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change but little. They are quite well satisfied with things as they are and they find their solace in the external pleasures of the world. They immerse themselves unreservedly in nature, though they may dream at times of other and better worlds—the dream worlds of fantasy and imagination. Then, too, they have their friends, and an important part of Chinese philosophy is the glorification of friendship. To the Chinese philosophers, as to the Greeks and to some of the poets of the Renaissance, friendship between men partakes of a higher nature than love between the sexes. Women are apt to be looked upon with contempt, as a temptation to folly, and their pursuit regarded as degrading.

But perhaps a greater solace to the poet than nature, his dreams, or his friendships, is his wine cup. He loves to lie in the sunlight and drink himself into such a stupor that no tremor of conscious thought disturbs his inward peace. His jug, like Omar's, is always close at hand, and he has few other cares. After all, he wants very little from life:

“Tell me now, what should a man want
But to sit alone, sipping his wine cup?
I should like to have visitors come and discuss philosophy,
And not to have the tax collectors coming to collect taxes.
My three sons married into good families,
And my five daughters married to steady husbands.
Then I could jog on through a happy five-score years

And, at the end, need no Paradise.” 1 Although life seems to him an experience shot through with sadness, we find the poet clinging tenaciously to it with both hands, and exhibiting an almost childlike dread of the inevitability of death. He does not try to comfort himself with the thought of immortality and a Deity; he is blind to all that and sees only the darkness and oblivion which lie beyond life. He is altogether a fatalist and cares little whence he came or whither he is bound. Life is a voyage on a rudderless ship; man must let the wind and tide bear him whither they will, though there may be sunken reefs along the course and he knows not the port toward which he is headed-if indeed there be any port at all. In the words of Li Po: "In vain we cleave the torrent's thread with steel, In vain we drink to drown the grief we feel; When man's desire with fate doth war thus, this avails aloneTo hoist the sail and let the gale and waters bear us on.” 2 i Arthur Waley: One Hundred and Seventy Chinese Poems. ? Cranmer-Byng: A Lute of Jade.

THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

OF LUDWIG STEIN

BY HARRY ELMER BARNES

I. GENERAL NATURE OF HIS SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY

1. His Leading Works.

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NE of the most important sociologists who uses the German

language as a medium for expressing his ideas, and yet one who has been but little known to English and American readers, is Ludwig Stein (b. 1859), long professor of philosophy in the University of Berne, Switzerland, and since 1910 in Berlin. Stein is particularly distinguished for his work on the history of philosophy and sociology. The second part of Stein's major work, Die sociale Frage im Lichte der Philosophie, Vorlesungen Uber Sozialphilosophie und ihre Geschichte (1897, revised and enlarged edition, 1923), is as much the best history of the development of social philosophy since the earliest Greek writers as Paul Barth's work, Die Philosophie der Geschichte als Soziologie, which appeared in the same year (2nd enlarged edition, 1915), is the most comprehensive and satisfactory treatment of the development of modern sociology since the time of Comte. Stein's other important works, aside from special philosophical monographs, are Wesen und Aufgabe der Soziologie: Eine Kritik der organischen Methode in der Soziologie (1898); Der soziale Optimismus (1905); Die Anfänge der menschlichen Kultur (1906); Philosophische Strömungen der Gegenwart (1908); and Einführung in die Soziologie (1921), a valuable collection of his sociological essays and a handy summary of his social philosophy. Professor Stein's lectures delivered in the United States in 1923-24 are to be printed in a volume entitled, Evolutionary Optimism.

1 I am indebted to Professor Stein for a critical reading of the manuscript. 2 Sociological Papers, 1904, p. 247. Cf, also Wesen und Aufgabe der Soziologie, p. 6, and Philosophische Strömungen der Gegenwart, Chap. xiii; Jacobs, German Sociology, pp. 39-41, briefly summarizes Stein's notions regarding the scope and nature of sociology. For his latest views, see his Einführung, pp. 11-19.

2. The Nature of Sociology.

As might naturally be expected from a professor of philosophy interested in sociology, Stein holds that sociology is really a unifying philosophy of the special social sciences, in the same way that general philosophy is the unifying element in all science. “Sociology is social philosophy, a department of the whole philosophy which systematizes and brings into the most complete formulæ the unity of the different kinds of relations of men which are investigated separately by the respective specialisms.” 2 This is essentially the view of Professors Schaeffle, Barth, and Ratzenhofer in Germany, and of Professor Small in America; it is sharply opposed by Professor Giddings and his followers and, in general, by the statistical school of sociologists.

The three main tasks of sociology, according to Stein, are: (1) the investigation of the history of social institutions; (2) the tracing of the development of social theories, and (3) the formulation of rules and ideals for guiding the social development of the future. This outline of what he believes to be the proper scope of a system of sociology is strictly adhered to in his most important work, Die soziale Frage im Lichte der Philosophie.*

3. Nature and Scope of His Social Philosophy.

The fundamental principles of Stein's social philosophy are those of causality, teleology, and continuity Social causality is manifested in the universal tendency of the various social institutions to change with alterations in the fundamental economic and psychological foundations of society. A good illustration of this principle of causality in society is to be seen in the vast changes in political and social institutions which have taken place since the economic foundations of society have been entirely transformed by 'the Commercial and Industrial Revolutions. The principle of teleology in society is to be discovered in the changes which have been effected in laws and institutions by the conscious action of societyin other words, the attempt of society to improve its own condition. Finally, the element of continuity is to be discerned in the mutual interrelationship of different stages of social evolution, the principle of gradual development, and the almost invariable failure of every attempt suddenly to change the nature of the fundamental institutions of society by revolutions or direct legislation.

3 Sociological Papers, 1904, p. 247.

4 The citations from this work unless otherwise indicated, are based upon the French edition entitled La Question sociale, Paris, 1900. Though I have had available for revision of the manuscript the new German edition of the Soziale Frage, a comparison with the French edition and a conference with Professor Stein failed to reveal any essential changes of doctrine. Hence, I have retained the references to and quotations from the French edition because of the superior ease with which American readers can handle the French.

5 La Question sociale, pp. 39ff.

The basic principle of Stein's interpretation of the phenomenon of association is the old Aristotelian dictum of the instinctive basis of social groupings. Stein's rather peculiar and arbitrary definition of society, however, precludes the possibility of his regarding it as an instinctive product. Like Ferdinand Tönnies, he distinguishes sharply between “community” and “society.” Community life is an instinctive product. The period of community in social existence is found in the primitive social groups of the family and horde. Here the bonds are consanguinity, contiguity, the sexual instinct, common

intellectual interests. The economic and intellectual bonds prepare the way for the development of society out of the previous stage of community.' Society, according to Stein, is a more advanced form of grouping than community. It presupposes, besides contiguity and association, the additional element of conscious coöperative activities. Human groupings do not reach the stage of society until they become purposive organizations. This distinction is, of course, very similar to the differentiation made by Professor Giddings between component and constituent societies, or, again, between instinctive and rational societies, and that maintained by Durkheim between segmentary and functional types of society.

In harmony with his view of the proper scope of sociology, Stein makes a sociological study of the evolution of the family, property, society, the state, language, law, and religion. He next presents his famous history of social philosophy, and concludes his work with an exposition of his program for the solution of the outstanding social problems of the present. Stein is an optimist and believes that civilization is improving and is capable of a high degree of further development through the conscious self-direction of society guided by the laws reached inductively by sociology. His erudition is unquestionable, particularly in the field of philosophical literature, though he is also familiar with the chief works in the field of anthropology and systematic sociology. His original work of 1897 dealing with the problems of social evolution, while well abreast of the average sociological treatments of these subjects, is now antiquated, as it is based upon the generalizations of the classical anthropologists such as Lubbock, Spencer, Tylor, Post, Max Müller, Letourneau, and Grosse. When the volume was printed, however, twenty years ago, these writers were the authorities upon the subject of historical sociology, and to question their conclusions was considered to be almost a sacrilege. It is a sad commentary upon the lack of scientific alertness on the part of sociologists that these very works are still quoted in most contemporary sociological writings with the same degree of reverential credulity which was accorded them a quarter of a century ago.10 In his last work, the Einführung in die Soziologie, and the revised edition of Die Soziale Frage, Stein shows decent familiarity with recent anthropological literature.

6 Ibid., pp. 40-51; 350-54.

7 “La communauté représente cette trame sociale primitive où l'homme, dépourvu de conventions extérieures ou même de sanction légale, rend des services à son sembable, le protège et l'aide grâce à un instinct naturel.” Ibid., p. 63. Cf. p. 192.

8 Ibid., pp. 63-8.

9 “Par 'société' je comprends un mode de coopération constitué par les individus et réglant leurs rapports réciproques. . . . Pour qu'il y ait société, il faut non seulement que les individus vivent les uns à côte des autres, mais encore une coopération de ceux-ci fut-elle instinctive, est nécessaire.Ibid., pp. 114-15. Cf. Jacobs, German Sociology, pp. 33-5. Cf. R. M. Maciver, Community, A Sociological Study.

II. SPECIFIC DOCTRINES REGARDING POLITICAL AND SOCIAL

PROBLEMS

1. Fundamental Concepts and Definitions.

It has already been shown that Stein considers sociology to be the general unifying philosophy of the special social sciences. Theresore, political science is regarded by Stein as one of those subordinate specialisms, the results of which are used by sociology as the basis of its final and unitary survey and arrangement of social data."1 Stein analyzes in detail the essential relations and differences between society and the state. Society may be regarded as the organization

10 As a proof of the hopeless anachronism of current historical sociology compare the prevailing doctrines with the excellent synthesis of the newer point of view in R. H. Lowie's, Primitive Society, A. A. Goldenweiser's Early Civilization, and A. L. Kroeber's Anthropology. See my paper on “The Development of Historical Sociology," in Publications of the American Sociological Society, 1921.

11 La Question sociale, pp. 14ff.; Sociological Papers, 1904, pp. 245-7; Wesen und Aufgable der Sosiologie, pp. 6-7.

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