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solicited the advice and concurrence of our fellow-churchmen, especially of our clerical brethren. That the hearts of all who love our Jerusalem cordially responded to an expressed desire of promoting her interests and welfare, need not be doubted: but fears, and doubts, and difficulties are ever to be looked for; and thus, mingled with many good wishes for the success of our undertaking, we have received objections, to which we will endeavour temperately and respectfully to reply. We have anticipated an argument against our success from former failures of similar attempts, but can scarcely admit the applicability of newspaper failures to our case. The history of these last publications is simply this. A few years ago, two weekly Episcopal newspapers were set on foot in Edinburgh, both conducted by clergymen, but unfortunately in a sort of antagonism, which, to say the least of it, was a most unfavourable circumstance. One of them had no separate and independent existence; but was tacked on, as a sort of appendage, to a Presbyterian journal, so that in the first moiety of its pages the Establishment was advocated; in the latter, the Church. It is not surprising that, under such a Mezentian system, an attempted union of the living and dead,* the experiment failed utterly; and we believe the newspaper itself sunk under the ill-assorted junction. It was, moreover, published twice in the week, and the price was too high for the lower classes of Churchmen. The other newspaper was given up by the Editor himself.
We may here allude to another objection which scrupulous individuals entertain against any discussion of religious matters in public periodicals. If there be any force or soundness in this objection, it certainly applies more to newspapers than magazines,—more, perhaps, to daily than weekly newspapers, because, in proportion to the frequency of publication, there is greater admixture of secular and trivial matter, and greater preponderance given to the common news of the day. We certainly do not approve the introduction of religious subjects in these common vehicles of miscellaneous intelligence, which savour too much of worldly follies. Clever as are many articles on ecclesiastical topics which appear in the Times newspaper, we had
* Mortua quin etiam jungebat corpora vivis,
Virg. En. 8, 485.
rather see them in better company, and would confine to political or monetary essays, that sarcastic tone which ill befits the solemnity of higher subjects. But this objection surely vanishes, when the publication is expressly dedicated to these points. For instance, some well-meaning religionist may object to the high Catholic tone adopted by the English Churchman,' but he could not for a moment censure that periodical as desecrating the sacred cause to which it is devoted, by the juxtaposition of mere worldly and trifling matters. Still farther removed from the every-day business and gossip of life may the monthly magazine be; and whatsoever may be the fate of our present attempt, we trust it never may owe its failure (should such befal it) to presumptuous handling of high and holy things.
Some who are well disposed towards us are haunted with fears of personal squabbles and acrimonious controversies. But we are neither about to sally forth on an aggressive tour,
'To run a muck, and tilt at all we meet;'
nor shall we be inclined to admit into our pages any communication which may hurt the feelings of individuals, or impugn their conduct, any farther than as being of a public nature, it is public property; and we take this opportunity of disclaiming all hostile feeling towards the Presbyterian Establishment, or other bodies of religionists by which we are surrounded. Of their system we cannot speak otherwise than we have done. Believing in the unity of the true Catholic Church, and in the divinely appointed succession of its ministers, we cannot but conscientiously regard these religionists as lying in grievous error and schism. Still, however, they are in a very different position from those who voluntarily separate themselves from the Church. That sin is not attributable to the present generation, which occupies a position bequeathed by its forefathers, and confirmed by the temporal laws of the land. And we must go farther, and cheerfully admit, that as a body, the ministers of the Establishment are most exemplary for piety, morality, and usefulness. Their creed is now practically shorn of those wild absurdities and impieties which disgraced it in the seventeenth century, and which some of the dissenting classes still labour to perpetuate; but notwithstanding all their personal merit, one grand objection must ever apply to their system, that it regards the inventions of men more than the ordinances of God; and it is the duty of the Church to struggle for the restoration of all who have erred and strayed from the right way.
There is another class of thinkers who object to all ecclesiastical publications whatever, as tending to disturb the peace of the Church, and quote the well known passage, In quietness and confidence shall be your strength,' a sentiment which found great favour with some of our bygone spiritual rulers, and thereby tended to perpetuate that dull and lifeless state of apathy, in which the Church slumbered so long. But, surely, a more grievous perversion of language than this cannot be imagined, if the passage be applied in order to check and repress the legitimate energies of the Church. The Church, indeed, is commanded to abstain from mixing in the tumultuous proceedings of the world around her. She is to be in the world, but not of the world. But to confound the proper use of those energies with that turbulence and agitation, against which the prophetic injunction seems directed, is to bring the latter almost into an antagonistic position with the command, Go ye and disciple all nations'-is to exhort her to sit still, when she ought to be up and doing; to be silent, when she ought to lift up her voice and cry aloud. The whole history of the Church refutes such an interpretation. The changes which have taken place in the external circumstances of the world have indeed changed the system of operation, but the actuating principle remains the same. Efforts, however spiritual in their nature, when brought to play upon human circumstances, must be directed by human means; and there is no more objection to the use of a mighty modern engine for disseminating truth and refuting error, than there was to the personal modes of inculcating knowledge, which alone were open to the early ages. It pleased the Almighty, that heavenly ends should be accomplished by human means and human activity. He might indeed have overcome every difficulty and attained every purpose, without such a medium. He might have softened the hearts, which dictated persecution. He might by his Spirit have enlightened the minds of men, and made them at once, and as it were, per saltum, Christian and believing, but such was not His will. Human means were at first ordained by Him to spread abroad the everlasting Gospel and extend the Church. Human means are still necessary to make them known among heathen nations, and to keep the doctrines of religion pure: to correct errors in belief and practice, which from the evil tendency of the human heart, are perpetually creeping in, among those even who boast of having the purest form of Christianity. The gainsayings of Core still exist; but are no longer the object of immediate vengeance
from heaven; they must be exposed and contravened by the energies of man.
We see nothing inconsistent with these views in setting forward an humble attempt to make our Church, a true and faithful though small branch of the great Catholic family, better known among other Christian communities, and at the same time to enforce the practical piety which she enjoins. At this period too, when the press teems with attacks upon every Catholic principle, when open enemies without, and treacherous pretended friends within the Church, are attempting to sap the foundations of true religion, is it a time to remain with folded hands? Compressas tenuisse manus ?—and not lift up a voice, feeble it may be, but earnest and sincere in the cause? If the trumpet give an uncertain sound, it may confuse the battle, but what is the result, if it utter no sound at all? Are we to remain in a state of apathy, miscalled peace and quietness, when grievous misrepresentation is stirred up against us? Are we to allow thousands of our English countrymen to remain ignorant of our very existence as a pure branch of the Church Catholic, or if they hear of us at all, to believe that we use and maintain an heretical office, approaching to the Romanistic error of transubstantiation, without endeavouring at least to enlighten that ignorance, and correct that most erroneous and injurious misapprehension? We have also learned, that certain parties in the Church so far do us grievous injustice, as to assert, that the sole object of this magazine is the maintenance and enforcement of one particular Canon in the Scottish code. This we at once positively disavow, and cannot but express our regret, that individuals professing at least to have at heart the real interests of the Church, should so far forget Christian charity, as to attempt, in this invidious spirit, to circumscribe the limits of our utility, and impede our endeavours to forward the cause of truth. We altogether profess an intention of keeping clear of party views and objects, and a determination to support the Church as she is, in her integrity, in her independence, and in her standards, believing that in these and her formularies, her teaching is purely Catholic and Scriptural.
In conducting this work, it is our intention, we repeat, to be guided by Church principles generally, and in particular by the interest and welfare of the Church in Scotland. For that Church we claim a right of clear and separate independence, which it always enjoyed, although when the Apostolical line of succession came to an end in this country, the vital spark was rekindled from the Church of Eng
land. We are not ambitious to be controversial, though never unwilling to stand firm in defence of truth, and hold fast that which is good.' As we know that there lurks in the mind of many Churchmen a suspicion that a periodical cannot be carried on without degenerating into a vehicle for personalities, we beg in the outset to assure our readers, that it is our firm resolution to steer clear of this rock; and we request those who may be inclined to favour us with contributions or information, to abstain from communicating any thing bearing marks of a personal tendency. We shall rejoice, nay we hope, to receive contributions on all matters religious or literary, for although the former is the main object of our design, we wish to couple with it in a small degree general literature and information, particularly any thing bearing indirectly on the Church. Above all, any suggestions or articles tending to the promotion of practical piety, in conformity, of course, and subordination to the teaching of the Church, will be most acceptable. According to the advice, and in the words of a talented friend, we would exclude all correspondence reflecting on individual Clergymen, and holding them up to public criticism for real or supposed irregularities in the discharge of their pastoral duties, and especially in the conducting of Divine Worship. That many grave irregularities are committed by Clergymen in their public ministrations, is but too probable; but here, if any where, we are bound to exercise that charity which thinketh no evil and hopeth all things;' for the past circumstances of the Scottish Church were such as wholly to prevent the observance of a Catholic ritual in the worship of the Sanctuary; and now that the Church is arising out of the dust, and shaking off the rubbish with which she has been so long encumbered, the restoration of the Beauty of Holiness' to her services must be a gradual work, against the full establishment of which there are in many places strong, nay almost insurmountable barriers. Those of the Clergy, therefore, who appear to the occasional visitors of their Churches, to be the most careless and irreverent in their manner of celebrating the Services of the Church, should be the objects of our heart-felt commiseration and fervent prayers, and not of public criticism and censure. Besides, in such cases, the right of admonition and correction belongs to the Bishop alone, and usurpation of it by any other ought never to be countenanced, especially in a publication professedly devoted to the enunciation and maintenance of the principles of the Church.
We would also impress upon those who may contribute to our