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of which the Apostolic Epistles were afterwards addressed as Episcopal charges, for instruction, correction, and guidance-would they think it a matter of indifference whether that INSTITUTION was to be reverenced and perpetuated, or superseded (or at least rivalled), by some modern invention of human self-conceit ?
In these remarks we have not been referring at all to those who have abandoned Apostolical order. Erring as they may be, and as we are bound to consider them, they are consistent. We allude to those, who, born and bred in the Church, attend her services and confess her with the tongue; yet, from a slavish deference to the habits of the multitude, or from a false principle of conciliation, seem willing to reverence the creature of modern political expediency equally with the solemn institution of Apostolic origin. We cannot imagine any thing more direct than the path of duty which lies before the Scottish Churchman. He finds that the Church to which he belongs, the Apostolic Church of his forefathers, has been deprived of her rights and position by successful faction and usurpation. He sees, that although his family and himself have remained within her pale, the majority of the people around him have been absorbed into the vortex of a schismatical Establishment protected and sanctioned by existing laws. Acting, then, under the unequivocal ordinances of sacred authority, he scrupulously obeys these laws, and renders unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's.' He adopts no tyrannical or oppressive measures towards those, who unhappily are separated from the Church, even if they are under his influence and control. He suffers not his charity (in any of its senses) to grow cold towards his schismatical brethren, where need, or poverty, or ought else exists to call it into action. But beyond this, the conscientious Churchman does not go, DARES NOT GO. While he forgets not his duty to Cæsar, he
* Inspired by the spirit of the gospel, the first Christians exhibited, in their relation to the State, the most conscientious obedience. They were the best and most faithful subjects, even there, where no human eye observed them; even there, where others obeyed only from fear and compulsion. But the same spirit of the gospel which taught them, out of love to God and to their neighbours, to submit themselves to all human ordinances, even when they were a grievous burden to them, that same spirit taught them to hearken to God more than men, if an obedience opposed to God's law and ordinances were required of them, if their freedom of faith and conscience were about to be fettered. . . . . . And this course must be always that pursued by Christians. To the worldly power his rights-To the Lord what is his-must always be the watchword of Christians.'-Sermons of Dr Chr. Ludw. Couard, Rev. L. J. Bernay's translation.
renders unto God the things which are GoD's.
He makes a wide
and insurmountable distinction between the people and their religion. While he attends to their earthly wants, he does not encourage, directly or indirectly, their religious errors. He suffers no spurious liberality to induce him to sanction by his presence their conventicles, or meetings of any description, but avoids the doings of heresy and schism as he would avoid the gates of hell. Whatever may be the occasion, connected with their religious tenets, he suffers not himself to be mixed up with ought, which can imply, on his part, an encouragement of spiritual error. On the other hand, he deems it a sacred duty to promote, by every duly-sanctioned method, the promotion of that religion, which his conscience, directed by the Word and Spirit of God (without which assistance, conscience is merely another name for bigoted determination to pursue a self-approved line of conduct), assures him to be the TRUTH.
How far do we see this picture realized?
From without, the Church is surrounded with antagonists. To do the Presbyterians justice, however, we believe, that few of them, excepting the ignorant and bigoted, would practically do her harm. Her most inveterate enemies are those, as it were, of her own household,'' her own familiar friends,'-those who ought to 'take sweet counsel together' with her and walk in the house of God as friends.' Faithless members of that section of the Church of England which arrogates to itself a title of peculiar sanctity, who only accept, with solemn assent and consent, her Apostolical Liturgy, in order to mutilate and degrade it—who contract vows, never intended to be kept, simply as a means of getting into situations enabling the holders to violate them-' using their liberty as a cloak of maliciousness'-these are the bitterest enemies of the Church in Scotland. These are the men, who, mingling with apostates from her pale, come down, endeavouring by every artifice, to spread schism, disunion, and hatred among her flocks.
But amid all the difficulties with which the Church is beset, we rejoice to think that she is increasing in strength and efficiency, and we also rejoice, that all her sons are not to be included in the charge of apathy and indifference; but that, thanks to the Spirit of Truth, there are some led by His holy influences to better things. There are, however, evils against which it behoves her especially to guard, and which alone can check her onward progress-internal disagreement, and a worldly spirit. With regard to the former, we cannot
do better than copy the following admirable sentiments expressed in the primary charge of the Bishop of Fredericton :
'Our reformation must begin at home. To cure our flocks of schism, we must heal our own disorders. We must banish that frightful party spirit, that minute exclusiveness, which refuses the hand of fellowship to those who have signed the same articles, own the same creeds, and are built on the same foundation with ourselves. The odious cries of High-Churchman and Low-Churchman, with other more offensive names, must not be heard in our mouths, lest our own weapons be turned against ourselves. We should take our tone of doctrine and practice, not from low interested writers, but, next to the pure foundation of Scripture, from the manly expositions of the master-spirits of the English Church. There must be about ourselves that genuine heartiness, that honest simplicity, which no man can mistake, and which will persuade more forcibly than the most elegant diction, or the most impressive delivery.'
'Our profession should be our life, our love, our joy, our first thought in the morning, our last prayer at night, the object of our fondest hopes, of our unwearied intercessions, of our daily toil.'
The Church in Scotland, from her independence of the State, and of all endowment, may appear free from any great risk of becoming too worldly. It has been remarked, with regard to every creed, which since the time of Constantine has assumed the pomp and splendour of establishment, that what it has gained in wealth and worldly power, it has lost in purity and spiritual usefulness. There is some truth in the remark, but it has never been applicable to the Church in Scotland since the Reformation. Despoiled of the greater part of her revenues, the Church, when last established, was miserably poor, and even the little which remained of her ancient possessions, she was prevented, by the unceasing attacks of inveterate enemies, from enjoying in peace. There is no fear of her being again enslaved, in our time at least, in the fetters of Establishment; but worldly spirit, and subordination to worldly motives, are neither necessarily connected with Establishment, nor impossible in an un-established Church. The present age is super-eminently worldly, and Churchmen may take the infection. According to their professed principles they ought to be more free from this pollution than the masses around, though it is a difficult matter to preserve themselves unspotted from the world. Yet it is a paramount duty to strive against it, and to hold fast that which is committed to their care
with the greatest vigilance. They are a Church in the truest and purest sense, relying only on Apostolical privileges, which the powers of earth may indeed invest with temporal splendour, but which they can neither give, diminish, or take away. The beautiful language which the prelate (whose words we recently quoted) applied, in prophetic admonition, to the Missionary College of St Augustine, may with little variation be addressed to the Church in Scotland, as indicative of her duty :
To bring forth men dead to the world, alive to God, severely simple, but winningly attractive; frugal yet not parsimonious; gentle and yet firm; studious and apt to teach; gentlemen, if not by birth, yet by Christianity; of refined taste, but neither scrupulous nor fastidious; able to practise the Church's self-denial; with their voices to chaunt her psalms and prayers, with spirit to improve her rules, and by their words and good example to teach all her members holiness.'*
BULLS OF POPE SIXTUS IV.
IN like manner to our venerable brethren, the bishops of Glasgow and Dunkeld and Aberdeen, as well as Moray and Brechin and Dumblane, and Ross and Caithness, as well as Candida Casa, and Lismore, and Sodor or the Isles, and Orkney, suffragan Churches of St Andrew's, greeting, &c.
In like manner to our well beloved sons, the chapters of the Churches of St Andrews, Glasgow and Dunkeld, and Aberdeen, and Moray and Brechin and Dumblane, and Ross, and Caithness, and Candida Casa, and Lismore, and Sodor or the Isles, and Orkney, greeting, &c.
In like manner to our beloved sons, the clergy of Glasgow, &c.
In like manner to our beloved sons, the people of Glasgow, &c.
BULLE SIXTI PAPE IV. SIMILI modo venerabilibus fratribus Glasguensi et Dunkeldensi ac Aberdonensi necnon Moraviensi Brechinensi
quoque et Dumblanensi ac Rossensi et Cathenensi necnon Candide Case ac Lismorensi, ac Sodorensi seu Insularum ac Orkadensi Episcopis Suffraganeis ecclesijs Sancti Andree Salutem, &c.
Simili Modo Dilectis filijs Sancti Andree Glasguensi et Dunkeldensi ac Aberdonensi necnon Morauiensi Brechiniensi † quoque et Dumblanensi ac Rossensi et Cathenensi nec non Candide Case ac Lismorensi et Scdorensi seu insularum ac Orkadensi ecclesiarum Capitulis Salutem, &c.
Simili Modo Dilectis filiis Clero Glasguensi, &c. .
Simili Modo Dilectis filijs populo Glasguensi, &c.
* Letter to the Secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.
In like manner to our most Simili Modo Charissimo in dear son in Christ, James the Christo filio Jacobo Scotorum illustrious king of Scots, greet- Regi jllustri Salutem, &c., Gratie: ing: A reward of divine mercy, and diuine premium et humane laudis commendation of human praise preconium acquiritur si per secuis obtained, if through secular lares principes ecclesiarum preprinces the protection of timely latis oportuni fauoris presidium favour and due honour is bestowed et honor debitus inpenditur. on the prelates of Churches. To- Hodie siquidem ex certis rationaday since through certain reason- bilibus causis animum nostrum able causes moving our mind, we mouentibus ecclesiam Sancti Anhave erected the Church of St dree in Scotia, etc., ut supra. Cum Andrews in Scotland, &c., as autem filj charissime sit virtutis before. Since then, most dear opus dej ministros benigno fauore son, it is a virtuous work to prosequi, ac eos verbis et operibus, accompany the ministers of God pro Regis eterni gloria venerarj, with kind favour, and to venerate Serenitatem tuam Regiam rogathem by words and works for the mus et hortamur attente quatinus glory of the Eternal King, we eundem patritium Archiepiscobeg and earnestly entreat your pum et commissam sibi ArchiSerene Majesty, inasmuch as we episcopalem sedem Sancti Andree have gladly commended, accord- predictos habens pro nostra et ing to the reverence due to us and sedis apostolice reuerentia prothe Apostolic See, the said noble pensius commendatos jn amplianArchbishop and the Archi-episco- dis et conseruandis Juribus suis, pal See of St Andrews committed Sic eos benigni fauoris auxilio to him in extending and preserv-prosequaris, quod idem Archiepising his rights, so to accompany copus per tue auxilium gratie, in them with the aid of your kind eiusdem Archiepiscopalis sedis favour that the said Archbishop Regimine facilius profitere valeat, through the aid of your kindness ac tibi exinde a dea perhennis may be more easily enabled to vite premium et a nobis condigna acknowledge in the government proueniat actio gratiarum. of the said Archi-episcopal See, Datum ut supra and there may thereafter proceed to thee from God the reward of eternal life, and from us well merited gratitude.
Given as above,
Judgment and information given by Zutpheld Wardenberg, warden of Gustrova, and apostolic scribe, as to what should be done by the Archbishop of Nidros in the matter of recovering the Church of Orkney,
A. DE VRBANO.
Judicium et informatio Zutpheldi Wardenbergi, præpositi Gustrouiensis et scriptoris apostolici, qud agendum sit ab Archiepiscopo Nidrosieni, in negotio recuperandi ecclesiam Orcadensem, olim suffraganeam