Well's Principles and Applications of Chemistry: For the Use of Academies, High-schools and Colleges: Introducing the Latest Result of Scientific Discovery and Research, and Arranged with Special Reference to the Practical Application of Chemistry to the Arts and Employments of Common Life. With Two Hundred and Forty Illustrations
Ivison, Phinney, & Company, 1862 - 515 من الصفحات
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absorbed acetic acid action affinity alcohol alkalies allotropic ammonia animal antimony atmosphere atoms body boiling burning carbonic acid charcoal chemical chemistry chemists chloric acid chlorine coal cold color combination combustion composition compounds condensed constitutes contain copper crystals decomposed decomposition dissolves distillation effect electricity elements equivalent ether exposed fermentation flame fluid force galvanic gases glass gold grains heat hewever hydrochloric acid hydrogen ignited illustrated insoluble iodine iron known light lime liquid manufacture matter melted mercury metal mineral mixed mixture nature nitric acid nitrogen obtained odor ordinary organic oxyd oxygen particles phosphorus plants plate platinum poison potash potassium pounds prepared principle produced properties proportion protoxyd pure quantity Questions.—How Questions.—What salt silica silver soda solid soluble solution specific gravity starch steam substances sugar sulphate sulphuric acid surface takes place temperature termed thermometer tion tube unites vapor vegetable vessel volatile weight zinc
الصفحة 171 - ... them; and that these primitive particles being solids, are incomparably harder than any porous bodies compounded of them; even so very hard, as never to wear or break in pieces: no ordinary power being ' able to divide what God himself made One, in the first creation.
الصفحة 434 - ... have been very carefully studied. The symptoms which precede death in cases of poisoning by putrefied sausages are very remarkable. " There is a lingering and gradual wasting of muscular fiber, and of all the constituents of the body similarly composed ; the patient becomes much emaciated, dries to a complete mummy, and finally dies.
الصفحة 369 - By reheating the steel and allowing it to cool slowly, it again becomes nearly as soft as ordinary iron, and between these two extremes any required degree of hardness may be attained. In working steel, the articles are first finished in a soft state, and afterward hardened • they are then tempered, or raised to such a temperature as is requisite to give them the degree of softness and elasticity required. The workman easily estimates this temperature by observing the color of the thin film of...
الصفحة 398 - The working of it was formerly confined wholly to France, but within a few years past it has been introduced somewhat extensively as a business in this country. Platinum exists in two states of minute subdivision, viz., as spongy platinum, and platinum black. The properties and preparation of spongy platinum have been already described (§§ 48, 296). Platinum black is the metal in a state of such fine subdivision, that it has the appearance of soot. It is easily prepared by slowly heating, to 212°...
الصفحة 433 - Prussic acid, strychnia, etc., no very satisfactory explanation can be given. In addition to the poisons noticed, " there is a class of substances generated during certain processes of decomposition, which act upon the animal economy as deadly poisons, not by entering into combination with it, or by reason of their containing a poisonous principle, but solely by virtue of their peculiar condition...
الصفحة 193 - No animal can live in an atmosphere which does not contain a certain portion of uncombined oxygen. Oxygen, by the chemical action involved in the process of respiration, passes from a free state into a state of combination with other substances, and thereby becomes unfitted for the further support of animal life. If a bird be confined in a limited portion of atmospheric air, it will at first feel no inconvenience...
الصفحة 97 - ... point of a liquid will undergo a corresponding change. The pressure of the atmosphere at the level of the sea is about fifteen pounds upon each square inch of surface. It varies occasionally at the same place sufficiently to affect the boiling point to the extent of 4£ degrees.
الصفحة 81 - From its extreme softness, its particles slide over each other in the act of expansion, and do not return to their original position. " A leaden pipe, used for conveying steam, permanently lengthens some inches in a short time, and the leaden flooring of a sink, which often receives hot water, becomes, in the course of use, thrown up into ridges and puckers.
الصفحة 184 - ... contain the same elements, carbon and hydrogen, in the same proportions.* " The crystallized part of the oil of roses, the delicious fragrance of which is so well known, a solid at ordinary temperatures, although readily volatile, is a compound body containing exactly the same elements, and in the same proportion, as the gas we employ for lighting our streets.
الصفحة 198 - Let us for an instant contemplate the enormous amount of oxygen employed in the function alone of respiration, which may be considered in the light of a slow combustion. For the respiration of human beings, it has been calculated that no less than one thousand millions of pounds of oxygen are daily required, and double that quantity for the respiration of animals, whilst the processes of combustion and fermentation have been calculated to require one thousand millions of pounds more. But, at least,...