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SUBTONICS AND ATONICS.
The Subtonics are so called from their vocal properties being somewhat inferior to that of the tonics; and the Atonics so called from their want of tone or vocality.
Each atonic element has its corresponding subtonic, of which it is the vanish or stop sound; as b, sounded until its vocality is lost, gives as its vanishing whisper the peculiar sound of p.
The subtonics are fifteen, and the atonics ten, in number. They are so arranged as to exhibit their correspondence of sound in the following
Subtonics with correspondent Atonics.
1. B in Ebb-Barb-Bade-But. 1. P in Up-Par-Pope-Pit. 2. D "Did-Down-Duke-Do. 2. T "It-Tall-Tune-Tin. 3. G"Egg-Get-Game-Go. 3. K "Kill-Cork-Cat-Cut. 4. V "Ever-Save- Velvet. 4. F 66 If-Farm-Fife—Fit. 5. Z "Buzz-Zealous-Zone. 5. S "Sin-Salt-Seen-Set. 6. Zh" Azure-Seizure-Vizier. 6. Sh" Shun-Bush-Shame. 7. Th" This-Father-Thy-- The. 7. Th" Thin-Thong-Breath. 8. Y "Yet-Yam-Yield-Yes. 8. H" He-Hit-Hard-Hot. 9. W" Woe-- Warm-- Wit-- We. 9. Wh" When-What-Wheel. 10. J "Judge-Jar-Jew-Jet. 10. Ch" Church-Chalk-Chain. Subtonics having no correspondent Atonics.
11. R in Rap-Raw-Bride.
15. Ng " Sing-Prong--Sung.
1. The element r is repeated in the table in order to show its softened sound when used final, or before a subtonic or atonic.
2. C, q and x, represent no sound not denoted by other letters.
3. W and y are used, according to their position in words, as
tonic or subtonic elements.
4. The subtonics and atonics are called consonants by grammarians, and are distinguished from the elements called vowels, as sounds modified in their formation by the organs of speech coming more or less in contact.
Why are the Subtonics so called? Why are Atonics so called? How do the atonics correspond with the subtonics? How many subtonics are there? How many atonics? What is the vanish or stop sound of b? Of d? Of g? Of v? &c. To what subtonic does p correspond? To what t? &c. Which subtonics have no correspondent atonics? When is the sound of r softened? Which letters represent no peculiar sound of their own? How are w and y used? How do consonants and vowels differ?
1. B, p, m, w, wh, v, and ƒ, owing their formation principally to the lips, have been called labials. D, t, th in this, th in thin, z and s, elements formed by the aid of the teeth, are denominated dentals. From the agency of the tongue in their articulation, j, ch, zh, sh, l, and r, take the name of linguals; and g, k, y and h,* on account of being articulated chiefly by aid of the palate, or the back part of the mouth, are by some called palatals. N and ng, being modified in their utterance by the nostrils, have received the name of nasals.
2. By trying to pronounce forcibly the word ebb, with the lips closely shut, a murmuring sound will be heard from the chest, which is the element b. To form the sound of p, close the lips as in b, and then force them suddenly apart, with an explosive whisper. M is also made with the lips closed, and is heard, while the breath is passing through the nostrils, as a murmuring resonance in the head. W is a vocal sound produced with the lips curved and mouth contracted, as in the act of whistling. A whispering or aspirated sound, commencing far down in the throat, with the lips and mouth as in w, will produce the sound of wh. The sound of v is obtained by pressing the upper fore-teeth upon the lower lip, with a murmuring resonance in the head and chest. F is an aspirated utterance, with the mouth as in v.
3. In forming the element d, the mouth is a little way open, while a murmuring vocal sound is modified by forcibly pressing the tip of the tongue against the gums, just above the upper teeth. T is a whisper produced with the tongue placed as in d. Th in this is formed by emitting a vocal sound, with the tongue pressed against the upper fore-teeth. Th in thin is an aspirated lisping sound, produced by forcing the breath between the teeth, with the tongue placed as in the other th. Z is a vocalized hissing sound, uttered between the open teeth, with the end of the tongue placed against the gum, just above the upper fore-teeth. The aspirated hissing sound of s is produced by forcing out the breath with the mouth placed as in z.
4. In uttering j, the tongue is somewhat drawn in and thrown up against the roof of the mouth, and a murmuring and rustling sound, produced by an escape of breath, is heard from the chest. To produce ch, close the teeth, and press the forepart and the edges of the tongue firmly against the roof of the mouth, and then, at the instant of separating the teeth and dropping the point of the tongue, make a hissing emission of breath. In the formation of zh, the forepart of the tongue is drawn up nearly to the roof of the mouth, allowing an emission of partially vocalized breath between the tongue and teeth. Sh is a whispered utterance with the mouth, as in zh. L is made by raising the tip of the tongue to the roof of the mouth, and allowing the breath to pass out by the sides of the tongue, in a vocalized sound. R is formed by allowing the breath, with a slightly vibrating dentals? Which the linguals? How is b formed? How f? How d? How s? How j?
How p? How t? How ch?
Which are the labials? Which the Which the palatals? Which are the nasals? How m? How w? How wh? How v? How th in this? How th in thin? How z? How zh? How sh? How l? How r?
* H is by some elocutionists classed by itself, and called an aspirate.
sound, to pass over the tongue, with its tip nearly to the gum, just above the upper fore-teeth.
5. G as in egg is produced by opening the mouth, and pressing the roof of the tongue against the palate. K is formed the same as g, except that the action against the palate is more forcible, and by means simply of a breathing. Y is formed by an expulsion of sound with moderate force, with the mouth and tongue as in g. His a whispering sound, produced by a hard breathing, with the mouth and throat partially open.
6. N is formed with the mouth and tongue as in d, and allowing the vocalized breath to escape through the nose. Ng is executed as g, except with the sound through the nose as in n.
I. Subtonics and Atonics.
Ebb, bib, babe, ball, beat, boon, curb, drab, globe, but, by. 2. D.
Did, deed, dared, dawn, dun, led, rod, add, odd, dye, do. 3. G. Egg, gag, gig, drag, drug, gem, gone, gild, bog, gum.
4. V. Ever, valve, hive, grave, vice, veer, vain, move, of, voice. 5. Z. Buzz, ooze, zone, haze, zinc; rose, was, suffice, Xenophon. 6. Zh. Azure, grazier, glazier, hosier, measure, pleasure, treasure. 7. Th.
This, they, thou, smooth, bathe, swathe, there, thither. 8. Y.
Ye, yell, yarn, yoke, yawn, your, yield, year, young, yea. 9. W. Woe, wed, weak, win, wit, world, wail, west, waste, wood. 10. J.
Judge, just, joint, jeer, jaw; gem, wage, cage, ginger. 11. R.
Rap, rain, round, read, learn, stir, morn, door, roar. 12. L.
Loll, lad, lie, low, law, all, well, dull, mill, full, fall.
How is 8. in egg formed? How k? How y? How h? How n? How ng? How many labials are there? How many dentals? How many linguals? How many palatals? How many nasals? Articulate the element at the head of each illustration, and then pronounce its words.
Mum, maim, him, moss, helm, dumb, rim, gum, same, am.
Nun, name, cane, nail, new, noun, man, pen, run, rain. 15. Ng. Sing, song, rung, young, wing, bank, drank, ink, wink. 1. P.
Up, pipe, pap, hope, pass, pull, prop, peal, top, sup. 2. T.
It, tint, tide, tone, tug, bet, debt, rushed, helped, stopped. 3. K.
Kill, keep, kite, kin, call, cull, cork, black, quack, quote. 4. F.
If, fine, fall, fee, off, raft, laugh, rough, phrase, phantom.
Sin, save, sound, sum, press, miss, glass, cease, slice, city. 6. Sh.
Shun, shame, show, sheen, clash, chaise, ocean, passion. 7. Th. Thin, theme, thorn, thank, thirst, hath, lath, north, moth. 8. H.
He, hole, had, haul, horse, hot, hill, help, heel, hut, hood. 9. Wh. When, where, who, what, whet, whisk, whirl, whale, why. 10. Ch.
Church, charm, check, child, march, rich, much, such, chop.
II. Subtonic Combinations.
1. Bl, dl, gl, rl, vl, zl, lb, ld, lm, In. - Able, handle, glow, hurl, driv'l, muzz'l, bulb, fold, film, fall'n.
2. Br, dr, gr, rb, rd, rg, rm, rn. Brand, draw, grave, barb, lard, barge, arm, barn.
3. Bz, dz, gz, thz, lz, mz, nz, rz, vz. breathes, falls, tombs, fans, wars, lives.
- Robes, deeds, begs,
4. Gd, jd, ld, md, nd, ngd, bld, dld, gld, rld, zld. - Begg'd, wedg'd, fold, doom'd, land, hang'd, hobbl'd, addľ'd, haggl'd, snarl'd, muzzl❜d.
5. Lbd, rbd, lmd, rmd, dnd, rnd, snd, rvd.—Bulb'd, barb'd, film'd, arm'd, madd'n'd, burn'd, reas'n'd, carv'd.
Articulate each of the subtonics in order. Articulate in like manner each of the atonics. Articulate each element of the combinations by itself, - then the combinations,-after which pronounce the words of the illustration.
6. Rbz, rdz, rmz, rnz, rvz, dnz, zmz, znz. arms, barns, carves, madd'ns, spasms, pris'ns.
7. Lbz, lvz, lmz, ldz, blz, dlz, glz, rlz, vlz, zlz.— Bulbs, elves, films, folds, cables, addles, mangles, hurls, driv'ls, muzzles.
III. Atonic Combinations.
1. Fs, ks, ps, ts, sk, sp, st.-Cliffs, rocks, caps, bats, mask, spend, stone.
2. Fth, pth, fths, pths, fts, pts, sps, sts. — Fifth, depth, fifths, depths, wafts, crypts, clasps, rests.
3. Ft, kt, pt, sht, cht, skt, spt, fst, pst. — Oft, sack'd, crept, push'd, fetch'd, mask'd, clasp'd, laugh'st, lap'st.
IV Subtonic and Atonic Combinations.
1. Fl, kl, pl, sl, tl, lsh, lth, lk, lp, ls, lt.- Fling, cling, plume, slay, title, filch, health, milk, help, false, halt.
2. Fr, kr, pr, tr, rf, rch, rk, rp, rs, rt. From, crown, prance, trade, turf, search, hark, harp, hearse, cart.
3. Mf, mp, mt, ngk, nch, nt, kn, sn, vn.- Nymph, hemp, tempt, ink, linch, meant, tak'n, snow, ev'n.
4. Knd, pnd, pld, sld, tld, lft, lkt, lpt.— Beck'n'd, op'n'd, rippl'd, nestl'd, titl'd, delft, milk'd, help'd.
5. Rth, rsh, rft, rkt, rnt, rpt, sht, skt.-North, marsh, wharf'd, work'd, burnt, harp'd, smash'd, mask'd.
6. Lfs, mfs, lks, lts, nts, ngths, lths. — Gulfs, nymphs, milks, halts, wants, lengths, healths.
7. Dst, gst, fst, lst, mst, nst, pst, rst.— Didst, begg'st, laugh'st, fall'st, comb'st, winc'd, rapp'st, burst.
8. Blst, dlst, fist, glst, klst, plst, rist, tlst, zlst.—Troubl'st, handl'st, trifl'st, mangl'st, wrinkl'st, help'st, hurl'st, settl'st, muzzl❜st.
9. Bdst, gdst, ldst, ndst, rdst, vdst, rlst, ntst.- Prob'd'st, begg'd'st, hurt'd'st, send'st, liv'd'st, hurl'st, want'st.
10. Rbst, rmst, dnst, knst, rnst, rvst, znst. - Barb'st, warm'st, hard'n'st, black'n'st, burn'st, curv'st, impris'n'st.
11. Bldst, didst, gldst, kldst, rldst, tldst, vldst.—Troubl'dst, fondl'dst, mangl'dst, wrinkl'dst, hurl'dst, settl'dst, drivl❜dst.
12. Lmdst, rmdst, rndst, dndst, kndst, zndst.—Whelm'dst, arm'dst, burn'dst, hard'n'dst, black'n'dst, impris'n'dst.
In the subtonic and atonic combinations, point out which elements are subtonics and which atonics. Explain how these differ.