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SIR,-Your correspondent at Stockholm, in his very interesting article, alludes to the singular practice in Scotland of styling some of the bishops by the names of their dioceses instead of their cathedral cities, and suggests that perhaps fewer cathedrals were built in Scotland than elsewhere.

It might be interesting to those who possess advantages for studying the early history of the Scottish Church, to inquire into the origin of this practice; but it does not seem to indicate that in Scotland there was a less intimate connection between the bishop and his cathedral than in the rest of Christendom, and that his character, as superintendent over the diocese, was more prominent than as incumbent of the cathedral church.

It seems to me of especial importance, with those who have the interest of the Reformed Catholic Church in Scotland at heart, to attend mainly to the correctness of the arrangements and constitution of the Episcopal order. This has been very much neglected by those who connect themselves with the Church, rather from attachment to her Liturgy and offices, than from having any definite views on this essential point.

The subject is, I think, best elucidated in an extract from the judgment of the Consistorial Court, Dublin, in the case of the Bishop of Ossory v. the Dean of the Cathedral Church of St Carnie,* Kilkenny, as reported in the British Magazine, vol. xxix. p. 687 :

Bishops were before archdeacons, prebendaries, parsons, or vicars; for at first there was but one diocese, and no other dignity ecclesiastical, no other parson, but the bishop. Afterwards that diocese was divided into several other dioceses; but before that time the bishop,

* Otherwise St Kenny (Latine, Canicus), abbot in Ireland. The Irish annals fix the birth of this illustrious saint in 527, and his death in 599. His zeal in propagating Christianity throughout Ireland has ranked him among the principal saints of that island. He was intimately connected by friendship with St Columba, whom he sometimes visited in the isle of Iona. He founded the great Monastery of Achad-bho (or the Ox's-field), which grew up into a town, and was formerly the seat of the Bishops of Ossory, who now reside at Kilkenny, a city which takes its name from the saint, that word signifying Cell or Church of Kenny. (From Butler's Lives of the Saints.)— EDITOR.


in his diocese, did place ministers and preachers as he thought fit.* Afterwards parishes were formed, and churches founded and endowed. But the cathedral was, and continued to be, the sedes Episcopi, and parish church of the whole diocese; which diocese was, therefore, commonly called parochia in ancient times, till the application of this name to the lesser branches into which it was divided made it, for distinction's sake, to be called only by the name of dioEvery bishop hath his cathedral and council. But "at first there was only one church in each diocese,-viz., at the place where the bishop and his clergy resided and performed all divine offices." ‡ In it the bishop placed those who were to assist him in such duties; and, after the parochial system was established, the bishop retained a portion of the clergy to assist him in the performance of divine service and other duties in his cathedral, and also as his council, from whence sprung the bodies called deans and chapters. But the bishop was and continued under the obligation to preach and officiate in his cathedral, and to reside thereat; all which duties were enforced by the canons of the Church, the earlier of which show the very intimate connection, which is observed on by Ferguanus :— "Non est tanta communio inter Episcopum et inter capellas vel monasteria, seu alia pia loca, quanta est inter Episcopum et ecclesiam cathedralem, cui est spirituali conjugio copulatus."' §

The see of a bishop (sedes Episcopi) is the place where the bishop has his seat or chair (cathedra); that is, the place wherein is the church of which he is the incumbent, and near which he ought to reside.

It follows that the expressions, the See of Caithness, or of Moray, or Ross, or Argyle, Galloway, or the Isles, are incorrect. These are dioceses merely; and although a bishop may be styled after his diocese, yet the general practice is to style him after his see; and even in Scotland, the See of Galloway was styled the See of Whithorn (Candida casa), and the Bishop of Argyle the Bishop of Lis


It seems to follow that the cathedral of every diocese ought to be fixed and permanent, and not fluctuating, as at present; and that the efforts of the friends of the Church in Scotland should be di

+ Godolph, p. 35. § Fergu. x. 1. De F. Epis. c. quarto, num. 5.

* 2 Rolle. Rep. 449, par Dodderidge, T. Ayl. Pareng. p. 167.

rected to the endowment of these churches, so as to afford a competent maintenance for the bishop.

The ancient sees of the bishops of the Scottish dioceses were

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And it would be certainly most in accordance with the best spirit of the Church if these ancient residences were adhered to, and if, for the future, the bishops of each diocese were to reside and officiate at the ancient see of the diocese.

If I may venture to suggest an opinion, differing from that of some warm friends of the Church in Scotland, I would say, that it would be a far greater gain and triumph if there is once more to be a cathedral church in Scotland, to rebuild one of the ancient cathedrals, as Elgin and St Andrews,* or to restore one of those now occupied by the Establishment, as Dunkeld or Dunblane,-than to erect the most splendid church on some spot unhallowed by ancient tradition and time-honoured memories.+ Who that has visited Scotland, and

* These sites belong to the Crown. Might not the Scottish Church, without sacrificing her independence, place the nomination of the Bishop in the Crown, subject to the approval of the College of Bishops, upon a restoration of some portion of the Bishop's revenue?

[Some such arrangement as that suggested in the preceding note might have been effected in happier public times, but recent events in the Church of England hold up a fearful warning against parting with so important a privilege. Now that ecclesiastical appointments of the Crown are considered to be exclusively vested in the political minister of the day, we cannot too strongly deprecate committing these sacred trusts to such hands.

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[We unhesitatingly declare our perfect concurrence with the views of

witnessed everywhere, not only the rage and fury of former destroyers and plunderers of the temples consecrated to God's service, but also the disgraceful and desecrated uses to which the indifference and covetousness of the present day have consigned them; and who has read, in the history of the Scottish Church, more extended sacrilege and wholesale plunder of her lands and money, and her sacred tithes, than the world's history could show, until the destroying angel was let loose by the French Revolution, but must exclaim,―

Delicta majorum immeritus lues,

—I am, sir, your obedient servant,

E. B.


SIR,-I trust you will excuse the liberty which I take in addressing a few lines to you, expressive of my very deep feeling of regret that the last number of your magazine, in particular, should have contained 'Letters against Secession to Rome,' so little calculated, in my humble opinion, to promote the object which the writer has in view.

I am very thankful to say that I am not troubled with any doubts as to my present position; but, were I disposed to join the Roman Catholic Church, those letters would rather propel me in that direction than keep me where I am.

It is not, to take one example, by incorrect and unfair representations of the Sacrifice of the Mass, such as I find at page 466, in Letter VII., that the cause of truth will be ultimately advanced. The time is fast going by in which such popular mis-statements will

the writer on this matter. All, or nearly all, the ancient Cathedrals which remain are locally as suitable for seats of modern Prelates as for those of old. On one alone, and that, perhaps, the most interesting of all—Iona, have we any doubt. Yet it might be imputed to us as sad degeneracy, that, in these days, when improved science has enabled mankind to set the tides and winds at defiance, we should consider these obstacles as insurmountable, which were overcome by the frail barks of St Columba and his holy associates.-EDITOR.]

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be received by the public as the real teaching of the Roman Catholic Church. It is distinctly stated that the Sacrifice of the Mass' is held by that Church to be 'a continual repetition of the one great sacrifice once offered on the cross for sin!' Now, it must be well known to all who have conversed with Roman Catholic ecclesiastics, or read their doctrinal statements, that they regard the sacrifice in the Holy Eucharist as a memorial and continuation only of that offered upon the Cross; in other words, that Christ, now in Heaven, offered his body and blood to the Father under the forms of bread and wine. They would readily accept the language of Bishop Overall:- This is no new sacrifice, but the same which was once offered, and which is every day offered to God by Christ in Heaven, and continueth here still on earth, by a mystical representation of it in the Eucharist. We cannot be excused if, in controversy, we exhibit as the authorised doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church any occasional or popular perversion, real or supposed.'

Again, allow me to remark that I am altogether at a loss to conceive how the passages adduced from the Psalms vi. and lxxxviii., at page 472, can be seriously adduced as bearing upon the doctrines of the intermediate state, the intercession of saints, and prayers and Eucharistic oblations for the faithful departed, as taught by the great St Augustine.

I will not indulge in any further strictures, as my object is to remonstrate in a friendly manner, rather than to criticise the wellintended letters of a brother Churchman.

Let us, in God's name, be fair to Roman Catholics,-let us be kind to Presbyterians: thus may we hope, by God's blessing on our labours and prayers, to hasten the time when the several branches of the Holy Catholic Church shall be reunited, and those that are without shall be restored to the one Fold of Christ, and prove how good and pleasant a thing it is for brethren to dwell together in unity. I remain, sir, yours very faithfully,


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As the last article of the Apostles' Creed which we can realize on this side the grave is the Communion of Saints, so the last festival

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