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PREFACE

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It is now eight years and a half since this encyclopedia was begun. Unbroken harmony
has characterized my relations with the members of the staff, and I take this opportunity
to return my heartfelt thanks for their devotion and interest, which have made each day's
work a pleasure.

The following persons whose names are not elsewhere mentioned have contributed
for longer or shorter periods their services as translators: EDWIN B. CHILTON, WILLIAM
LLOYD BEVAN, Ph.D., ABRAM LIPSKY, the REV CHARLES ADAM MOHR, B.A., DANIEL
LONGS PEACOCK, MRS. L. DE QUESADA, and SIMEON STRUNSKY, B.A.; and as assistant
office editors: HUBERT EVANS, Ph.D., FREDERICK W. HUMPHREY, and CHARLES JOSEPH
GILLEN.

Two persons have greatly helped us to correct errors into which, notwithstanding our
care, we have fallen: BERNHARD PICK, Ph.D., D.D., for vols. i. and ii., and Rev. MAL-
BORNE W. GRAHAM, of Williams, Ohio, for all the volumes. The mistakes which these and
others have pointed out have been frankly acknowledged in the succeeding volumes and
corrected. It is to be hoped that other publishers of encyclopedias will pursue this plan,
thus enabling the purchasers of the first editions of their works to be at least in part on a
footing of equality with the purchasers of later editions.

In this connection I thank MR. ISIDOR FURST, proof-reader for the Publishers Print-
ing Company, whose skill and watchfulness have united to give the public the typo-
graphical accuracy which I believe these volumes can boast. Thanks are also due to
PROFESSOR E. A. A.0. A. VON DOBSCHUETZ, of the University of Breslau, for his contribu-
tions to the accuracy and completeness with which the sketches of contemporary German
theologians are furnished.

But my closing word must concern the Rev. GEORGE WILLAM GILMORE, the associate
editor from the beginning to the end and the managing editor of the last six volumes.' He
brought to the work wide knowledge, especially in the two little-cultivated fields of com-
parative religion and bibliography. He has shared, however, in all the other departments
of this encyclopedia as translator and collaborator. It is only truth to say that it is due
largely to his devotion and remarkable intelligence and learning that the work is so worthy
the confidence of the public.

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON,

Editor-in-Chief

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EDITORS

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR-IN-CHIEF.)
Professor of Church History, New York University.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(ASSOCIATE EDITOR.)

New York,
Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion,

Bangor Theological Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME XII

D.D.,

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, JAMES FREDERICK MCCURDY, Ph.D.,

LL.D., (Department of Systematic Theology.)

(Department of the Old Testament.) Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College,
Seminary.

Toronto.
HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.,

(Department of the New Testament.) (Department of Minor Denominations.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D., JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

(Department of Church History.) (Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders.)

Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist Rector of St. Gabriel's, New Rochelle, N. Y.

Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Tex. FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, LL.D., F.S.A.,

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.) Managing Editor of the STANDARD DICTIONARY,

etc., New York City.

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CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME XII

DANIEL BERGER, D.D., Clergyman of the United Brethren in Christ, Dayton, O., formerly Editor in the United

Brethren Publishing House.

WILLIAM HENRY ALLISON, Ph.D.,
Dean of the Faculty and Professor of Ecclesiastical History,
Theological Seminary, Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y.

HANS ANSTEIN,
Secretary of the Evangelical Missionary Society, Basel.
CARL FRANKLIN ARNOLD, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,
Professor of Church History, University of Breslau.
CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH,

D.D.,
Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.
GEORG BEER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of

Heidelberg.
JOHANNES BELSHEIM (t),

Late Pastor in Christiania.
KARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Church History, University of Königsberg.

IMMANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF

BENZINGER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,
German Orientalist and Vice-Consul for Holland in

Jerusalem.

CARL BERTHEAU (+), Th.D.,

Late Pastor of St. Michael's, Hamburg. WILLIBALD BEYSCHLAG (†), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Halle. RUDOLPH MICHAEL BINDER, Ph.D.,

Lecturer in Sociology, New York University.

FREDERICK MEYER BIRD (t),
Late Professor of Psychology, Christian Ethics, and Rhetoric,

Lehigh University, South Bethlehem, Pa.
EDWIN MUNSELL BLISS, D.D.,
Author of Books on Missions, Washington, D. C.

THEODORA CROSBY BLISS,
Writer.on Missions, Washington, D. C.

SARA D. BLUXOME,
Former General Secretary, Daughters of the King.
HEINRICH BOEHMER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Professor of Church History, University of Bonn.

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