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the crest rises; over the forehead is a gryphon's head; in the centre of the aegis is a gorgon's head.
Nos. 999, 1000, 1001, and 1004 are curious for their shape. The first is in that of a female bust; the second in that of a gorgon's head; the third in that of a helmeted head; the fourth is that of a left leg and thigh.
VIII. Basilicata and Vases of a late Time.
In the Southern part of Italy, now called the Basilicata, a coarser style arose subsequent to the time of Alexander the Great, the extant specimens of which enable us to trace with considerable accuracy the progressive decline of art. In the style, which then began to prevail, we find clumsy, full forms, resembling those of the Flemish School of Painting, substituted for the graceful forms and proportions of the earlier Grecian style. The shapes of the vases themselves become less elegant; the figures lose distinctness of outline, and are crowded with details often carelessly designed, and an attempt is shown to give landscape distance and perspective, whereas, during the finest period, the figures are always in one plane as on the frieze of the Parthenon. The design of these later vases is drawn in red on a black ground, the inner markings of the figure are gradually less carefully indicated, and white and red colours are introduced in patches on the accessories, destroying the earlier monochrome simplicity of the painting. On the representations of Heroa we find examples of the Sepulchral Monuments of the period, arched tombs apparently situated on the slopes of mountains, and bearing much resemblance to those in Lycia; and within the tomb itself a statue of the Hero, or person commemorated. The Temples and the figures within them are painted white to represent marble; and the figures outside generally appear to be seated one above the other on the sides of hills. The decay of art during the later period is shown by the gradually prevailing practice of reproducing upon the vases subjects which could not be adequately represented upon them. Just as the artists of the Fifteenth Century, losing sight of the true limits of their several provinces, tried to introduce on glass, in the illuminations of MSS., and on the so-called Raftaelle-ware, those refinements of chiaroscuro and colour which do not admit of being transferred without detriment to a new material, so did the Greek vase painters attempt to adapt the elaborate compositions of great Masters like Apollodorus to the confined space and imperfect technical means at their command. The later vases found at Ruvo, some of which we shall describe presently, show that the simple monograph, which was best adapted to the decoration of such objects, was abandoned, and that the painter was compelled to call in to his aid Plastic Art, thus distorting and disfiguring, by the introduction of terra cotta figures and bas-reliefs among the paintings, the true original principles of Greek Fictile Art. The Vases ofTiuvo indicate a branch of Painting gradually becoming the mere accessory to Sculpture.
The subjects on the Vases of the later time very generally represent Dionysiac and Erotic scenes. There are a few with sepulchral subjects. Inscriptions too become gradually more rare. We propose to describe first at some length a few of the finest specimens which belong to the earlier period, and then to notice cursorily and by their numbers some miscellaneous vases of interest either from their beauty or their shape.
Of the earlier ones the finest perhaps is No. 1266, a hydria, with design red on a black ground, containing a great variety of figures and of exquisite workmanship. There are two principal scenes: 1. In the upper division, the rape of the daughters of Leucippus by Castor and Pollux. In the centre of the more distant part of the scene is an archaic statue of a Goddess holding in her right hand a phiale: on the right and left of this statue are the quadrigae of Castor and Pollux, and, in the chariot of the latter, Elera standing: the chariot of Castor is driven by his charioteer Chrysippus. Above this chariot is the name of the maker Meidias. The remaining figures in this composition form the foreground of the scene, and are therefore placed below the groups just described. In the centre of this lower series, below the Archaic figure, is Castor carrying off Eryphile, the sister of Elera; before Eryphile, is one of the Graces, Peitho, flying: these figures are moving on irregular ground, partially covered with herbage. Behind this group and in the centre of the whole scene, is Aphrodite, seated by the side of an Altar, and looking back at Castor and Eryphile; before her crouches Chryseis: and behind her Agave is flying with horror towards Zeus, who is seated on a rock on the extreme left of the composition.
2. In the lower division, two subjects: one on each side of the vase. On the obverse, Heracles with the Hesperides; in the centre of the scene, is the tree with the golden apples, round which is twined the serpent Ladon. On the right of the tree, stands Lipara, one of the daughters of Atlas, looking round at Heracles, who is seated on a rock, over which a lion's skin is thrown: behind Heracles, stands Iolaos: on the left of the tree, is another of the Atlantids, Chrysotherais, stretching out her right hand to gather one of the apples; behind her, is Asicherthre, another of the Atlantids: on the left of this group, Hygieia is seated on a rock; in front of her, and closing the scene, is Klytios, who stands with his left foot on a rock and turns towards Hygieia; two hunting spears rest against his left thigh. 3. On the reverse, a scene from the Argonautica. In the centre of the composition, Aietes, seated on a rock; in front of him, Philoctetes, and behind him a group of three female figures, Elera, Medea, and Niobe. On the right of Aietes is a group of three youthful male figures, Hippomedon, Antiochos, and Klymenos: on the right of this group is another, composed of Oineus and Demophon, and one female figure, Chrysis, who is seated on a rock and bounds the scene on the extreme right. All the male figures in the two groups last described are beardless, and, with the exception of Antiochos, hold hunting spears in their left hands. Their names are inscribed over all the figures in all the compositions.
No. 1265 is a very beautiful Aryballos, with design red on a black ground, containing a group of Eudaimonia, Pandaisia, Hygieia, Eros, and two other figures. Eudaimonia is seated in the centre, on a rock; a winged Eros is flying towards the back of her head: in front of her, stand Pandaisia and Hygieia; on the other side of Eudaimonia, a youthful male figure, holding in his right hand two spears with thongs attached. Between this figure and Eudaimonia, is a laurel-tree, and, behind him, a female figure, over whose head is the word "kale," "she is beautiful." The armlets, necklaces, laurel-berries, and grapes in this scene are raised in relief, and have all been gilt, except the grapes.
No. 1267 is a very fine Apulian Amphora, with design red on a black ground, and accessories in white and brown. On the 1. obv. in the upper division, are Pelops and Oinomaos, taking an oath before the altar of Zeus, previously to the chariot race, in the presence of Hippodameia and Aphrodite: Pelops stands on the left of the Altar, wearing a Phrygian cap, and his left hand resting on two spears; Oinomaos stands near him, wearing a chiton, embroidered with a row of white swans. Behind the Altar is a stele, inscribed "Dios," "[the altar] of Zeus:" above which is a youthful beardless head of one of the slain suitors inscribed "Periphas." Behind Oinomaos, stands Myrtilos, and behind Myrtilos, is Eros flying in the air, and Aphrodite seated on a rock: Eros is represented with female head-attire. Behind Pelops is the nurse of Hippodameia, leading her forward by the hand; the nurse has white hair. Above this group, is a youthful beardless head of another suitor, inscribed with the name "Pelar:" the ground on which the figures in this scene stand is represented by a double irregular line of dots. 2. reverse. Scene of youths and courtezans: in the centre, a youth seated on a rock, before him a female figure holding out a wreath towards him; a bird is flying towards her, with a diadem in its claws: behind this female figure is another youth, holding a mirror in his right hand; behind him, another female holding in her right hand an alabastron. On the left of the figure seated in the centre, is a group of female figures, conversing with a youthful male figure whose left foot is placed on a rock, the ground on which these figures stand being indicated as before by irregular dotted lines studded with flowers: the field of the scene above the figures is seme with flowers. 3. Lower division round the base—a scene probably representing offerings at Tomb of a hero. The Altar is composed of the capital of an Ionic column placed on a square base and surmounted by a hydria: on the right, a female figure advances to place a diadem on it; behind her, a youthful male figure is seated on the ground, holding a wand in his left hand; in front of him, is another similar figure, holding in his right hand a phiale containing fruits; behind him follows a female figure with a diadem in her right hand and a calathus full of fruit in her left. To the right of this figure, and with her face to the front, is a seated female, holding in her right hand a fan and a pyxis half open, and behind her Eros, advancing with a diadem in his hand, and looking back at the same time at another female who is following him at a rapid pace. Behind her, are a male and female figure and another female moving in the opposite direction and approaching the Altar from the left; before and behind her, are a standing and a seated female figure respectively, the last holding an object, formed like a ladder of two parallel sticks united by several transverse bars or rings, perhaps a tambour frame; all the female figures in this scene wear sandals, and the ground on which they are seated slopes down from the Altar on each side, and is indicated by irregular dotted lines and occasional flowers. 4. On the neck of the Vase, obv. a female head bound with a radiated diadem and full face, issuing from the calyx of a flower with luxuriant leaves and tendrils. 5. rev. a female head in profile issuing from another flower, and similarly diademate. No. 1268 is a very interesting Apulian Amphora, with design red and white on a black ground, containing a subject similar to the last. 1. obv. Offerings at the tomb of a Hero. In the centre is the Tomb, in the form of a small distyle temple of the Ionic order, between the columns of which is the seated statue of the Hero, turned towards a youthful male figure who approaches it on the right. On the left of the Tomb, is a female figure, with her left foot on a rock, offering a wreath to the figure of the Hero. The tomb, the figure of the Hero, and the rock are painted white, doubtless to represent marble; in the centre of the pediment, is a shield, on the apex and angles, volutes and pomegranate ornaments. 2. rev. Two naked male figures making an offering at an altar: they stand on the steps, one on each side, each holding in his right hand an ivy-branch. A white and a black scarf encircle the upper part of the Altar. 3. On the neck, is a female head in profile, from the base of which flowers and tendrils diverge on either side.
No. 1565 is an Amphora with medallion handles, and design red, white, yellow, and crimson on a black ground, containing for subjects; l.obv. In a distyle Ionic Temple a youthful Hero, seated and holding his cuirass on his knees with his right hand, and two spears in his left, the ground being indicated by a horizontal row of dots; on the right, is a youth leaning against a square stele or cippus; and on the opposite side of the Temple, is a female figure; both these figures are turned towards the one in the centre. The colouring of the accessories on this vase is very remarkable. In this scene the columns, pediment, and basement of the Temple are painted white, the capitals of the columns and the mouldings being picked out in yellow, and the walls behind left red: the flesh of the hero is painted white, his hair and features being picked out with yellow; his cuirass and shield is of a yellowish white, as if to represent gilding, and has a purple lining: his pilos is white encircled by a yellow ring near the base—his two spears and the two figures on either side of the Temple are of the natural red colour of the clay; the sash behind him is white: the wreath, strigil, and lekythos of the male figure and the stele on which he leans are white, so are the ornaments of the female figure, the bunch of grapes, the flower she holds, and the sash in front of her. 2. rev. Two female figures standing, one on each side of an Altar, on the top of which are objects probably meant for fruit; each figure holds in her right hand a mirror. The mirrors are ornamented with three projections round the edge, and are painted white, as are most of the accessories. 3. On the neck of the obverse, is an Eros seated on the calyx of a flower: in front of his head, is a square wicker-basket surmounted by a row of balls; on either side, a plant with prickly leaves and tendrils. The flesh of this figure and the pinion-feathers of his wings are white, the remainder red. The handles of this vase terminate at their upper attachments in double Gorgoneia or masks of the face of Medusa; on one side