صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

SOCIETY.-The Fabian Society consists of Socialista.

ite Rules and the following publications oan be obtained from the Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clement's Inn, London, W.O. FABIANISM AND THE EMPIRE: A Manifesto.

Edited by BERNARD SHAW. 4d. post free.
FABIAN ESSAYS IN SOCIALISM. (35th Thousand.)
Paper cover, 1/-; plain cloth, 2/-, post free from the Secretary.

FABIAN TRACTS and LEAFLETS.
Tracts, each 16 to 52 pp., price ld., or 9d. per dos., unless otherwise stated.

Leaflets, 4 pp. each, price ld. for six copres, 1s. per 100, or 8/6 per 1000. The Set of 84, 38.; post free 3/5. Bound in Buckram, 4/6; post free for 58. 1.-On General Socialism in its various aspects.

TRACT8.–113. Communism. By WM. MORRIS. 107. Socialism for Millionaires. By BERNARD SHAW. 79. A Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich. By JOHN WOOLMAN. 78. Socialism and the Teaching of Christ. By Dr. JOHN CLIFFORD. 87. The same in Welsh. 42. Christian Socialism. By Rev. 8. D. HEADLAM. 75. Labor in the Longest Reign. By SIDNEY WEBB. 72. The Moral Aspects of Socialism. By SIDNEY BALL. 69. Difficulties of Individualism. By SIDNEY WEBB. 51. Socialism: True and False. By S. WEBB. 45. The Impossibilities of Anarchism. By BERNARD SHAW (price 2d.). 15. Englisb Progress towards Social Democracy. By S. WEBB. 7. Capital and Land (6th edn. revised 1904). 5. Facts for Socialists. LEAFLETS-13. What Socialism Is. 1. Why are the Many

Poor? 38. The same in Welsh. II.-On Application of Socialism to Particular Problems.

TRACT8.-115. State Aid to Agriculture : an Example. By T. S. DYMOND. 112. Life in the Laundry. 110. Problems of Indian Poverty. By S. S. THORBURN. 98. State Railways for Ireland. 88. The Growth of Monopoly in English Industry. By H. W. MACROSTY. 86. Municipal Drink Traffic. 85. Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad. By E. R. PEASE. 84. Economics of Direct Employment. 83. State Arbitration and the Living Wage. 74. The State and

its Functions in New Zealand. 73. Case for State Pensions in Old Age. By G. TURNER. 67. Women and the Factory Acts. By Mrs. WEBB. 50. Sweating its Cause and Remedy. 48. Eight Hours by Law. 23. Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 47. The Unemployed. By J. BURNS, M.P. LEAFLETS.-89. Old Age Pensions at Work. 19. What the Farm Laborer Wants. 104. How Trade Unions

benefit Workmen. III.-On Local Government Powers : How to use them.

TRACTS.—114. The Education Act, 1902. III. Reform of Reformatories and Industrial Schools. By H. T. HOLMES. 10g. Cottage Plans and Common Sense. By RAYMOND UNWIN. 105. Five Years' Fruits of the Parish Councils Act. 103. Overcrowding in London and its Remedy. By W. C. STEADMAN, L.C.C. 101. The House Famine and How to Relieve it. 52 pp. 76. Houses for the People. 100. Metropolitan Borough Councils: their powers and duties. 99. Local Government in Ireland. 82. Workmen's Compensation Act: what it means and how to make use of it. 77. Municipalization of Tramways. 62. Parish and District Councils. 61. The London County Council. 54. The Humanizing of the Poor Law. By J. F. BAKESHOTT. LEAFLETS.–81. Municipal Water. 68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catechism. 71. Same for London. 63. Parish Council Cottages and how to get them. 58. Allotments and how to get them. FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM, FIRST SERIES. London's Heritage in the City Guilds. Municipalization of the Gas Supply. Municipal Tramways. The Scandal of London's Markets. A Labor Policy for Public Authorities. SECOND SERIES (Nos. 90 to 97). Municipalization of the Milk Supply. Municipal Pawnshops. Municipal Slaughterhouses. Women as Councillors. Municipal Bakeries. Municipal Hospitals. Municipal Fire Insurance. Municipal Steamboats.

Each Series in a red cover for id. (90. per doz.); separate leaflets, 1/- per 100. IV.-On Books.

29. What to Read on social and economic subjects. 4th edition, enlarged

and re-arranged. 6d. net. V.-On General Politics and Fabian Policy.

108. Twentieth Century Politics. By SIDNEY WEBB. 70. Report on Fabian

Policy. 41. The Fabian Society: its Early History. By BERNARD SHAW. VI.- Question Leaflets, containing Questions for Candidates for the

following bodies :—20, Poor Law Guardians. 24, Parliament. 27, Town Coun. cils, 28, County Councils, Rural. 56, Parish Councils. 57, Rural District

Councils. 59, Urban District Councils. 102, Metropolitan Borough Councils Book Boxes lent to Societies, Clubs, Trade Unions, for 68. a year, or 2/6 a quarter

WHAT SOCIALISM IS.

[ocr errors]

What “ Unsocialism Is. We English have a habit of speaking of England as if it belonged to us. We are wrong: England is now private property; and if a laboring man out of employment makes so free with "his country' as to lie down for a night's sleep on it without paying its owners for the accommodation, he is imprisoned as a rogue and a vagabond. The price we must pay rises as the population grows ; for the more people there are, the higher they will bid against one another for their dwellings and places of business. In London, for instance, the price paid annually to the ground landlords for the use of the soil alone is £16,000,000 ; and it goes up by £ 304,634 every year, without counting the additional charge for new buildings, or repairs and improvements to old ones. After payments of one sort or another to the owners of the whole country have been deducted from the produce of the workers' labor, the balance left for wages is so small, that if every working-class family got an equal share, each share would come to less than £ 130 a year, which (though it would seem a fortune to many poor people) is not enough for a comfortable living, much less for saving. Nevertheless the proprietary classes, without working at all for it, divide among them enough to give over two hundred thousand rich families more than £ 1,000 a year, and still leave more than £ 300 a year per family for over a million and a quarter families of moderately well-off people in addition to what they make by their professions and businesses.

The Extreme Cases. The above figures, bad as they are, only represent averages, and give no idea of the extreme cases of wealth and poverty. Some of our great landowners get upwards of £4,000 a week without ever doing a stroke of work for it ; whilst the laborers on their estates, working early and late from the time they are lads until they go into the union as aged and worn-out paupers, get eleven shillings a week. As women get lower wages than men when they work, but receive just as large incomes from property when they are rich and idle, a comparison between the share of our yearly produce that goes to a poor working woman at the East end of London, working sixteen hours a day for a shilling, and the rich, idle lady at the West end, is still more startling. If you doubt these statements, read Fabian Tract No. 5, "Facts for Socialists," in which you will find hundreds of the most terrible figures concerning the misery caused by our present social system, with full references to standard authorities for every one of them.

What Comes of Inequality. If you are a person of common sense and natural feeling, you must have often thought over these inequalities and their cruel inthing-that it fosters a spirit of emulation, and prevents things from stagnating at a dead level. But if you are poor, you must know well that when inequality is so outrageous as the figures above shew, it fosters nothing but despair, recklessness and drunkenness among the very poor ; arrogance and wastefulness among the very rich ; meanness, envy and snobbery among the middle classes. Poverty means disease and crime, ugliness and brutality, drink and violence, stunted bodies and unenlightened minds. Riches heaped up in idle hands mean flunkeyism and folly, insolence and servility, bad example, false standards of worth, and the destruction of all incentive to useful work in those who are best able to educate themselves for it. Poverty and riches together mean the misuse of our capital and industry for the production of frippery and luxury whilst the nation is rotting for want of good food, thorough instruction, and wholesome clothes and dwellings for the masses. What we want in order to make true progress is more bakers, more schoolmasters, more woolweavers and tailors, and more builders : what we get instead is more footmen, more gamekeepers, more jockeys, and more prostitutes. That is what our newspapers call “sound political economy." What do you think of it? Do you intend to do anything to get it remedied?

No Remedy without Political Change. The produce of industry has been increased enormously during this last century by machinery, railways, and division of labor. But he first cost of machinery, railways and factories has to be paid out of savings, and not out of the money that people are living on. Now the only people who can spare money to save are those who have more than enough to live on : that is to say, the rich. Consequently the machinery has been introduced, and the factories built out of the savings of the rich; and as they paid for it (with money made by the labor of the poor), they expect to get all the advantage that comes by using it; so that here again the workers are left as badly off as

The worst of it is that when the rich find how easily they get still richer by saving, they think it is as easy for everybody as for themselves; and when the worker complains, they say, “Why don't you save as we do?" or " How can you expect to be well off if you are not thrifty?". They forget that though you can save plenty out of £18 a week without stinting your family, you cannot save anything out of eighteen shillings without starving them. Nothing can help the poor except political change from bad social institutions to good ones.

The Three Monopolies. Moreover the propertied classes, by giving their sons an expensive education, are able to put them into the learned professions and the higher managerial posts in business, over the heads of the wageworkers, who are too poor to get more than the Board School standards for their children. So that out of the price paid for the use of the land, the propertied classes save capital ; and out of the profits of the capital they buy the education which gives to their working members a monopoly of the highly paid employments; whilst the wage-workers are hopelessly cut out of it all. Here are the figures for the United Kingdom :

ever.

*Income of Propertied Classes (12,000,000 persons) £1,110,000,000 12 left for Wage-workers (29,500,000

690,000,000 Total National Income

£1,800,000,000 This means that the rich are masters of the wage-workers, because the whole country is governed by the House of Commons, the County Councils and Municipal Corporations, and only rich men can afford to give their time for nothing to these bodies, or to pay the heavy expenses of getting elected to them. The workman's vote enables him to choose between one rich man and another, but not to fill the Councils and Parliament with men of his own class. Thus the poor keep the rich up; and the rich keep the poor down ; and it will always be so whilst the land and the machinery from which the nation's subsistence is produced remains in the hands of a class instead of in the hands of the nation as a whole.

What Socialism Is. Socialism is a plan for securing equal rights and opportunities for all. The Socialists are trying to have the land and machinery gradually "socialized," or made the property of the whole people, in order to do away with idle owners, and to win the whole product for those whose labor produces it. The establishment of Socialism, when once the people are resolved upon it, is not so difficult as might be supposed. If a man wishes to work on his own account, the rent of his place of business, and the interest on the capital needed to start him, can be paid to the County Council of his district just as easily as to the private landlord and capitalist. Factories are already largely regulated by public inspectors, and can be conducted by the local authorities just as gas-works, water-works and tramways are now conducted by them in various towns. Railways and mines, instead of being left to private companies, can be carried on by a department under the central government, as the postal and telegraph services are carried on now. The Income Tax collector who to-day calls for a tax of a few pence in the pound on the income of the idle millionaire, can collect a tax of twenty shillings in the pound on every unearned income in the country if the State so orders. Remember that Parliament, with all its faults, has always governed the country in the interest of the class to which the majority of its members belonged. It governed in the interest of the country gentlemen in the old days when they were in a majority in the House of Commons; it has governed in the interests of the capitalists and employers since they won a majority by the Reform Bill of 1832; and it will govern in the interest of the people when the majority is selected from the wage-earning class. Inquirers will find that Socialism can be brought about in a perfectly constitutional manner, and that none of the practical difficulties which occur to everyone in his first five minutes' consideration of the subject have escaped the attention of those who have worked at it for years. Few now believe Socialism to be impracticable except those with whom the wish is father to the thought,

• This item is made up of six hundred and fifty millions (£650,000,000) which go as Rent and Interest absolutely for nothing, and of four hundred and sixiy millions (4460,000,000) incomes of professional men and profits of business management. (See Fabian Tract No. 5, “ Facts for Socialists.” Ninth edition ; one penny.)

[ocr errors]

( ment of its Rules and the couowing puondations can be obtained from toe

Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clement's Inn, London, W.O.
FABIANISM AND THE EMPIRE: A Manifesto. 4d. post free.
FABIAN ESSAYS IN SOCIALISM. (35th Thousand.)
Paper cover, 1/-; plain cloth, 2/-, post free from the Secretary.

FABIAN TRACTS and LEAFLETS.
Tracts, each 16 to 52 pp., price ld., or 9d. per doz., unless otherwise stated.

Leaflets, 4 pp. each, price ld. for six copres, 1s. per 100, or 86 per 1000. The Set of 88, 38.; post free 3/5.. Bound in Buckram, 4/6; post free for 58. 1.-General Socialism in its various aspects.

TRACTS.—121. Public Service versus Private Expenditure. By Sir OLIVER LODGE. 113. Communism. By WM. MORRIS. 107. Socialism for Millionaires. By BERNARD SHAW. 78. Socialism and the Teaching of Christ. By Dr. JOHN CLIFFORD. 87. The same in Welsh. 42. Christian Socialism. By Rev. S. D. HEADLAM, 75. Labor in the Longest Reiga. By SIDNEY WEBB. 72. The Moral Aspects of Socialism. By SIDNEY BALL. 69. Difficulties of Individualism. By SIDNEY WEBB. 51. Socialism: True and False. By S. WEBB. 45. The Impossibilities of Anarchism. By BERNARD SHAW (price 20.). 15. English Progress towards Social Democracy. By S. WEBB. 7. Capital and Land (6th edn. revised 1904). 5. Facts for Socialists (10th edn., revised 1906). LEAFLET8—13. What Socialism Is.

1. Why are the Many Poor? 38. The same in Welsh. II.-Applications of Socialism to Particular Problems.

TRACTS.—128. The Case for a Legal Minimum Wage. 126. The Abolition of Poor Law Guardians. 122. Municipal Milk and Public Health, By Dr. F. LAWSON DODD. 120. “ After Bread, Education." 125. Municipalization by Provinces. 119. Public Control of Electrical Power and Transit. 123. The Revival of Agriculture. 118. The Secret of Rural Depopulation. 115. State Aid to Agriculture: an Example. 112. Life in the Laundry. 110. Problems of Indian Poverty. 98. State Railways for Ireland. 124. State Control of Trusts. 86. Municipal Drink Traffic. 85. Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad. 84. Economics of Direct Employment. 83. State Arbitration and the Living Wage. 73. Case for State Pensions in Old Age. 67. Women and the Factory Acts. 50. Sweating: its Cause and Remedy. 48. Eight Hours by Law. 23. Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 47. The Unemployed. By JOHN BURNS, M.P. LEAFLETS.—89. Old Age Pensions at Work. 19. What the

Farm Laborer Wants. 104. How Trade Unions benefit Workmen. III.-Local Government Powers : How to use them.

TRACT8.—117. The London Education Act, 1903: how to make the best of it, 114. The Education Act, 1902. III. Reform of Reformatories and Industrial Schools. By H. T. HOLMES. 1og. Cottage Plans and Common Sense. By RAYMOND UNWIN. 103. Overcrowding in London and its Remedy. By W. C. STEADMAN, L.C.C. 76. Houses for the People. 100. Metropolitan Borough Councils. 99. Local Government in Ireland, 82. Workmen's Compensation Act. 62. Parish and District Councils. 61. The London County Council. 54. The Humanizing of the Poor Law. By J. F. RAKESHOTT. LEAFLETS.-68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catechism. 71. Same for London. 63. Parish Council Cottages and how to get them. 58. Allotments and how to get them. FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM, FIRST SERIES (Nos. 32, 36, 37). Municipaliza. tion of the Gas Supply. The Scandal oi London's Markets. A Labor Policy for Public Authorities. SECOND SERIES (Nos. go to 97). Municipalization of Milk Supply. Municipal Pawnshops. Municipal Slaughterhouses. Women as Councillors. Municipal Bakeries. Muni. cipal Hospitals. Municipal Fire Insurance. Municipal Steamboats.

Second Series in a rod cover for 1d. (90. per doz.); separate leaflets, 1/- per 100. IV.-Books. 29. What to Read on social and economic subjects. 6d. net,

129. More Books to Read. Supplement to October, 1906. V.-General Politics and Fabian Policy.

127. Socialism and Labor Policy. 116. Fabianism and the Fiscal Question: an alternative policy. 108. Twentieth Century Politics. By SIDNEY WEBB. 70. Report on Fabian Policy. 41. The Fabian Society :

its Early History. By BERNARD SHAW. VI.- Question Leaflets. Questions for Candidates : 20, Poor Law Guard

ians. 24, Parliament. 28, County Councils, Rural. 56, Parish Councils. 57,

Rural Distriot Councils. 102, Metropolitan Borough Councils. Book Boxes lent to Societies, Clubs, Trade Unions, for 68. a year, or 2/6 a quarter Printed by G. Standring, 7 Finsbury St., London, E.C., and published by the Fabian society,

8 Clement's Inn, Strand, London w.C.

« السابقةمتابعة »