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to the dull state of inactivity, in which she was forced to remain while the iniquitous penal laws were in force, and which long beset her after they were repealed, that she owes the loss of so many sons and daughters. Throughout the length and breadth of Scotland, especially in the far north and west, innumerable families looked in vain for the bread of life at her hands, and were compelled to pacify their spiritual cravings with food that did not nourish; with ministrations devoid of all authentic commission, and forms of sacraments without grace or efficacy. Yet, even among these, the spirit is not always dead; it slumbers merely, and may be awakened by the voice of the Church again gladdening the glens and valleys. Like the gleams of the vernal sun resuscitating the insensible and torpid insects, the vivifying influence of the Church reanimates and restores the deadened spirit, and awakens it again to life and energy. Many a prayer-book, long consigned to dust and oblivion, may joyfully be brought out, when an opportunity is restored of joining in its hallowed petitions, thanksgivings, and praises, as uttered by the duly commissioned minister of God. Much time, however, has been lost, and many sheep gone astray. Let the shepherds, then, be alive to their duty, and their exertions will be rewarded by the return of many a reclaimed wanderer. The way of duty is simple. In propagating the blessings of the Church, there is no need of imitating the tricks and devices which itinerant schismatics adopt, in order to gain audience or attention, printing placards, and distributing them around the locality, or canvassing for supporters among half-heretics and latitudinarians. Truth needs no such illegitimate practices. Whereever a resident clergyman hears of a single family, either belonging to the Church, or desirous of returning to the fold of their Spiritual Mother, living too distant for regular attendance on his ministrations, it should be his immediate endeavour to give them occasional opportunities of worship in their own locality. And let him not be discouraged, if his first congregations be small and scanty, but wait for the blessing and increase promised by Him who has said, 'When two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them;' for the leaven may spread through a larger lump-the grain of mustard-seed may grow into a vigorous and spreading plant. He will go in the spirit of the great Apostle of the Gentiles, to declare the whole counsel of God. Anxious only to perform the duty which he owes to Him whose commission he bears, and to save the souls committed to his charge, he will neither offend wilfully, nor en

deavour to conciliate those who are not of the truth, by the mean approaches of spurious liberality. He will strive, without turning to the right hand or the left, to maintain the straight-forward path of truth and orthodoxy, always keeping in mind, to cheer him amid his doubts and difficulties, that whoever may plant, and whoever water, God alone can give the increase. We cannot better conclude this part of our subject, than in the words of a clergyman deeply sensible of the shortcomings of the Church hitherto in this most momentous duty:

'I feel satisfied that had we now a few-one or two missionaries even-in every diocese, with stations in all the neglected districts, where it might be understood that service would at regular periods be performed—be it after the lapse of any interval—and were these missionaries supplied with the means of visiting such stations in order, we should not merely prevent many from abandoning the Church of their fathers, but we should reclaim many who have lapsed, and gather in others from the ranks of schism. I have visited in person one or two districts of this description, and found a desire on the part of several, who pleaded the necessity of their case for having joined the Establishment, to return to the Church were the means afforded; while others, who had not as yet gone that length, complained of the hardship which they suffered, especially where young children were concerned, the alternative being either to stay at home almost every Sunday in the year, or go to the nearest kirk. The temptation here, it must be confessed, is very strong, to some minds almost irresistible, and at the door of the Church does the fault in many cases lie, if the cause for that temptation be not removed. Doubtless, at her at our hands will the blood of many people in this situation be required, if we not only do not send, even occasionally, prophets to warn them, but we actually disregard their very cry for help. Could you not make an attempt to rouse the attention of the Bishops especially, but also of the clergy and laity, to this deplorable state of things? Could you not devote a page or two, for a time, to the advocacy of the cause of spiritual destitution, and urge the propriety of a supernumerary clergyman or two being attached to every diocese? I do not think there would be any very great difficulty as to funds. The parties who would then be benefited, would willingly contribute according to their means, leaving (in my opinion) the Church Society to do but little. If only a few devoted young men could be appointed, and the Bishop's license, direction,

and benediction bestowed on them, there is little room to fear for a subsistence; the labourer will be deemed, by the people themselves, worthy of his hire.'

There is an active and zealous missionary in the diocese and city of Edinburgh, whose labours are occupied in the old town; and very great need is there, in those dark and filthy dens of vice and ignorance, of far more activity than one individual, energetic though he be, can possess. But in mentioning this one step in the right direction, truth compels us to state, that even this advantage has been fully counterbalanced by the ill-advised measure, from whatever motive it proceeded, which deprived of his salary, as town missionary, one of the most efficient labourers in this department whom the Church possesses.

We sincerely hope that the attention of the Right Reverend Fathers of the Church will speedily be called to the important subject of missionary labours at home.

In the (Roman) Catholic Directory, we observe, that wherever there are spiritual deficiencies at any station, they are unscrupulously pointed out and remarked on. Some such notices would be useful in the Church. Fas est et ab hoste doceri.+

We look forward to Trinity College, Glenalmond, as the source, in this as in other channels, of permanent blessings to the Church, joyfully expecting from that noble institution a supply of zealous and efficient clergy, to fill up the void places of our Zion. In this respect, too, a College of Priests, such as has been suggested for Perth, would be of great utility, though, as resident together in one locality, they. could only extend their labours within a given circumference.

Our observations have hitherto been directed principally to the Clergy; but in turning towards the more numerous constituent part of the Church, we have only the melancholy necessity for reflecting on how much might be done, and how little is done. The laity of the Church in Scotland have become almost proverbial for their apathy, indifference, and parsimony. We might refer to the miserable pittance collected from them annually, in comparison with their incomes and style of living; but the subject is as notorious as it is deplorable, and we will not dwell on it. Were the Clergy merely supported with moderate assistance from their wealthy lay brethren, the effect of these combined powers, the energy and spirit of the one *The Rev. John Alexander, Incumbent of St Columba's Church. It is all fair to take a hint from an enemy.

body, and the substantial means of the other, would carry on the great work with incredible success; but alas! the former are barely able to subsist in the rank in which their sacred character entitles them to move; and the latter dole out their contributions with a parsimony and reluctance which seem to imply, that they consider what is given to God's service to be wasted and profitless, and therefore restrict themselves to the most rigid minimum. We pass, however, from the consideration of mere pecuniary contributions to that lack of personal support and co-operation which the Clergy have too good reason to complain of at the hands of her laity. We are far from intending to assert that the word and work of God require the counte

nance of the influential inhabitants of the land. As precious to the Church is the spiritual welfare of her meanest son or daughter, as that of the richest or highest in title: and the Almighty needs not the aid of temporal means to promote His designs. But He works by instruments, and gives unto man the means whereby the decrees of heaven may be carried out; and as far as the extension of human operations is concerned, the support of those whose position gives them weight and authority, is of the greatest efficacy. And how little of this does the Church enjoy! A clergyman anxious to extend his spiritual utility is considered an enthusiast. He is too fast! —too indiscreet!excites the jealousy of his neighbours, or of the Establishment, by his activity, and is thought desirous of pledging his flock beyond what worldly prudence and calculating caution dictate!

What, then, is the line of conduct which the majority of wealthy lay Churchmen pursue in Scotland? They attend the Sunday services of the Church, it may be, with great punctuality; they subscribe a sum to the Church fund, which, compared with the donations of humbler brethren, appears respectable; they contribute, at an annual collection, in similar proportion-and here their Churchmanship begins and ends. To increase the influence of their pastor,—to promote the extension of true Church principles by encouraging missionary spirit, to assist in the organization of schools, whereby the true and lively doctrines of the faith may be perpetuated to succeeding generations,-to set an example of conformity to the rubrical ordinances of the Church-all this seems to them a work of supererogation, a sacrifice of time or of self-indulgence utterly uncalled for. And one of the most singular inconsistencies in professing Churchmen, is their attention to the interests of a heterodox and

schismatic Establishment, which they deny to those of their own communion.*

It is really difficult to account for these anomalies, excepting on the supposition, that it is considered, in principle, a matter of indifference, to what form of religion a person may belong that the Church is, on the whole, the more genteel place of worship; and, moreover, that old habits and associations derived from preceding generations, give a bias in favour of it. But can these persons think? Are they misled by such spurious notions of religion as those inculcated in Pope's deistical couplet :

"For modes of faith let graceless zealots fight-
His can't be wrong, whose life is in the right.'

One might suppose it to be the belief of many people, from the indifference which they show to these matters, that the Church was a mere adaptation, by human wisdom, of the doctrines contained in the Bible; that it might vary according to circumstances, and depend upon human caprices and enactments: 'That Christianity is nothing more than a collection of doctrines, and that every man who believes these is fully a Christian.' We have seen it asserted, that the gross ignorance of church principles exhibited by our present State rulers is the result of defective education: that these essential truths formed no part of the instruction which they received. We believe this to be true; and also to be the case with a great portion of the existing generation. If it were otherwise, if men were aware, 'that there exists not only a book claiming to be from God, the New Testament, but also a body claiming to be from God, the Church:' that this Church was founded, and in full operation, before a line of the New Testament was written, and that it had extended over a vast portion of the world, before the books of that Holy Record were collected together, as we now have them: if they considered, that when the Almighty vouchsafed a revelation of His will, He also ordained a method in which that will was to be carried out-that He not only revealed doctrines, but instituted a CHURCH, to the various members

* We have heard of a gentleman of large fortune, and a regular attendant on the Sunday service of the Church—a kind-hearted man, moreover—actually opposing with vehemence a proposal to establish a school for the children of those belonging to his own communion-not a proselytizing institution, but simply one intended to secure the benefits of Church principles to the children of Churchmen! Upon what principle, beyond hereditary custom, is this individual a Churchman? Or does he care nought for succeeding generations, provided only the Church may 'last his time?'

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