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English merchant ships on which the Prince of Örange had laid an embargo in the Scheldt in retaliation for acts of piracy committed by English privateers upon Dutch shipping. The ships were set free at once, but a pecuniary indemnity for the detention, which Beale was instructed to claim, was the subject of much dispute, and apparently was never conceded. In June 1576 Augustus, elector of Saxony, had summoned to Torgau a convention of Saxon divines for the purpose of settling certain disputed questions of theology, in particular, whether omnipresence was or was not an attribute of the physical body of Jesus. The result of their labours was seen in the 'Book of Torgau,' which, after revision at Bergen in the following year by James Andreä, or Andreas, chancellor and provost of the university of Tübingen, and certain other eminent theologians, was issued under the title, 'Formula of Concord,' as the only authoritative exposition of the orthodox creed of Saxony. This work not only explicitly affirmed the ubiquity of the body of Jesus to be an integral part of the creed, but declared all such as denied that doctrine (Cryptocalvinists, as they were called) to be heretics. At this juncture Elizabeth saw fit to despatch Beale on a kind of circular tour to visit the courts of the Lutheran princes of Germany, and put in a plea for toleration in favour of the Cryptocalvinists. We learn from one of his papers that, for the purposes of this mission, he made a long and winter journey, making a circuit to and fro of 1400 English miles at the least, repairing personally to nine princes, and sending her majesty's letters to three others.' Elsewhere he says that 'he obtained that which he was sent for, i.e. that the Elector of Saxony and Palatine would surcease from proceeding to a condemnation of other reformed churches that did not agree with the ubiquitaries. Languet, in a letter to Sidney, dated Frankfort, 8 Jan. 1577-8, is able to write: 'Master Beale has met with no small difficulties in going through his appointed task, but by his prudence and dexterity he has so surmounted them that I hope our churches are saved from the perils which threatened them from the movements of Jacobus Andreas and some other theologians.' In the same letter Languet praises Beale's 'agreeable conversation,' and his character, genius, and manifold experience.' Beale was at that time returning to England, and Languet's letter, with which he was entrusted, was to serve as an introduction to Sidney. Writing of marriage, Languet observes: Take the advice of Master Beale on the matter. He believes that a man cannot live well and happily in celibacy.' In another letter he writes that Beale

often used to launch out into the praises of matrimony.'

According to Beale's account he was very ill provided with funds for this journey, while his royal mistress, of course, complained of his extravagance. In a letter to the lord treasurer vindicating himself from the charge he says: And I protest upon my allegiance that the gifts I gave at the Duke of Brunswick's in ready money and money's worth for her majesty's honour, being her gossips, and having had nothing to my knowledge sent unto them (and in other places), came to better than 1007. And whoso knoweth the fashions and cravings of these princes' courts may well see that, having been at so many places, I could not escape with less. My charges came in this voyage to 9327. one way or another. Before my going over I sold a chain which I had of the Queen of Scots for 651.' The fact that Beale received a token of esteem from Mary Stuart is interesting in connection with his subsequent relations with that unfortunate lady. During Walsingham's absence in the Netherlands in the summer of 1578 Beale acted as secretary of state, as also in 1581 and 1583, on occasion of Walsingham's missions to France and Scotland in those years. In the autumn of 1580 he took part in the examination of Richard Stanihurst, the jesuit, 'touching the conveying of the late Lord Garret [Gerald Fitzgerald, Lord Offaley] into Spain at the instigation of Thomas Fleming, a priest,' and in 1581 was one of the commissioners who took the depositions of Edmund Campion before his trial. It is significant, however, that the commission under which he acted extended only to threatening with torture. When it was determined to have actual recourse to that method of persuasion, Beale's name was omitted (doubtless at his own request) from the commission. This year Walsingham, being appointed governor of the Mines Royal, made Beale his deputy. According to the latter's own account he did his duty in this post for fifteen years, keeping the accounts with regularity, without receiving any remuneration. Between 1581 and 1584 he was employed in negotiating with the Queen of Scots at Sheffield. Camden suggests that he was chosen for this business on account of his notorious bias in favour of puritanism, designating him hominem vehementem et austere acerbum," 'quo non alter Scotorum Reginæ præ religionis studio iniquior.' However this may have been, it is certain that he soon came to be suspected of secret partiality to the cause of Mary, and of something like treachery to the council. Of these negotiations he gives the following account: 'Six several

cannot fix the precise date of either of these
books, but we may infer that the second was
a recent
in 1584 from the fact
that Whitgift then thought it necessary to
take cognisance of its existence by drawing
up and laying before the council a schedule
of misdemeanours' alleged to have been
committed by its author, of which the con-
tents of these two works furnished the prin-
cipal heads. What precisely he meant to do
with this formidable indictment (the articles
were fourteen in number) remains obscure.
Probably he wished to procure Beale's dis-
missal from the post of clerk of the council.
If so, however, he was disappointed, as ap-
parently no notice whatever was taken of it.
In the spring of the same year Beale had
shown the archbishop the manuscript of
another work which he had nearly com-
pleted, dealing with another branch of the
same subject, viz. the proper prerogative of
the bishops, which the archbishop refused to
return when Beale (5 May) presented himself
at Lambeth to receive it. On this occasion
a great deal of temper appears to have been
lost on both sides, Beale predicting that the
archbishop would be the overthrow of the
church and a cause of tumult, and Whitgift
accusing Beale of levity and irreverence,
speaking in very disparaging terms of his
work, and saying that neither his divinity
nor his law was great.' Beale addressed a
lengthy epistle to the archbishop (7 May), in
which he avers that by the space of twenty-
six years and upwards he has been a student
of the civil laws, and long sith could have
taken a degree if he had thought (as some do)
that the substance of learning consisteth more
in form and title than matter, and that in divi-
nitie he has read as much as any chaplain his
lordship hath, and when his book shall be
finished and answered let others judge thereof.'
In the summer he served under Leicester
in the Netherlands during the ill-fated at-
tempt to relieve Sluys, in what precise capa-
city does not appear, but we infer that he was
employed in connection with the transport
department. In 1589 he was employed in
negotiation with the States, and next year
we find him engaged with Burghley and
Buckhurst in adjusting the accounts of Pere-
grine Bertie, Lord Willoughby, commander in
the Netherlands. In 1592 the attitude which
Beale assumed in a debate upon supply,
coupled with an animated speech which he
made about the same time against the in-
quisitorial practices of his old enemies the
bishops, gave so much offence to the queen
that he was commanded to absent himself both
from court and from parliament. In 1592

Next year (1585) Beale was returned to parliament for Dorchester, which place he also represented in the two succeeding parliaments (1586 and 1588). In November 1586 he was despatched with Lord Buckhurst to Fotheringay, to notify the Queen of Scots of the fact that sentence of death had been passed upon her. Early in the following year Beale carried the warrant to Fotheringay and performed the ghastly duty of reading it aloud in the hall of the castle by way of preliminary to the execution, of which he was an eye-witness, and wrote an account. Though a zealous puritan, Beale seems to have had a dispassionate and liberal mind. During the persecution of the Jesuits which marked the latter years of Elizabeth's reign, he fearlessly and ably maintained the principle of toleration, both in parliament and as a writer. Thus, we know that he published a work impugning the right of the crown to fine or imprison for ecclesiastical offences, and condemning the use of torture to induce confession, and followed it up at a later date with

a second treatise upon the same subject. We, he addressed a lengthy letter to the lord

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times or more I was sent to the late Queen of Scots. At the first access my commission was to deal with her alone. Afterwards I did, for sundry respects, desire that I might not deal without the privity of the Earl of Shrewsbury, being a nobleman and a councillor. She was with much difficulty brought to make larger offers unto her majesty than she had before done to any others whose negotiations I had seen. I was then suspected to have been, as some term it, won to a new mistress. Whereupon the charge was committed to the said earl and Sir Walter Mildmay, and I was only appointed to attend upon them to charge her by word of mouth with certain articles gathered out of the earl's and my letters. She avowed all that we had reported, and, I thank the Lord, I acquitted myself to be an honest man.'

Beale was hardly fit to treat with a person of such dexterity and resource as Mary Stuart. She seems to have contrived to delude him with the idea that she had really given up ambition, and was desirous only to live a retired life for the rest of her days. This appears from the tone of a letter to Walsingham, written in the spring of 1583. A year later he appears to have formed a juster estimate of the character of the queen. With all the cunning that we have,' he then wrote to Walsingham, we cannot bring this lady to make any absolute promise for the performance of her offers, unless she may be assured of the accomplishment of the treaty. Since the last break off she is more circumspect how she entangle herself.'

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treasurer, vindicating his opinions on church government with great learning and considerable apparent ability. The same year he was returned to parliament for Lostwithiel, in Cornwall. In 1595 the Earl of Essex appears to have tried to deprive Beale of his office of clerk to the council in favour of one of his own creatures. Accordingly, we find Beale writing (24 April 1595) a letter to the lord treasurer, in which he sets forth his claims to consideration at great length and with no little emphasis. It appears from this document that he had held this office for twentythree years, that he enjoyed it with the fee of 501. yearly under the great seal of England, and that he was then suffering from several grievous maladies, amongst them gout and stone. Beale also at this time held another post, that of clerk to the council in the northern parts, and resided at York at least for some part of the year. The emoluments of the office at York amounted, according to Beale's own reckoning, to 4007. yearly, though nominally he had there but 337. by instructions only alterable without other warrant or assurance.' Beale concluded his letter by begging that on the score of his growing infirmities he might be allowed a deputy to do the business of the office at York during his absence. His request was granted, one John Ferne being appointed in the following August. In 1597 he was joined with Sir Julius Cæsar in a commission to examine into complaints by the inhabitants of Guernsey against Sir Thomas Leighton, the governor of that island. In 1599 he was placed on a special commission to hear and adjudge the grievances of certain Danish subjects who complained of piratical acts committed by English subjects. In 1600 he was appointed one of the envoys to treat for peace with the King of Spain at Boulogne. The negotiation fell through, the representatives not being able to agree upon the important question of precedency. Next year Beale died at his house at Barnes, Surrey, at eight o'clock in the evening of 25 May. He was buried in Allhallows Church, London Wall. He appears to have left no son, but we know of two daughters, of whom one, Margaret, married Sir Henry Yelverton, justice of the common pleas in the time of Charles I, who thus became possessed of Beale's books and papers, which were long preserved by his descendants in the library of the family seat at Easton-Maudit, Northamptonshire. The library was sold in 1784. The manuscripts are now in the British Museum. The other daughter, Catherine, married Nathaniel Stephens, of Easington, Gloucestershire.

Beale was a member of the Elizabethan

Society of Antiquaries, and is mentioned by Milles in the epistle dedicatory to his 'Catalogue of Honour' by the designation of worthy Robert Beale, that grave clerk of the council,' as one of the 'learned friends' from whom he had received assistance. He seems also to have taken an interest in geographical discovery; for in Dr. Dee's 'Diary,' under date 24 Jan. 1582, we read: 'I, Mr. Awdrian Gilbert, and John Davis, went by appointment to Mr. Secretary Beale his house, where only we four were secret, and we made Mr. Secretary privy of the north-west passage, and all charts and rutters were agreed upon in general.' Such of Beale's letters as have been printed are dated vaguely at his poor house in London.' He certainly had another house at Priors Marston, in Warwickshire, as he is described as of that place in the inscriptions on the tombstone of his wife and daughter Catherine.

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Throughout life Beale was a close student and ardent collector of books. He is the author of the following works: 1. 'Argument touching the Validity of the Marriage of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, with Mary, Queen-dowager of France (sister to King Henry VIII), and the Legitimacy of the Lady Frances, their daughter." In Latin, MS. Univ. Libr., Cambr. Dd. 3, 85, art. 18. 2. 'A Large Discourse concerning the Marriage between the Earl of Hertford and the Lady Catherine Grey.' In Latin, MS. Univ. Libr. Cambr. Ii. 5, 3, art. 4. This work contains also the opinions of the foreign jurists consulted by Beale upon the case. 3. Discourse after the Massacre in France,' 15 pp. MS. Cotton, Tit. F. iii. 299. 4. Rerum Hispanicarum Scriptores aliquot ex Bibliotheca clarissimi viri Domini Roberti Beli Angli.' Frankfort, 3 vols. folio, 1579. Contents: Vol. i., M. Aretius, Jo. Gerundensis, Roderici Toletani, Roderici Santii, Joannis Vasæi; vol. ii., Alfonsia Carthagena, Michaelis Ritii, Francisci Farapha, Lucii Marinei Siculi, Laurentii Vallæ, Ælii Antonii Nebrissensis, Damiani a Goes; vol. iii., Al. Gomecius De Rebus Gestis Fr. Ximenis Cardinalis. 5. A Book against Oaths ministered in the Courts of Ecclesiastical Commission from her Majesty, and in other Courts Ecclesiastical.' Printed abroad and brought to England in a Scotch ship about 1583. Strype's 'Whitgift,' vol. i. bk. iii. c. xii. PP. 211-12. 6. A Book respecting Ceremonies. the Habits, the Book of Common Prayer, and the Power of Ecclesiastical Courts,' 1584. Strype's 'Whitgift,' vol. i. bk. iii. c. v. pp. 143-5, 212, vol. iii. bk. iii. nos. v. vi. 7. The Order and Manner of the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots, Feb. 8, 1587.'

·

Strype's 'Annals,' vol. iii. bk. ii. c. ii. p. 383.

8. Means for the Stay of the Declining and

Falling away in Religion.' Strype's 'Whit-
gift,' vol. iii. bk. iii. no. xxxv. 9. Opinions
concerning the Earl of Leicester's Placard to
the United Provinces.' MS. Cot. Galba, c.
xi. 107. 10. A Summary Collection of cer-
tain Notes against the Manner of proceeding
ex officio by Oath.' Strype's Whitgift,
vol. ii. bk. iv. c. ix. 11. Observations upon
the Instructions of the States-General to the
Council of State, June 1588.' MS. Cott.
Galba, D. iii. 215. 12. 'A Consideration of
certain Points in the Treaty to be enlarged
or altered in case her Majesty make a new
Treaty with the States, April 1589.' MS.
Cott. Galba, D. iv. 163. In this Beale was
assisted by Dr. Bartholomew Clerke. 13. 'Op-
position against Instructions to negotiate
with the States-General, 1590.' MS. Cott.
Galba, D. vii. 19. 14. Collection of the
King of Spain's Injuries offered to the Queen
of England. Dated 30 May 1591. With a
'Vindication of the Queen against the Ob-
jections of the Spaniards. MS. Harl. 253,
art. 33. 15. 'A Deliberation of Henry Kil-
ligrew and Robert Beale concerning the Re-
quisition for Restitution from the States.
London, August 1595.' MS. Cott. Galba, D.
xi. 125. 16. 'A Collection of Official Papers
and Documents.' MS. Addit. 14028. 17. 'His-
torical Notes and Collections.' MS. Addit.
14029. 18. Letters. Several of Beale's
letters have been printed. They are marked
by considerable energy of style.

BEALE, WILLIAM, D.D. (d. 1651),

royalist divine, was elected from West-
minster School to a scholarship at Trinity
College, Cambridge, in 1605, and proceeded
B.A. in 1609-10. He was chosen a fellow
of Jesus College in the same university in
1611, commenced M.A. in 1613, was ap-
pointed archdeacon of Caermarthen in 1623,
and was created D.D. in 1627. Beale be-
came master of Jesus College on 14 July
1632, and on 20 Feb. 1633-4 he was ad-
mitted master of St. John's College, 'per
majorem partem sociorum ex mandato regio.'
In 1634 he was chosen vice-chancellor of
the university. On 27 Oct. 1637 he was
presented by his majesty to the rectory of
Paulerspury in Northamptonshire. He had
also the rectory of Cottingham in the same
county, and in 1639 he was presented to the
sinecure rectory of Aberdaron.

In the year 1642 Beale took an active
part in urging the various colleges to send
money and plate to the king at Nottingham.
Oliver Cromwell, having failed to intercept
the treasure in Huntingdonshire, proceeded
to Cambridge with a large force, surrounded
St. John's College while its inmates were at
their devotions in the chapel, and carried off
Beale, whom with Dr. Martin, master of
Queen's, and Dr. Herne, master of Jesus
College, he brought in captivity to London.
The prisoners were conducted through Bar-
tholomew fair and a great part of the city,
to be exposed to the insults of the rabble,
and finally were shut up in the Tower.
At this period Beale was deprived of his
mastership and all his ecclesiastical prefer-
ments. From the Tower the prisoners were
removed to Lord Petre's house in Aldersgate
Street, and on 11 Aug. 1643, after having
been in detention a year, they were put on
board a ship at Wapping, with other prisoners
of quality and distinction, to the number of
eighty in all, 'and it was afterwards known,
upon no false or fraudulent information, that
there were people who were bargaining to
sell them as slaves to Algiers or the American

ham's Hist. of Ely, 231, 232; Bridges's North-
amptonshire, i. 313; Cooper's Memorials of
Cambridge, ii. 88; Cooper's Annals of Cam-
bridge, iii. 328; Prynne's Tryal of Abp. Laud,
73, 167, 177, 193, 357, 359, 360; Parr's Life of
Abp. Usher, 471; Life of Dean Barwick, 22, 32,
41, 444; Baker's Northamptonshire, ii. 205.]
T. Č.

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islands' (MS. Addit. 5808, f. 152). At length, after a confinement of three years, Beale was released by exchange, and joined the king at Oxford. There he was incorporated D.D. in 1645, and in the following year he was nominated dean of Ely, though he was never admitted to the dignity. He was one of the divines selected by the king to accompany him to Holdenby (1646). Ultimately he went into exile and accompanied the embassy of Lord Cottington and Sir Edward Hyde to Spain. His death occurred at Madrid on 1 Oct. 1651. The antiquary Baker gives this curious account of his last illness and clandestine interment: The doctor, not long after his coming to Madrid, was taken ill, and being apprehensive of danger and that he had not long to live, desired Sir Edward Hide and some others of the family to receive the holy sacrament with him, which he in perfect good understanding, though weak in body, being supported in his bed, consecrated and administered to himself and to the few other communicants, and died some few hours after he had performed that last office. He was very solicitous in his last sickness lest his body should fall into the hands of the inquisitors, for the prevention whereof this expedient was made use of, that the doctor dying in a ground chamber, the boards were taken up, and a grave being dug, the body, covered with a shroud, was deposited therein very deep, and four or five bushels of quicklime thrown upon it in order to consume it the sooner. Everything in the room was restored to the same order it was in before, and the whole affair, being committed only to a few trusty persons, was kept so secret as to escape the knowledge or suspicion of the Spaniards, and may so remain undiscovered till the resurrection.'

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Beale greatly embellished the chapel of St. John's College, and left manuscripts and other books to the library. His portrait is in the master's lodge. Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards Lord Clarendon, in one of his manuscript papers styles Dr. Beale his worthy and learned chaplain, commemorates the blessings he had enjoyed from him, and bemoans his loss; while Baker, the historian of St. John's, declares him to have been one of the best governors the university or college ever had. Contributions of his are found in almost all the collections of poems published on state occasions by the university of Cambridge during his time.

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BEALE, WILLIAM (1784-1854), musician, was born at Landrake, in Cornwall,1 Jan. 1784. He was a chorister at Westminster Abbey under Dr. Arnold until his voice broke, when he served as a midshipman on board the Révolutionnaire, a 44-gun frigate which had been taken from the French. During this period he was nearly drowned by falling overboard in Cork harbour. On his voice settling into a pure baritone he left the sea, and devoted himself to the musical profession. He became a member of the Royal Society of Musicians on 1 Dec. 1811. On 12 Jan. 1813 he won the prize cup of the Madrigal Society for his beautiful madrigal, Awake, sweet Muse,' and on 30 Jan. 1816 he obtained an appointment as one of the gentlemen of the Chapel Royal, in the place of Robert Hudson, deceased. At this period he was living at 13 North Street, Westminster. On 1 Nov. 1820 Beale signed articles of appointment as organist to Trinity College, Cambridge, and on 13 Dec. following he resigned his place at the Chapel Royal. In December 1821 he threw up his appointment at Cambridge, and returned to London, where, through the good offices of Dr. Attwood, he became successively organist of Wandsworth parish church and St. John's, Clapham Rise. He continued occasionally to sing in public until a late period of his life, and in 1840 he won a prize at the Adelphi Glee Club for his glee for four voices, Harmony.' He died at Paradise Row, Stockwell, 3 May 1854. Beale was twice married: (1) to Miss Charlotte Elkins, a daughter of the groom of the stole to George IV, and (2) to Miss Georgiana Grove, of Clapham. His voice was a light baritone, and he is said to have imitated Bartleman in his vocalisation. He was an extremely finished singer, though somewhat wanting in power. His compositions, which principally consist of glees and madrigals, though few in number, are of a very high degree of excellence, and often rival, in their purity of melody and form, the best compositions of the Elizabethan madrigalists.

[Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal; Records of the Royal Society of Musicians; London Magazine for 1822, p. 474; Records of Trinity College, Cambridge; information from Mr. W. Beale.] W. B. S.

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