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ABIAN SOCIETY.-The Fabian Sooloty consists of Soolalists. A statement of ite Rules

the following publications can be obtained from the Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clement's Inn, London, W.O. FABIANISM AND THE EMPIRE: A Manifesto. 4d. post free. FABIAN ESSAYS IN SOCIALISM. (35th Thousand.) Paper cover, 1/-; plain cloth, 2/-, post free from the Secretary.

FABIAN TRACTS and LEAFLETS. Tracts, each 16 to 52 pp., price ld., or 9d. per dos., unless otherwise stated.

Leaflets, 4 pp. each, price 1d. for six copres, 1s. per 100, or 8/6 per 1000. The Set of 88, 38.; post free 3/5. Bound in Buckram, 4/6; post free for 58. 1.-General Socialism in its various aspects.

TRACTS.–113. Communism. By Wm. MORRIS. 107. Socialism for Millionaires. By BERNARD SHAW. 79. A Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich. By JOHN WOOLMAN. 78. Socialism and the Teaching of Christ. By Dr. JOHN CLIFFORD. 87. The same in Welsh. 42. Christian Socialism. By Rev. 8. D. HEADLAM. 75. Labor in the Longest Reign. By SIDNEY WEBB. 72. The Moral Aspects of Socialism. By SIDNEY BALL. 69. Difficulties of Individualism. By SIDNEY WEBB. 51. Socialism : True and False. By S. WEBB. 45. The Impossibilities of Anarchism. By BERNARD SHAW (price 2d.). 15. English Progress towards Social Democracy. By S. WEBB. 7. Capital and Land (6th edn. revised 1904). 5. Facts for Socialists (9th edn., revised 1904). LEAFLET8—13. What Socialism Is.

1. Why are the Many Poor? 38. The same in Welsh. II.-Applications of Socialism to Particular Problems.

TRACTg.-118. The Secret of Rural Depopulation. By Lieut.-Col. D. C. PEDDER. 116. Fabianism and the Fiscal_Question: an Alternative Policy. 115. State Aid to Agriculture : an Example. By T. 8. DYMOND. 112. Life in the Laundry, 110. Problems of Indian Poverty. By 8. S. THORBURN. 98. State Railways for Ireland. 88. The Growth of Monopoly in English Industry. By H. W. MACROSTY. 86. Municipal Drink Traffic. 85. Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad. By E. R. PEASE. 84. Economics of Direct Employment. 83. State Arbitration and the Living Wage. 74. The State and its Functions in New Zealand. 73. Case for State Pensions in Old Age. By G. TURNER. 67. Women and the Factory Acts. By Mrs. WEBB. 50. Sweating : its Cause and Remedy. 48. Eight Hours by Law. 23. Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 47. The. Unemployed. By J. BURNS, M.P. LEAFLETB.–89. Old Age Pensions at Work. 19. Whai the Farm Laborer Wants. 104. How Trade Unions

benefit Workmen. III.-Local Government Powers: How to use them.

TRACT8.—117. The London Education Act, 1903: how to make the best of it, 114. The Education Act, 1902. III. Reform of Reformatories and Industrial Schools. By H. T. HOLMES. 109. Cottage Plans and Common Sense. By RAYMOND UNWIN. 105. Five Years' Fruits of the Parish Councils Act. 103. Overcrowding in London and its Remedy. By W. O. STEADMAN, L.C.C. 101. The House Famine and How to Relieve it. 52 pp. 76. Houses for the People. 100. Metropolitan Borough Councils: their powers and duties. 99. Local Government in Ireland. 82. Workmen's Compensation Act: what it means and how to make use of it. 77. Municipalization of Tramways. 62. Parish and District Councils. 61. The

London County Council. 54. The Humanizing of the Poor Law. By J. F. OAKESHOTT. LEAFLETS.–81. Municipal Water. 68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catechism. 71. Same for London. 63. Parish Council Cottages and how to get them. 58. Allotments and how to get them. FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM, FIRST SERIES. London's Heritage in the City Guilds. Municipalization of the Gas Supply. Municipal Tramways. The Scandal of London's Markets. A Labor Policy for Public Authorities. SECOND SERIES (Nos. go to 97). Municipalization of the Milk Supply. Municipal Pawnshops. Municipal Slaughterhouses. Women as Councillors. Municipal Bakeries. Municipal Hospitals. Municipal Fire Insurance. Municipal Steamboats.

Each Series in a red cover for 10. (9d. per doz.); separate leaflets, 1/- per 100. IV.-Books.

29. What to Read on social and economic subjects. 6d, net, V.-General Politics and Fabian Policy.

116. Fabianism and the Fiscal Question: an alternative policy. 108. Twentieth Century Politics. By SIDNEY WEBB. 70. Report on Fabian

Policy. 41. The Fabian Society: its Early History. By BERNARD SHAW, VI.- Question Leaflets, containing Questions for Candidates for the

following bodies :—20, Poor Law Guardians. 24, Parliament. 27, Town Coun. cils, 28, County Councils, Rural. 56, Parish Councils. 57, Rural District

Councils. 59, Urban District Councils. 102, Metropolitan Borough Councils. Book Boxes lent to Societies, Clubs, Trade Unions, for 68. & vear, or 2/6 a quarter

HOUSES FOR THE PEOPLE.

A SUMMARY OF THE POWERS OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES UNDER THE Housing OF THE WORKING CLASSES Acts, 1890 to 1903, AND

THE USE WHICH HAS BEEN AND CAN BE MADE OF THEM.

(Fourth Edition, REVISED AND ENLARGED).

PublishED AND SOLD BY

THE FABIAN SOCIETY.

PRICE ONE PENNY.

LONDON:

THE FABIAN SOCIETY, 3 CLEMENT'S INN, STRAND, W.C.
PUBLISHED MAY, 1897. FOURTH EDITION AUGUST, 1906.

1

HOUSES FOR

THE

PEOPLE.

vided by

The provision of housing accommodation for the industrial classes has hitherto been left almost entirely in the hands of private enterprise, with the inevitable result that high rents are exacted for the privilege of occupying squalid dwellings whose very existence is a grave social danger. In the poorest districts of our large towns and cities the artizan in search of a house must make his choice between grim and gloomy model dwellings, erected by thrifty philanthropists of the five per cent. school, and dilapidated insanitary tenements which yield fat revenues to the rack-renting proprietor and constant work for the doctor and undertaker. Experience has abundantly shown that the “models" with their necessary restrictions and often comfortless arrangements are ill adapted to certain classes such as costermongers, and distasteful to many other people; whilst the worst class of tenement houses are a social nuisance which successive Public Health Acts have striven ineffectually to abolish.

In recent years, since the first edition of this Tract was issued, the urgency of the housing problem has been recognized, and housing reform now figures as an item in election addresses, and serves as a popular subject for speeches at congresses and papers by statisticians. The need for energetic action is admitted, and the means is pro

The Housing Acts of 1890 to 1903. The London County Council, and all the borough and district councils throughout England, as well as the equivalent authorities in Scotland and Ireland, have full power to supply dwellings for the people under the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890, which has been extended in the case of England and Wales by the amending Acts of 1900 and 1903; but the procedure is still somewhat complicated, and for various reasons the law has not yet been fully made use of. The principal Act consists of three distinct divisions, viz., Parts I., II., III. Part IV. contains sundry administrative details; Parts V. and VI. explain the application of the Act to Scotland and Ireland.

PART I.-UNHEALTHY AREAS. This empowers the London County Council, and elsewhere the urban sanitary authority, to buy compulsorily and clear of buildings any insanitary area. The local authority in London must always, and elsewhere may be compelled by the Local Government Board to, provide house-room on the spot or elsewhere for at least half the persons of the working class who are displaced by the demolition. Land acquired under Part III. may be used for this purpose. This part of the Act does not apply to the rural districts, and it deals only

with large improvement schemes. Under it whole districts can be purchased and cleared, new streets laid out, and the character of an area entirely changed. The machinery of this part can be set in motion by the report of a medical officer of health, and he is compelled to make a report on a representation by two justices of the peace or by twelve ratepayers.

But as these improvement schemes are very large and costly affairs, any person intending to propose them should obtain far fuller information than can be given in this Tract, and it is not therefore necessary to explain the machinery here.

PART II.-UNHEALTHY HOUSES. This Part gives power to the local sanitary authorities throughout the kingdom to order the closing and, if necessary, the demolition of any house which is unfit for habitation. It is the duty of the medical officer of health to report on any such house, and he is compelled to make a report on the demand of four householders residing near the house in question. In case of neglect by the local authority, the householders who complained may appeal to the Local Government Board or, if in London or rural districts, to the county council. The local sanitary authority is also bound to have its district inspected from time to time, in order to ascertain whether it contains any insanitary houses.

An area cleared under Section 39 of this part may be dedicated as an open space, and the Local Government Board may require that dwelling accommodation for persons displaced by the demolition shall be provided by the local authority. Land may be purchased under Part III. for this purpose.

Finances.-Money may be borrowed on the security of the rates, with the consent of the Local Government Board, from the Public Works Loan Commissioners at the following rates: 37 per cent. up to 30 years ; 35 per cent. from 30 to 40 years ; 34 per cent. for 50 years; and at other rates up to 80 years. A local enquiry may be held by the Local Government Board before the loan is granted.

Part III.-New BUILDINGS. This is the most important Part of the Act for our present purpose, because it enables local authorities to build houses for the working classes whenever they think fit to do so. Except in rural districts, there is no provision whatever limiting the power of the local authority; no formal proof of deficient house accommodation is requisite. The local authority can decide to build at any time and for any reason which may seem good to them.

The clauses of this part were originally designed to provide for the erection of lodging houses, but Section 53 reads as follows :

(1) The expression "lodging-houses for the working classes," when used in this part of this Act, shall include separate houses or cottages for the working classes, whether containing one or several tenements

, and the purposes of this Part of this Act shall include the provision of such houses and cottages.

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