried. The next is a sepulchral monument bearing the name of Hermodorus, the son of Aristomenes. Below, within a sunken area, stands a male figure, draped, with the exception of the right arm and breast. The height of the figure is two feet three inches.
The next is a sepulchral tablet with a skeleton; below is an inscription in Greek to the following effect—" O! traveller, who shall be able to say on sight of this skeleton whether the ashes it contains were those of Hylas or Thersites?" (i. e., of a handsome or of a deformed person). This monument, which is of a very late period, probably of the third or fourth century, was purchased from the Burioni Villa, near the Salarian Gate, at Rome.
A sepulchral monument representing the Dioscuri standing with an altar between them, within a distyle temple; each holds a spear in his hand. A mutilated bas-relief, supposed to be sepulchral. It represents a male figure clothed in long drapery holding a bunch of grapes, with a cock at his feet. It was presented to the Museum, in 1833, by Dr. Jarvis. A sepulchral monument of a person, the son of Diodorus, who is represented standing with his cloak round his arm, and a slave looking up at him, and holding his cloak and strigil. This monument was in the collection of the Earl of Belmore. A sepulchral tablet, on which are three members of a family, and the tree of the Hesperides; below is an inscription with a valedictory address, in Greek, for a person named Serapion. A sepulchral tablet of Heraclides, the son of Nicostratus, who takes leave of a female member of his family, another standing by. This monument was in the collection of the Earl of Belmore. A sepulchral tablet of Callityche, the daughter of Briculus, on which she is represented spinning, attended by a child. This monument was discovered in Crete, and belonged to Mr. Inwood. A sepulchral tablet, on which is a person of the name of Alexander, with two small figures at his side, standing upon a wreath, in which is an inscription recording that the people and town council had voted him a crown for good conduct. This monument was also found in Crete, and belonged to Mr. Inwood. No. 31, the front of a tomb, on which is