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rated concerning these and certain other premises with the foresaid our brethren, and with their advice and assent, and fulness of apostolic power to the praise and glory of the Almighty God and of the whole court of heaven, and to the exaltation of the orthodox faith of the universal Church, and increase of the worship of God and salvation of souls, do erect, by the tenor of these presents, the aforesaid Church and Episcopal See of S. Andrew into a Metropolitan and Archi-episcopal See of the aforesaid kingdom with the aforesaid authority, and from a gift of special grace do adorn and likewise ennoble it with the title of Metropolitan dignity and Archiepiscopal honour, and we do assign to it the Churches of Glasgow, and Dunkeld and Aberdeen, as well as of Moray and Brechin, and Dumblane and Ross and Caithness, as well as of Candida Casa,* and Lismore,† and Sodor or the isles, and of the Orkneys in the said kingdom, with their cities, and dioceses, and rights, and all belonging to them, and the whole of the aforesaid kingdom for its province, to be Archi-episcopal, and the prelates of the said Churches for its suffragans, and any persons whatever of the forenamed dioceses for its provincials, and we for ever subject and will them to be subjected by the presents, so far as concerns Archiepiscopal right. So that the said Archbishop of S. Andrew may claim to himself the rights of a Metropolitan and Archbishop in

The Bishopric of Galloway was so termed, from Whithorn, or Candida Casa, the early seat of its Bishops.

The island of Lismore was the seat of the Bishops of Argyle.


honoris titulo, de specialis dono gratie decoramus, pariter et insignimus. Eique Glasguensem et Dunkeldensem et Aberdonensem necnon Morauiensem Brechinensem quoque et Dumblanensem ac Rossensem et Cathenensem necnon Candide Casa ac Lismorensem et Sodorensem siue insularum ac Orkadensem ecclesias regni prefati cum earum Ciuitatibus et diocesibus, juribusque et pertinentijs uniuersis, totumque Regnum prefatum, pro eius prouintià, Archiepiscopalem et earundem ecclesiarum prelatos, pro eius Suffraganeos, ac Ciuitatum et diocesium predictarum personas quaslibet pro suis prouintialibus assignamus, ac perpetuo quoad Archiepiscopalia iura subijtimus et subiectos esse volumus per presentes: Ita quod jpse Archiepiscopus Sancti Andree, in prefato Regno, et singulos illius Ciuitatibus et diocesibus predictis Jus Metropoliticum ac Archiepiscopale sibi vendicet; Jpsique Glasguensis et Dunkeldensis ac Alberdonensis † necnon Morauiensis Brechiniensis ‡ quoque et Dumblanensis, ac Rossensis et Cathenensis necnon Candide Case et Lismorensis et Sodorensis sine insularum, ac Orkadenensis § Episcopi pro tempore existentes eidem Archiepiscopo Sancti Andree ut eorum Metropolitano et Archiepiscopo ad omnia et singula obligentur et sint astricti ad que Suffraganej, suis Metropolitanis teneutur et obligati existunt secundum Canonicas sanctiones: Necnon venerabili fratri nostro patricio Episcopo Sancti Andree et successoribus suis Sancti Andree presulibus, qni pro tempore erunt, pallium et Crucem in signum + Sic. Sic. § Sic.

* Sic.

the said kingdom and its several plenitudinis pontificalis offitij, et cities and dioceses aforesaid. And Archiepiscopalis potestatis assigthe said Bishops of Glasgow, and nanda fore Ecclesiamque jpsam, Dunkeld and Aberdeen, as well Sancti Andree Metropolitanam et as of Moray and Brechin and prefatum modernum et qui erunt Dumblane, and Ross and Caith- pro tempore Sancti Andree preness, as well as of Candida Casa, sules predictos Archiepiscopos and Lismore, and Sodor or the Sancti Andree censerj ac perpetuis isles, and of Orkneys for the time futuris temporibus nuncuparj et being, may be bound and obliged nominarj debere Archiepiscopalia to the same Archbishop of S. et Metropolitica insignia gerere, Andrews as their Metropolitan Jura jurisdictiones ac omnia et and Archbishop in all and every singula, que Metropolitanj in eorum thing in which suffragans are Ciuitatibus diocesibus et prouintijs holden, and are obliged to their de jure facere et exercere possunt, Metropolitans according to the exequi et administrare posse, dicta sanctions of the canons. Also we, auctoritate decernimus. Volentes by the said authority, decree to et prefata auctoritate Statuentes, our venerable and noble brother quod Archiepiscopus et ecclesia the Bishop of S. Andrews and Sancti Andree prefati, Necnon his successors, the primates of S. dilecti filij ipsius ecclesie Sancti Andrews for the time being, that Andree Capitulum, omnibus et the pall and cross shall be assigned singulis priuilegijs exemptionibus them as a sign of the fulness of jmmunitatibus gratijs et uidulis our pontifical office, and of Archi- apostolicis et alijs quibuslibet episcopal power and that the potiantur et gaudeant quibus said Church of S. Andrews shall Archiepiscopi, ecclesieque metrobe reckoned Metropolitan, and the politane, et eorum Capitula uti said present prelate of S. An- possunt quomodolibet et gaudere drews, and those afore-mentioned de consuetudine vel de jure : for the time being, should be Quodque Suffraganej predicti, et reckoned, and in all times to come eorum clerus et populus, prefato called and denominated Arch- Archiepiscopo eorum Metropolibishops of S. Andrews, bear all tano congruentes exhibeant reuethings, marking the Archi-epis- rentiam et honorem: Ac decercopal and Metropolitan office, and nentes ex nunc irritum et inane si perform, bear and exercise, exe- secus super hijs, a quoquam quacute and administer, both all and vis auctoritate scienter vel ignoevery right and jurisdiction, which ranter, contigerit attemptarj non Metropolitans in their cities, dio- obstante constitutione et ordinaceses and provinces can lawfully tione apostolicis necnon ecclesiaperform and exercise. Willing rum predictarum Juramento conand by the foresaid authority firmatione apostolica vel quaqumappointing that the Archbishop que firmitate alia roboratis Statutis and Church of the said S. And- et consuetudinibus, aut quod rews, as well as our beloved sons forsan regni predicti ecclesie of the same Church of S. Andrews, prefate hactenus Romane ecclesie the chapter, may possess and Immediate subiecte, et sub aliorum

enjoy all and every privilege, exemption, immunity, favour, and perquisite derived from the Apostolic See, and everything else which Archbishops and Metropolitan Churches and their chapters can in any way use and enjoy through custom or right. And that the aforesaid suffragans and their clergy and people may show such reverence and honour as befits the said Archbishop their Metropolitan. And decreeing that it shall be henceforth void and null, should any attempt happen to be made concerning these things contrariwise by any one, or by any authority knowingly or ignorantly, notwithstanding any apostolic constitution and ordinance, as well as all statutes and customs of the aforesaid Churches, whether enforced by oath, apostolic confirmation or any other strong obligation, or that perchance the said Churches of the aforesaid kingdom hitherto have been immediately subject to the Roman Church, and have been exempted from the superiority and power of any other prelates, and any privilege, indulgence and exemption, and general or special apostolic letters, granted in general or particular terms by the said See, either to the other said Churches or their afore-mentioned prelates, whatever may be the tenor of them, and whatever, though not being expressed or altogether omitted in the presents, may hinder or delay their being caried into effect, and every thing which by the general tenor ought to have been specially mentioned in the said letters, and all other things whatever in opposition thereto. No one, therefore, shall

quorumlibet prelatorum superioritate et potestate exempti fuerint et quibuslibet priuilegijs Indulgentijs et exemptionibus et litteris apostolicis generalibus vel specialibus, per sedem prefatam vel alijs dictis ecclesijs, vel earum prelatis prefatis, in genere vel spetie concessis quorumcumque tenorum existant perque presentibus non expressa vel totaliter non inserta effectus earum impedire valeat quomodolibet vel differri, et de quibus, qnocumque totis tenoribus habenda essetin eisdem litteris mentio specialis Ceterisque contrarijs quibuscnmque. Nulli ergo etc. nostre erectionis, decorationis, insignitionis, subiectionis, constitutionis, voluntatis statuti et decreti infringere etc. Si quis etc.

infringe our erection, adornment, ennobling, subjection, constitution, will, statute and decree, &c. And if any one &c.

Given at Rome, at S. Peter's, in the year, &c., one thousand, four hundred and seventy second; the seventeenth of August, the first year of our Pontificate.

Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, Anno etc. millesimo quadringentesimo septuagesimo secundo, sexto decimo Kalendas Septembris Pontificatus anno primo.


NOTE.-Towards our English version of the preceding document we must deprecate all scholastic criticism; for, in taking this "Bull" by the horns, we were thrown upon the horns of a dilemma, either to give up the work of translation, or to make the best of Papal Latin, which seems to us as little infallible as Papal divinity. Our object was to give the sense of the document, and in this we trust we have succeeded.

(Continued from page 424.)

'WELL Elinor,' said Mildred the next day, as her friend stood again by her couch, and, after some talk on other matters, reverted to the subject which had occupied their thoughts during the previous days; 'Well Elinor, having agreed as far as we can on the principles of teaching, suppose we discuss the practice of it a little. It is very fine,' she added laughing, for me to lie here and theorise about practice. I fear I am too much like a sign-post, which is always displaying its knowledge, and offering to teach the way to others, yet never moves on an inch itself.'

And I then,' said Elinor, am like a traveller, who sits still to look at the sign-post, receiving its information, but in no way profiting by it.'

'Nay, I hope not,' said Mildred cheeringly, 'I believe you are at least anxious to get on, and however weak or doubting you may be, each step will make the next stronger and lighter.'

'But the sign-post must needs stand still always.'

'Yes,' said Mildred in a low, quiet tone, 'yes,—yet in standing still it does its duty, all it can do.'

There was a short silence; then Mildred, rousing herself, said— 'yet, although nothing can make it not presumptuous in me, who can only theorise, to set myself up as if to teach those who have the advantage of practice and of experience, I might excuse this presumption a little on the ground that one who necessarily spends

much time in mere thinking (as I must in this solitary and helpless condition), may chance to hit upon theories which escape some, at least, among the active workers, as lookers on are said to see most of the game. And, moreover, I know that I have been blest with advantages beyond the lot of most, in the way of teaching, reading, and so on; besides, as I said, the time for thought. And I fancy my mind is peculiarly formed for going into a subject, and not letting it go until I have turned it round and round, and investigated it thoroughly on all sides; sometimes, indeed, until I am quite wearied with thinking the same thoughts over and over again, and I remind myself of one of those barrel-organs which grind on at one tune till what might at first be amusing becomes quite a bore, and it is such a relief to have the stop changed.'

'You are fond of illustrations, Mildred,' said Elinor, as she laughed at her friend's comparison, 'you have used two in as many minutes.'

'Yes I am, very,' replied Mildred, and I will tell you of one which occurred to me to-day. I was looking down the road, which you know I can see from my sofa, and thinking about the will and inclination which we have prosed about so much lately, when I was roused by the sound of hoofs, and I saw approaching at full speed a man on a powerful horse. He was looking straight on before him, as if intent on the end of his journey, and bent for soon reaching it. Just then a little dog sprang out and began barking and snapping at the horse's heels. But man and horse still held on their way without heeding, only I thought the man drew the rein more tightly in, as if to gain more entire command over the horse's movements. Still the dog barked on more and more snappishly, and at last with some effect, for I saw the horse was getting restive. Just at the moment when I fancied that the rider was losing his control over the beast, he turned for an instant in his seat, and gave a sharp cut with his riding whip to the yelping cur, which sent it howling off; then, loosening the reins and pressing his spurs into his horse's sides, away went the two swiftly and stedfastly as before, and as I lost sight of them I marked the rider's eye still looking on straight before him, bent so earnestly on the far distance that all objects by which he passed seemed unseen by him. There, Elinor, I have made quite a long story of it; but do you not think it makes a very tolerable illustration of the will and the inclination?'

Yes, said Elinor, smiling, ‘and furnishes a hint, moreover, as to the mode of dealing with this same troublesome inclination :-to

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