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range is limited either in upward or downward slide, or both, by half tone intervals.

The plaintive is better suited than any other kind of voice to subdue and soften, and to enlist sympathy. Its peculiar touching and moving effects are very much augmented by combination with the monotone, or intermittent stress.

Plaintiveness is usually exhibited with purity of tone, but may sometimes very properly be an accompaniment of the orotund or aspirated voice.


1. Cheerfulness, gayety, joy, pathos, love, sorrow, solemnity, and tranquillity, when not combined with other emotions, require the pure tone.

2. Pathos, solemnity, tranquillity, and joy, when combined with grandeur or sublimity, also energetic or vehement forms of address, for the most part, demand the orotund.

3. Wonder, amazement, terror, horror, excessive anger, revenge, despair and remorse, also most ardent and fervent forms of expression, usually require the aspirated quality.

4. Hatred, malignity, aversion, loathing, contempt, impatience, and the like feelings, require guttural quality.

5. Grief, sorrow, complaint, lamentation, penitence, commiseration, tenderness, supplication, and entreaty, usually demand an expression more or less of a plaintive nature.


1. Cheerfulness and Gayety.

When o'er the hills, like a gladsome bride,
Morning walks forth in her beauty's pride,
And, leading a band of laughing hours,
Brushes the dew from the nodding flowers;
Oh! cheerily then my voice is heard,
Mingling with that of the soaring bird.

2. Joy.

Then is Orestes blest! My griefs are fled!
Fled like a dream! Methinks I tread in air!

Surprising happiness! unlooked for joy!
Never let love despair! Thy prize is mine!

3. Love and Tenderness.*

Me let the tender office long engage,
To rock the cradle of reposing age;

To what is plaintiveness suited? With what is it accompanied? What is rule first? Rule second? Rule third? Rule fourth? Rule fifth? Apply the rules to the illustrations. Define cheerfulness. Gayety. Joy.

* Plaintive.

With lenient arts extend a mother's breath,
Make languor smile, and smooth the bed of death,
Explore the thought, explain the asking eye,
And keep at least one parent from the sky.

4. Pathos, Solemnity, and Grandeur.
The year
Has gone, and with it many a glorious throng
Of happy dreams. Its mark is on the brow,
Its shadow in each heart. In its swift course
It waved its sceptre o'er the beautiful;
And they are not. It laid its pallid hand
Upon the strong man; and the haughty form
Is fallen, and the flashing eye is dim.
It trod the hall of revelry, where thronged
The bright and joyous; and the tearful wail
Of stricken ones is heard where erst the song
And reckless shout resounded.

5. Solemnity and Sublimity.
The hills,
Rock-ribbed and ancient as the sun, the vales,
Stretching in pensive quietness between,
The venerable woods,- -rivers that move

In majesty, and the complaining brooks,
That make the meadows green,—and, poured 'round all,
Old ocean's gray and melancholy waste,
Are but the solemn decorations all
Of the great tomb of man.

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6. Joy and Sublimity.

Awake, my heart, awake!
Green vales and icy cliffs, all join my hymn!
Ye living flowers, that skirt the eternal frost!
Ye wild goats, sporting round the eagle's nest!
Ye eagles, playmates of the mountain storm!
Ye lightnings, the dread arrows of the clouds!
Ye signs and wonders of the elements ! -
Utter forth God, and fill the hills with praise!

7. Earnest and Energetic Address.

I hope, sir, that gentlemen will deliberately survey the awful isthmus on which we stand. They may bear down all opposition. They may carry the measure triumphantly through this house. But if they do, sir, in my humble judg

Define pathos. Grandeur. Energetic.

ment, it will be a triumph of the military over the civil authority—a triumph over the powers of this house a triumph over the constitution of the land—and I pray, sir, most devoutly, that it may not prove, in its ultimate effects and consequences, a triumph over the liberties of the people. 8. Vehement Command.

Strike till the last armed foe expires!
Strike for your altars and your fires!
Strike for the green graves of your sires!
God, and your native land!

9. Wonder and Amazement.

How ill this taper burns! Ha! who comes here!
I think it is the weakness of mine eyes,
That shapes this monstrous apparition !
It comes upon me! - Art thou anything?

10. Terror and Horror.

Have mercy, Heaven! Ha! soft! 't was but a dream!
But then so terrible, it shakes my soul!
Cold drops of sweat hang on my trembling flesh!
My blood grows chilly, and I freeze with horror!

11. Despair and Remorse.

With diadem and sceptre high advanced,
The lower still I fall, only supreme
In misery! Such joy ambition finds!

12. Anger and Revenge.

O, that the slave had forty thousand lives!
One is too poor, too weak, for my revenge!
Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell!
Yield up, O love, thy crown and hearty throne
To tyrannous hate '

13. Ardent Expression of Courage.
You see yon foremost squadron there,
The thickest of the foes,
And there your banner goes!
Let him that serves and honors it
Show the duty that he owes !

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Define vehement. Wonder. Amazement. Remorse. Anger. Revenge.

Terror. Horror. Despair.

14. Hatred and Aversion.

I hate him, for he is a Christian;
But more, for that, in low simplicity,
He lends out money gratis, and brings down
The rate of usance with us here in Venice.
If I can catch him once upon the hip,

I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him!

15. Loathing and Contempt.

Thou worm! thou viper!—to thy native earth
Return! Away! Thou art too base for man
To tread upon.
Thou scum! Thou reptile!

16. Impatience.

Brutus. Shall I be frighted when a madman stares? Cassius. O ye gods! ye gods! must I endure all this?

17. Complaint and Lamentation.*

Alas! my noble boy! that thou shouldst die!
Thou who wert made so beautifully fair!
That death should settle in thy glorious eye,

And leave his stillness in this clustering hair!
How could he mark thee for the silent tomb,
My proud boy, Absalom!

18. Supplication and Entreaty.*

Forsake me not thus, Adam! Witness, Heaven,
What love sincere, and reverence in my heart,
I bear thee, and unwitting have offended,
Unhappily deceived! Thy suppliant,
I beg and clasp thy knees; bereave me not,
Whereon I live, thy gentle looks, thy aid,
Thy counsel in this uttermost distress,
My only strength and stay. Forlorn of thee,
Whither should I betake me, where subsist?

19. Grief, Sorrow, and Commiseration.*

As the men approached with cords to lower the coffin into the grave, she wrung her hands, and broke into an agony of grief. The poor woman who attended her took her by the

Define hatred. Aversion. Loathing. Contempt. Impatience. Lamentation. Supplication. Entreaty. Sorrow.

* Plaintive.


arm, endeavoring to raise her from the earth, and to whisper Nay, now, something like consolation. - nay, now, don't take it so sorely to heart.” She could only shake her head and wring her hands, as one not to be comforted.

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MOVEMENT, in elocution, as in music, refers to the time or rate of utterance.

The most common distinctions of movement are into moderate, slow, very slow, lively, brisk, and rapid.

The degree or kind of movement must correspond with the pervading sentiment of the language, the action described, and the nature of the feeling or emotion expressed.

The rate of utterance for unimpassioned thought is usually moderate; and that for impassioned expression, quick proportionably as the feeling is lively or rapid, or slow proportionably as the emotion is more or less grave and deep.

The fault in movement most to be guarded against by readers and speakers is, that of a uniform use of either a moderate, slow, or quick rate, without regard to the sentiment or language uttered.


1. Didactic thought, and simple narration or description, require the moderate movement.

2. Pathos, reverence, solemnity, and language expressive of grandeur, vastness, and the like, demand the slow movement. 3. Deep solemnity, adoration, awe, horror and consternation, require very slow movement,

4. Cheerfulness, liveliness, and the gentler forms of all vivid emotions, find appropriate utterance in the lively movement. 5. Gayety, joy and humor, demand the brisk movement. 6. Hurry, confusion, violent anger and sudden fear, require the rapid rate of utterance.


1. Didactic Thought and Simple Narration.

The old philosopher we read of, might not have been dreaming when he discovered that the order of the sky was like a scroll of written music, and that two stars (which are

To what does Movement refer? Which are the common distinctions of movement? To what must the movement correspond? What fault is mentioned? What is the rule for moderate movement? For slow movement? For very slow movement? For lively movement? For brisk movement? For rapid movement? Define didactic. Apply the rules.

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