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range is limited either in upward or downward slide, or both, by half tone intervals.
The plaintive is better suited than any other kind of voice to subdue and soften, and to enlist sympathy. Its peculiar touching and moving effects are very much augmented by combination with the monotone, or intermittent stress.
Plaintiveness is usually exhibited with purity of tone, but may sometimes very properly be an accompaniment of the orotund or aspirated voice.
RULES FOR QUALITY.
1. Cheerfulness, gayety, joy, pathos, love, sorrow, solemnity, and tranquillity, when not combined with other emotions, require the pure tone.
2. Pathos, solemnity, tranquillity, and joy, when combined with grandeur or sublimity, also energetic or vehement forms of address, for the most part, demand the orotund.
3. Wonder, amazement, terror, horror, excessive anger, revenge, despair and remorse, also most ardent and fervent forms of expression, usually require the aspirated quality.
4. Hatred, malignity, aversion, loathing, contempt, impatience, and the like feelings, require guttural quality.
5. Grief, sorrow, complaint, lamentation, penitence, commiseration, tenderness, supplication, and entreaty, usually demand an expression more or less of a plaintive nature.
1. Cheerfulness and Gayety.
When o'er the hills, like a gladsome bride,
Then is Orestes blest! My griefs are fled!
Surprising happiness! unlooked for joy!
3. Love and Tenderness.*
Me let the tender office long engage,
To what is plaintiveness suited? With what is it accompanied? What is rule first? Rule second? Rule third? Rule fourth? Rule fifth? Apply the rules to the illustrations. Define cheerfulness. Gayety. Joy.
With lenient arts extend a mother's breath,
4. Pathos, Solemnity, and Grandeur.
5. Solemnity and Sublimity.
In majesty, and the complaining brooks,
6. Joy and Sublimity.
Awake, my heart, awake!
7. Earnest and Energetic Address.
I hope, sir, that gentlemen will deliberately survey the awful isthmus on which we stand. They may bear down all opposition. They may carry the measure triumphantly through this house. But if they do, sir, in my humble judg
Define pathos. Grandeur. Energetic.
ment, it will be a triumph of the military over the civil authority—a triumph over the powers of this house a triumph over the constitution of the land—and I pray, sir, most devoutly, that it may not prove, in its ultimate effects and consequences, a triumph over the liberties of the people. 8. Vehement Command.
Strike till the last armed foe expires!
9. Wonder and Amazement.
How ill this taper burns! Ha! who comes here!
10. Terror and Horror.
Have mercy, Heaven! Ha! soft! 't was but a dream!
11. Despair and Remorse.
With diadem and sceptre high advanced,
12. Anger and Revenge.
O, that the slave had forty thousand lives!
13. Ardent Expression of Courage.
Define vehement. Wonder. Amazement. Remorse. Anger. Revenge.
Terror. Horror. Despair.
14. Hatred and Aversion.
I hate him, for he is a Christian;
I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him!
15. Loathing and Contempt.
Thou worm! thou viper!—to thy native earth
Brutus. Shall I be frighted when a madman stares? Cassius. O ye gods! ye gods! must I endure all this?
17. Complaint and Lamentation.*
Alas! my noble boy! that thou shouldst die!
And leave his stillness in this clustering hair!
18. Supplication and Entreaty.*
Forsake me not thus, Adam! Witness, Heaven,
19. Grief, Sorrow, and Commiseration.*
As the men approached with cords to lower the coffin into the grave, she wrung her hands, and broke into an agony of grief. The poor woman who attended her took her by the
Define hatred. Aversion. Loathing. Contempt. Impatience. Lamentation. Supplication. Entreaty. Sorrow.
arm, endeavoring to raise her from the earth, and to whisper Nay, now, something like consolation. - nay, now, don't take it so sorely to heart.” She could only shake her head and wring her hands, as one not to be comforted.
MOVEMENT, in elocution, as in music, refers to the time or rate of utterance.
The most common distinctions of movement are into moderate, slow, very slow, lively, brisk, and rapid.
The degree or kind of movement must correspond with the pervading sentiment of the language, the action described, and the nature of the feeling or emotion expressed.
The rate of utterance for unimpassioned thought is usually moderate; and that for impassioned expression, quick proportionably as the feeling is lively or rapid, or slow proportionably as the emotion is more or less grave and deep.
The fault in movement most to be guarded against by readers and speakers is, that of a uniform use of either a moderate, slow, or quick rate, without regard to the sentiment or language uttered.
RULES FOR MOVEMENT.
1. Didactic thought, and simple narration or description, require the moderate movement.
2. Pathos, reverence, solemnity, and language expressive of grandeur, vastness, and the like, demand the slow movement. 3. Deep solemnity, adoration, awe, horror and consternation, require very slow movement,
4. Cheerfulness, liveliness, and the gentler forms of all vivid emotions, find appropriate utterance in the lively movement. 5. Gayety, joy and humor, demand the brisk movement. 6. Hurry, confusion, violent anger and sudden fear, require the rapid rate of utterance.
1. Didactic Thought and Simple Narration.
The old philosopher we read of, might not have been dreaming when he discovered that the order of the sky was like a scroll of written music, and that two stars (which are
To what does Movement refer? Which are the common distinctions of movement? To what must the movement correspond? What fault is mentioned? What is the rule for moderate movement? For slow movement? For very slow movement? For lively movement? For brisk movement? For rapid movement? Define didactic. Apply the rules.