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advantage alloy amount application arrangement bars Bessemer process blast furnace bogie burnt calcination carbon carbonic acid carriages cast-iron cent centre charge chimney coal combustion condenser connecting-rod considerable construction cooling crank cylinder deck diameter economy effect employed equal evaporation expansion experiments explosion Fahr fire flue force furnace gas gases guns horizontal hour hydrogen increased injector injured Lancashire length locomotive manufacture material means Messrs metal mode Mont Cenis nearly obtained ordinary pass patent phosphorus pig iron pipe piston plates pounds practical present pressure produced proportion puddled iron puddling puddling furnace quantity rails railway revolutions per minute screw seams shaft ships side Siemens-Martin process smoke speed spiegeleisen square inch steam boiler steel stroke supply surface condenser temperature thickness tion tons train trials tubes turret valve velocity vertical vessel waste weight wheels wrought iron
الصفحة 326 - In about two minutes,' writes the Professor in his preliminary report, dated the I4th of October, 'a reaction commenced. At first a moderate quantity of brown nitrous fumes escaped; these were followed by copious blackish, then grey, then whitish fumes, produced by the escape of steam, carrying with it in suspension a portion of the flux. After the lapse of five or six minutes...
الصفحة 329 - I2'6 per cent, of iron in the slag would not be more than 3 per cent, of the iron operated on. '"In conclusion, I have no hesitation in stating that Heaton's process is based upon correct chemical principles : the mode of attaining the result is both simple and rapid. The nitric acid of the nitrate in this operation imparts oxygen to the impurities always present in cast iron, converting them into compounds which combine with the sodium ; and these are removed with the sodium in the slag. This action...
الصفحة 403 - Museum, which will be found of great value in the education of the young. How to Train Young Eyes and Ears ; being a MANUAL of OBJECT LESSONS for PARENTS and TEACHERS. By MARY ANNE Ross, Mistress of the Church of Scotland Normal Infant School, Edinburgh.
الصفحة 326 - After the lapse of five or six minutes, a violent deflagration occurred, attended with a loud roaring noise and a burst of a brilliant yellow flame from the top of the chimney. This lasted for about 1\ minutes, and then subsided as rapidly as it commenced.
الصفحة 62 - Figs. 1 and 4 ; and this arrangement accounts for the power of the steam to overcome the resistance to its entrance into the receiving pipe below : for the jet of steam being concentrated on the water at I forces its way through the interval L surrounded by the feed water, by contact with which it is gradually condensed and reduced in volume and velocity until it is entirely converted into water at the throat K ; while by this contact with the steam from I to K the feed water has a velocity imparted...
الصفحة 329 - It is obvious that the practical point to be attended to is to procure results which shall be uniform, so as to give steel of uniform quality when pig of similar composition is subjected to the process. The experiments of Mr. Kirkaldy on the tensile strength of various specimens...
الصفحة 124 - ... is required to effect the gradual cooling of the products of combustion, and only a small portion near the top, perhaps a fourth of the whole mass, is heated uniformly to the full temperature of the flame ; the heat of the lower portion decreasing gradually downwards, nearly to the bottom. Three or four times as much brickwork is thus required in the regenerators, as is equal in capacity for heat to the products of combustion. " The best size and arrangement of the bricks is determined by the...
الصفحة 119 - F.,is cooled as it passes along the overhead tube, and the descending column is consequently denser and heavier than the ascending column of the same length, and continually overbalances it. The system forms, in fact, a syphon, in which the two limbs are of equal length, but the one is filled with a heavier fluid than the other.
الصفحة 29 - Each boiler had a heating surface of 293 square feet, and 12 square feet of surface. Both were new, and had never been before heated. They were set alike in brickwork, one above the other, but entirely separated by masonry ; the gaseous products of combustion passed through a single flue underneath each boiler, and passed directly into the same chimney. At first both boilers were filled, and fires were kept under them for several days in order to dry the brickwork, after which the fires were extinguished...