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religion as such; denying that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, and setting himself up as the object of religious worship; possessed, during his reign of all power in earth, and openly trampling upon all law civil and divine. There is therefore no necessity to underrate the evil of the Romish errors, when we assert that there are errors foretold in prophecy of a character essentially different, and infinitely more mischievous. Nor need the most zealous Protestant be under the smallest apprehension that this assertion will, in any way, undermine or weaken our defences against Rome. We may still rest on the unanswered and unanswerable arguments of our divines, which have demonstrated the peculiarities of Romanism to be modern corruptions, unknown to Holy Scripture, and repugnant to the sense of the old Catholic Fathers and Doctors.'-(Preface, pp. xxiv-xxvi.)
In calling attention back to the primitive mode of interpretation, Dr Todd has done essential service to the Church. This principle was as far as we can discover-universally recognised throughout the Church for two or three centuries, a circumstance which cannot be predicated of either of those which succeeded it. One feature peculiar to it is, that as it was first offered to the Church, so it is still as applicable to her state as ever; and that, whilst it leads us to look forward to events yet to come, it must have a powerful influence on Christians personally,-extending to their faith and practice in every particular.
According to this principle the general scope of the mysterious book of the Revelation becomes plain and intelligible. The same may be said of the prophecies of Daniel and St Paul. Their principal drift can hardly be mistaken. Hitherto Churchmen, who observed the serious evils-or at all events, the utter unprofitableness which accompanied the popular method of interpretation, were deterred from offering any explanation of the prophecies to their fellow-Christians. This will no longer be the case. Without any tendency to generate fanaticism or to nourish an unchristian and uncharitable spirit in the minds of their disciples, the doctors of the Church will find that they may bring the solemn truths of unfulfilled prophecy to bear on the understanding and the heartto instruct as well as to interest-to produce sober conviction, and not merely gaping wonder and ignorant admiration.
But whilst the great object of the prophecy is, according to the literal interpretation, clear and explicit, it is not to be supposed that there are not difficulties in regard to the meaning of many of
the details. Dr Todd feels these difficulties, and frankly acknowledges it. Thus, for example, he confesses that the vision of the woman in travail, who was delivered of a man-child, presents difficulties which he knows not how to solve, and of which no interpretation, with which he is acquainted, appears to him to have furnished any sufficient explanation. But although this may be the case, that does not in any way militate against the principle of interpretation which he advocates, nor detract from its value in elucidating the general meaning of the prophecy. As he very truly remarks,— 'Our knowledge of the prophecies which speak of the last days of the Church, is yet in its infancy; we have hitherto been studying them upon a wrong hypothesis, seeking, as it were, the living among the dead, and labouring to adapt fanciful and far-fetched fulfilments to predictions which are unfulfilled. It need not, therefore, excite much wonder that many things should long remain obscure and unintelligible to us, still less should we hesitate to acknowledge the difficulties that oppose us, or blush to confess our doubts or ignorance.'-P. 247.
We have perused Dr Todd's volumes with the greatest satisfaction and advantage, and have met with very little either to modify our praise or to make us hesitate in going along with him in all that he advances. The only instances which occur to us, where we felt any doubts, are when he speaks so decidedly in reference to the Jews,— not merely of their restoration to the Holy Land, but of their rebuilding the temple, and re-establishing the ancient polity. He seems fully to adopt the opinion of some of the earlier commentators, that the temple will be rebuilt, and the Mosaic religion and polity restored by Antichrist. So, in his interpretation of some of the visions, we think he has confined himself too literally, so to speak, to the very words of the prophecy. In these instances, which, after all, are only of secondary importance, he appears to us to have fallen into the same mistake as the Millenarians, in primitive times, who were the means of bringing the literal principle of interpretation into disrepute, and who, as Dr Todd himself remarks, by an abuse or exaggeration of Scriptural truth, led to the abandonment of the truth itself.'-P. 14. We mention this with the view of shewing that in the management of the great principle of interpretation which he has recalled to notice, Dr Todd may occasionally be slightly inexpert. Nor is this to be wondered at, when we consider the magnitude and difficulty of the task which he has, almost single-handed, undertaken.
But the value of his work is not sensibly affected by this, even if our opinions in regard to the matter should be well founded. The great principle which it unfolds is untouched.
The adoption of this principle will have an immediate and practical consequence on the minds of Churchmen. We cannot embrace it without feeling the necessity of watching for the appearance, and guarding against the power of that rebellious spirit, which, from the beginning, has been preparing the way for the revelation of Antichrist, and which, as the time draws near, will assume a more fearful aspect, and act with more pernicious influence. This spirit may be discovered in every one who rebels against the authority of Christ in His Church, in every one who disturbs the peace of His kingdom, -in every one who exalts his own opinion above the will of God. It may be seen in individuals, in sects, and in the world. By adopting the primitive principle of interpretation, we find our position strengthened by being able to point, not exclusively to the Pope, but to every powerful leader of any denomination or alliance, who may set himself up against the Divine authority, by seeking to corrupt the doctrines, abrogate the laws, or subvert the institutions of the Gospel. Every one, whether Papist or Protestant, leader or follower, churchman or dissenter, who either adds to the faith and ordinances of our Lord, or detracts from them, becomes a type and forerunner of the great apostate, and is preparing the way for his revelation in the last time.
Before concluding, we may mention that we were much struck with what Dr Todd says, in order to determine who are the two witnesses of the prophecy. But as we ourselves felt the most intense interest throughout the whole course of his reasoning on this point, we will not deprive the readers of his lectures of a similar pleasure by prematurely revealing the conclusion at which he arrives-a conclusion, not less unexpected than probable, but certainly as far away as possible from that of the crowd of modern expositors. This is one of the points, however, in which, while we are disposed to agree with him on the main question, we think he may have pressed the literal interpretation, in regard to the details, a little too far.
In taking leave of Dr Todd, we have little hesitation in predicting that the principle revived by him will recommend itself to all Catholic minded Christians; that the awful mysteries, revealed in the Apocalypse, will henceforth be studied with the most beneficial results; and that both clergy and laity will-without the fear of being led into
fanaticism-be able to apply themselves, in a humble and reverential spirit, to deep meditation on this most momentous portion of the revealed will of God. Thus, through the merits of the Lamb, they will win for themselves the reward promised in the opening words of the prophecy :- Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things that are written therein : for the time is at hand.'
WHEN we put forth, a few weeks since, some desultory remarks on the state of our national defences, and on the moral reflections to which our political and social position ought to give rise, we did so with little anticipation of the astounding events which have recently occurred in a neighbouring kingdom, the destinies of which have always exercised a most important influence on our own.
Few people, we believe, ever really imagined, that what we must now call the late dynasty of France, would be able to retain a permanent possession of that sovereignty; and it required no great depth of thought or reflection to foretell the probability, at least, that when the master spirit should be withdrawn, the less talented successors would be utterly unable to control the discordant elements over which they would have to preside.
But the event which has now occurred, is but another sample of the fallaciousness of human calculations, proving, also, that the wisdom of man is foolishness before God; for none anticipated that the punishment would fall where the guilt was incurred. A monarch, apparently strong in his power, and unshaken on his throne, surrounded by an army capable of quelling any popular disturbance, and supposed to be faithful to his interests, on a sudden finds himself overwhelmed with popular fury, obliged to fly for personal safety, leaving his palaces and private effects to be destroyed by the savage brutality of an insurrectionary mob,-his family dispersed, and seeking safety in rapid flight, while his power, so carefully constructed and strengthened by a prudent and crafty exercise of consummate political wisdom during the course of seventeen years, is in a few hours prostrated in the dust, leaving not a relic to save his capital from the blind and onward fury of democracy and republicanism.
It would be useless to recapitulate the course of events so familiar to every reader; but the subject is well worthy of consideration, as presenting an instance of retributive justice. The life of Louis Philippe of Orleans has been long and eventful; and, endued as he has been, with a most persevering spirit, and deep political sagacity, he has not suffered the various adventures of life to pass, without reaping the fruits of experience. But his wisdom has been entirely worldly wisdom; and his acute perception of character has taught him only to make use of those, whom he has encircled within his control, for his own selfish purposes: the end and aim of all his actions and contrivances, however cautiously devised, has been unlimited self-aggrandisement. In this respect he bears a striking resemblance to one of his legitimate predecessors, Louis XI. of France, whose whole life was spent in a similar spirit, utterly irrespective of all religious and moral principle or example. We are not for a moment intending to compare the private character of the two individuals, for the former Louis was the impersonation of everything diabolical; and the moral character of Louis Philippe is, we believe, unimpeachable; but making due allowance for the difference of times, there is a great resemblance between them in want of good faith, and that stealthy craftiness of action, which pursues an object per fas atque nefas, and scarcely avows the pursuit, till the object is attained.
Louis Philippe was elevated to the 'bad eminence' (we mean bad with reference to his mode of attaining it) which he has so long occupied, by the power of an insurrectionary mob, and by the same has he fallen from his high estate. By the hands that made him what he was, has he been unmade. He has sown the wind, and he has reaped the whirlwind. This might, in some sense, be considered retributive justice towards others towards those whom he superseded; that, unjustly elevated, he has been in the same manner deprived; but the retribution is more strongly marked, and more directly applicable to himself, from the demeanour which he exhibited since placed in power, towards those who placed him there. More arbitrary than his legitimate predecessor, he has done with impunity, by the aid of political craftiness and dexterity, what that unfortunate monarch could not do. Once seated on his ill-gained throne, he broke through every promise, on the faith of which he was seated there, cast his constitutional citizenship to the winds, and plainly evinced, that he well knew and determined to practise the maxim of kicking from under him the ladder by which he had ascended, when the elevation was once at