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his readers to try his opinions. The subjects discussed, all will allow, are of no ordinary concern, and all are alike deeply interested in them. They are subjects too, of which we can know nothing except from divine revelation, and the simple question is, what does it teach concerning them?

The author is deeply sensible, that his views of the intermediate state of the dead, have a host of religious prejudice to encounter from all sects, Universalists not excepted. But persuaded as he is, that the common opinions on this subject are unscriptural; have their origin in heathenism; have proved a fertile source of superstition and imposition in the Christian church; and above all, divert the mind of man from the true hope of future life, revealed in the Bible, he trembles not to encounter them. If his views are shown to be false, he will correct his own errors. But, if the cry of heresy is raised, without refutation of his sentiments, he will only say with Paul," of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question."

THREE ESSAYS.

ESSAY I.

ON THE INTERMEDIATE STATE OF THE DEAD.

JOB, chap. 14:10. puts this question" Man giveth up the ghost, and where is he?" But who shall answer Job's question? The Bible must answer it; from no other source can we derive certain information on this subject. It cannot surely be said, the Bible is silent on the state of man after death, for most Christians speak of this with great confidence, and appeal to it in proof of their opinions. We shall examine--What saith the Scriptures on this question; guarding, on the one hand, against being wise above what is written; and on the other, overlooking things revealed which belong to us and to our children.

SECTION I.

The Scriptures examined with respect to man's body, soul, and spirit, between death and the resurrection.

Ir is universally allowed, that the whole of man is expressed in Scripture by the terms body, soul, and spirit. That man's body, after death, returns to

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dust, and is insensible to either pain or pleasurevisible positive facts daily demonstrate. The only question which remains for our investigation, then, is-has man an immortal soul, or spirit which survives death, and does it enjoy happiness or suffer misery in a disembodied state, between death and the resurrection? That it does, is very generally believed by Christians of all sects, and whether this is a Scripture doctrine or not we wish to ascertain.

How, then, does the Bible answer Job's question, "Man giveth up the ghost and where is he?" When Abraham gave up the ghost where was he? It is answered, Gen. 15: 15, "thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace, thou shalt be buried in a good old age." Again, when Moses gave up the ghost where was he? It is answered, Deut. 31: 16, "behold thou shalt sleep with thy fathers." The reader, by consulting the following texts, will see the same thing said of David, 1 Kings 1: 21, and 2: 10, comp. Acts 13: 36. Of Solomon, 1 Kings 11: 43. 2 Chron. 9: 31. Of Asa, 1 Kings 15: 24. 2 Chron. 16: 13. Of Jehosaphat, 1 Kings 22: 50. 2 Chron. 21: 1. Of Azariah, 2 Kings 15: 7. Of Jotham, 2 Kings 15: 38. 2 Chron. 27: 9. Of Abijah, 2 Chron. 14: 1. Of Uzziah, 2 Chron. 26: 23. Of Hezekiah, 2 Chron. 32:33. Of Rehoboam, 1 Kings 14: 31. 2 Chron. 12: 16. and of Josiah, 2 Kings 22: 20. If it is objected-all these were good men, let the reader then consult the following texts, where the same thing is said of the very worst characters. Thus it is said of Jeroboam, "that he slept with his fathers," 1 Kings 14: 20. 2 Kings 14: 29. Of Abijam, 1 Kings 15: 8. Of Baasha, 1 Kings 16: 6. Of Omri, 1 Kings 16: 28. Of Ahab, 1 Kings 22: 40. Of Joram, 2 Kings 8: 24. Of Jehu, 2 Kings 10:35. Of Jehoahaz, 2 Kings 13: 9. Of Joash, 2 Kings 13: 13. Of Jehoash,

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2 Kings 14: 16. Of Menahem, 2 Kings 15: 22. Of Ahaz, 2 Kings 16: 20. Of Manasseh, 2 Kings 21: 18.. 2 Chron. 33: 20. Of Jehoiakim, 2 Kings 24: 6. It is very obvious from all these texts, that persons, whether pious or profane, are said "to sleep with their fathers." In the margin of some of them, it is, "to lie down with their fathers." Jacob, Gen. 47: 30, desired to lie with his fathers. In chap. 49: 29, 33, his death is called, being "gathered unto his people." And, speaking of the wicked, Ps. 49: 19, it is said, "he shall go to the generation of his fathers." When persons are said to go to their fathers, Gen. 15: 15, and to go down to their children who were dead, Gen. 37: 35, nothing more seems to be meant than that they had gone to Sheol or Hades, where all the dead are represented as in one vast congregation. This is said of whole generations, as well as of individuals, Judg. 2: 10, which confirms the views advanced.

That dying, in Scripture, is called falling asleep, and being dead, asleep, is beyond all controversy. See Ps. 76: 5. Job 3: 13, and 7: 21. Ps. 13: 3. Matt. 27:52. John 11: 11, 13. Acts 7: 6, and 13:36. 1 Cor. 15: 6, 18, 20, 51. 1 Thess. 4: 1315, and 5: 10. 2 Peter 3: 4. Jer. 51: 39. 1 Cor. 11:30. This sleep is said to be "in the dust," Job 7: 21. It is represented as a place of quietness and rest to all, poor or rich, the oppressor and the oppressed. See Job 3: 13-20. and 17: 16. Isai. 57: 2. Rev. 14: 13. Job calls this resting-place in the dust "the land of darkness and the shadow of death: a land of darkness as darkness itself; and of the shadow of death, without any order; and where the light is as darkness." Chap. 10: 20-22. See also Ps. 88: 12. Job 3: 16. 17: 13. 1 Sam. 2: 9. Job 3: 5. 12: 21, 22. 33: 28. Ps. 44: 19. 107: 10, 14.

where similar statements are made. It is the same to all, whatever character they sustained while in this world. It is also represented as a place of silence, Ps. 3:17. 94:17. and 115: 17. It is called "the land of forgetfulness," Ps. 88: 12. where the persons are in a state of forgetfulness, as well as for gotten by the living, Ps. 31: 12. Moreover it is often described as a state of corruption and destruction. See Job 26: 6. 28: 22. Ps. 88: 11. 16: 10. Job 4: 18-20. Ps. 49: 9—20. Prov. 15:11. 27: 20. Acts 13:26.

It cannot be doubted that Job's question-" Man giveth up the ghost and where is he?" is spoken of all men without exception, and in our day is answered thus-" All men when they give up the ghost, go immediately to heaven or hell, to be happy or miserable forever." The Catholics have purgatory as a third place, to which they send some at death. But do the Scriptures speak of three places, or even of two, to which men go at death? Solomon says, Eccles. 12: 5. "Man goeth to his long home." And Job calls it," the house appointed for all the living," chap. 30: 23. Solomon expressly declares, Eccles. 3: 20—“ All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all return to dust again."

We are aware, that it may be objected-" These texts only describe the state of men's bodies after death, but have no relation to their "immortal souls." Be it so; I have then a right to demand, that textsbe produced, showing, that men have immortal souls, and that at death they go to heaven or hell. All know how confidently our orthodox brethrenspeak of "poor immortal souls; of precious immortal souls; and of people's never dying souls, being every moment exposed to endless misery; and how anxious they are to save them from such a punishment." If

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