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of 10 per cent. over and above its market price. This should certainly be abolished.

Powers for Parish Councils.--Parish councils, which are now elected to sit for three years, and are therefore more stable and responsible bodies than in earlier years, have been given power, under the Amendment Act of 1900, to complain to the county council if the rural district council neglect to build cottages. One step further ought to be taken, and the parish council empowered to build for itself. When the county council can build, and the district council can build, why should the parish council alone be left impotent ?

Restraint on Rural District Councils. - The Act of 1900, which repealed the complicated regulations in the principal Act affecting rural districts, re-enacted the provision requiring the consent of the county council for the adoption of Part III. Experience has shown that the difficulties of building under the Act are so great that heedless or needless action is nowhere in the least probable. The county council check on rural district council impetuosity might surely be abolished.

Municipal Ownership.--The local authority which has acquired and cleared areas under Parts I. and II. may not itself build thereon without express permission from the Local Government Board ; and if it does erect houses, it is compelled to sell them within ten years unless it obtains power from the Local Government Board to retain them. The above does not apply to Part III. These objectionable and antiquated provisions should be repealed.

NOTE.—The Secretary will be glad to answer, to the best of his ability, any questions relating to the Act.

There are two associations specially devoted to the housing problem :

THE WORKMEN'S NATIONAL HOUSING COUNCIL.--President, W. C. Steadman, M.P.; General Secretary, Fred Knee, 120 Sugden Road, Clapham Common, S.W. This society publishes a penny monthly entitled The Housing Journal, and has hitherto mainly exerted its influence in London.

THE NATIONAL HOUSING REFORM COUNCIL.-Secretary, H. R. Aldridge, 432 West Strand, London, W.C. This body has been promoted by the Land Nationalization Society, and has devoted itself chiefly to the provinces, where it has held numerous conferences and established local associations.

"The Housing HANDBOOK,” by Councillor William Thompson (of Richmond), price 26 nett, 1903, is the best book on the subject. It contains a great mass of detailed information, together with the text of the Housing Acts, and many plans. Published by P. S. King and Son.

FABIAN TRACTS ON HOUSING.–No. 63, Parish Council Cottages, and how to get them, No. 68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catechism, for places outside London. No.71, The London Tenant's Sanitary Catechism. All 4-p. leaflets : 6 for id., or is. per 100.

No, 101, The House Famine, and how to relieve it. No. 103, Overcrowding in London, and its Remedy. By W. C. Steadman, L.C.C. No. 109, Cottage Plans and Common Sense. By Raymond Unwin. All Tracts, 16 to 52 pp., one penny each, or 9d. per dozen.

FA

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ABIAN SOCIETY.–The Fabian Society consists of soolalista. A stato

mont of its Rules and the following publications can be obtained from the
Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clemens's Inn, London, W.O.
FABIANISM AND THE EMPIRE: A Manifesto. 4d. post free.
FABIAN ESSAYS IN SOCIALISM. (35th Thousand.)
Paper cover, 1/- ; plain oloth, 2/-, post free from the Secretary.

FABIAN TRACTS and LEAFLETS.
Tracts, each 16 to 52 pp., price ld., or 9d. per dos., unless otherwise stated.

Leaflets, 4 pp. each, price ld. for six copres, 18. per 100, or 8/6 per 1000. The Set of 88, 35.; post free 3/5. Bound in Buckram, 4/6; post free for 58. 1.-General Socialism in its various aspects.

TRACT8.—121. Public Service versus Private Expenditure. By Sir OLIVER LODGE. 113. Communism. By WM. MORRIS. 107. Socialism for Million. aires. By BERNARD SHAW. 78. Socialism and the Teaching of Christ. By Dr. JOHN CLIFFORD. 87. The same in Welsh. 42. Christiao Social. ism. By Rev. 8. D. HEADLAM. 75. Labor in the Longest Reign. By SIDNEY WEBB. 72. The Moral Aspects of Socialism. By SIDNEY BALL. 69. Difficulties of Individualism. By SIDNEY WEBB. 51. Socialism: True and False. By S. WEBB. 45. _The Impossibilities of Anarchism. By BERNARD SHAW (price 2d.). 15. English Progress towards Social Democracy. By S. WEBB. 7. Capital and Land (6th edn. revised 1904). 5. Facts for Socialists (10th edn., revised 1906). LEAFLET8—13. What Socialism Is.

1. Why are the Many Poor? 38. The same in Welsh. II.-Applications of Socialism to Particular Problems.

TRACTS.—128. The Case for a Legal Minimum Wage. 126. The Aboli. tion of Poor Law Guardians. 122. Municipal Milk and Public Health. By Dr. F. LAWSON DODD. 120. “After Bread, Education." 125. Munici. palization by Provinces. 119. Public Control of Electrical Power and Transit. 123. The Revival of Agriculture. 118. The Secret of Rural Depopulation. 115. State Aid to Agriculture : an Example. 112. Life in the Laundry. 110. Problems of Indian Poverty. 98. State Railways for Ireland. 124. State Control of Trusts. 86. Municipal Drink Traffic. 85. Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad. 84. Economics of Direct Employment. 83. State Arbitration and the Living Wage. 73. Case for State Pensions in Old Age. 67. Women and the Factory Acts. 50. Sweating: its Cause and Remedy. 48. Eight Hours by Law. 23. Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 47. The Unemployed. By JOHN BURNS, M.P. LEAFLETS.-89. Old Age Pensions at Work. 19. What the

Farm Laborer Wants.' 104. How Trade Unions benefit Workmen. III.-Local Government Powers : How to use them.

TRACTS.—117. The London Education Act, 1903 : how to make the best of it, 114. The Education Act, 1902. 111. Reform of Reformatories and Industrial Schools. By H. T. HOLMES. 109. Cottage Plans and Common Sense. By RAYMOND UNWIN. 103. Overcrowding in London and its Remedy. By W. C. STEADMAN, L.C.C. 101. The House Famine and How to Relieve it. 52 pp. 76. Houses for the People. 100. Metropolitan Borougb Councils. 99. Local Government in Ireland 82. Workmen's Compensation Act. 62. Parish and District Councils. 61. The London County Council. 54. The Humanizing of the Poor Law. By J. F. OAKESHOTT. LEAFLETS.-68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catechism. 71. Same for London. 63. Parisb Council Cottages and how to get them. 58. Allotments and how to get them. FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM, FIRST SERIES (Nos. 32, 36, 37). Municipalization of the Gas Supply. The Scandal of London's Markets. A Labo Policy for Public Authorities. SECOND SERIES (Nos. go to 97). Municipalization of Milk Supply. Municipal Pawnshops. Municipal Slaughterhouses. Women as Councillors. Municipal Bakeries. Municipal Hospitals. Municipal Fire Insurance. Municipal Steamboats.

Second Series in a red cover for 1d. (98. per doz.); separate leaflets, 1/- per 100. IV.-Books. 29. What to Read on social and economic subjects. 6d. net. V.-General Politics and Fabian Policy.

127. Socialism and Labor Policy. 116. Fabianism and the Fiscal Question: an alternative policy. 108. Twentieth Century Politics. By SIDNEY WEBB. 70. Report on Fabian Policy. 41. The Fabian Society:

its Early History. By BERNARD SHAW. VI.-Question Leaflets. Questions for Candidates : 20, Poor Law Guard

ans. 24, Parliament. 28, County Councils, Rural. 56, Parish Councils. 57,

Rural District Councils. 102, Metropolitan Borough Councils. Book Boxes lent to Societies. Clubs. Trade Unions, for 68. a year, or 2/6 a quarter

Printed by G. Standring, 7 Finsbury St., Loudon, B.C., and published by the Fabian Society,

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SOCIALISM AND THE TEACHING OF CHRIST

By REV. JOHN CLIFFORD, M.A., D.D.

WITH A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM AND PARTICULARS

OF EXISTING CHRISTIAN SOCIALIST SOCIETIES.

PUBLISHED AND SOLD BY

THE FABIAN SOCIETY.

[THIRTIETH THOUSAND.]

PRICE ONE PENNY.

LONDON:
THE FABIAN SOCIETY, 3 CLEMENT'S INN, STRAND, W.C.

PUBLISHED JULY 1897. REPRINTED OCTOBER 1906..

SOCIALISM AND THE TEACHING OF

CHRIST.

An Address delivered by DR. JOHN CLIFFORD at the Annual Meeting

of the Christian Socialist League, at Westbourne Park Chapel, February, 1895.

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ONE of the objections frequently brought against the application or the principles of Socialism to our industrial life is that such a process is opposed to the teaching and spirit of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Christianity, it is said, moves in a higher realm than that of humdrum toil, and operates for far higher purposes than those of settling the disputes of capital and labor, adjusting profit and loss, organizing production and distribution, fighting a dangerous plutocracy, and mediating peace between the masses of wageearners and a narrowing number of wage-payers. It does not "preach a gospel of material blessedness." It ministers to a mind diseased by sin, banishes remorse, and prepares for death and eternity. It is not concerned with this fleeting life ; so brief that" it is like a dewdrop on its perilous way from a tree's summit"; but with the infinite development of the human spirit through the eternity, and in the home, of God. In support of this eclipse of the life of the present by the stupendous and transcendent greatness of the life of the future revealed in Christianity, the saying of Jesus is quoted. “Work not for the meat that perisheth, but for the meat which abideth unto eternal life, which the Son of Man shall give unto you : for Him the Father, even God, hath sealed.”

Hence, many Christians look with misgiving on Churches that venture to study the politico-economical conditions of the life of the people around them, touch with the tips of their fingers the problems for the abolition of poverty, and seek the up-lifting of the wage-earning classes by juster and healthier modes than those of spasmodic charity and unlimited soup. They denounce ministers who hold and teach that the laws of God run everywhere, even into wages and prices, into houses of toil and the sanitary conditions of factories and drapery establishments; and generally reason that the capacity of the mind for the hospitable entertainment of ideas

so sadly limited that no preacher can be faithful to Christ's message concerning sin and redemption, and at the same time agitate for a "fair living wage," or toil for the reorganization of the industrial life of the country on bases of justice and brotherhood.

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Is Socialism Christian? Professor Flint, a man of vast learning and great ability, has said in one of the largest and least discriminating and most unsatisfactory books I have read on Socialism : " What is called Christian Socialism will always be found either to be unchristian in so far as it is socialistic or unsocialistic in so far as it is truly and fully Christian again, "so far as Socialism confines itself to proposals of an exclusively economic and political character, Christianity has no direct concern with it. A Christian may, of course, criticise and disapprove of them ; but it cannot be on Christian grounds ; it must be merely on economic and political grounds. Whether land is to be owned by few or many, by every one or only by the State ; whether industry is be entirely under the direction of government, or conducted by co-operative associations, or left to private enterprise ; whether labor is to be remunerated by wages or out of profits; whether wealth is to be equally or unequally distributed, are not in themselves questions of moment to the Christian life, or indeed questions to which Christianity has any answer to give.”+ To me that is flat Paganism, and as anti-Christian as it is mislead. ing and delusive.

A still more potent voice speaking from the pontifical chair, Leo. XIII., on what are called "socialistic aberrations," asserts their essential antagonism to the Christian Church ; and the Right Rev. Abbot Snow, O.S.B., goes as far to say: “ Socialists are led to abolish religion in order to get rid of its ministers. They (the ministers) are of the governing class, and let them disappear with the rest. Thus the process of general levelling and the abolition of independent authority leads to the negation of religion and formal worship of God, and makes Socialism tend to Atheism."'I

It cannot be doubted that these citations tend to the widespread feeling on the part of many leisured and comfortably placed Christians, who have had not only the “promise of the life that now is," but, what is much more, the splendid fulfilment of the promise : that a League like our Christian Socialist League has amongst its first duties to give an account of itself before the tribunal of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

The Social Question, II.-In doing this let me first of all fully recognize that these objecting Christians and Churches allow that the Christianity of Christ Jesus is not averse to the denunciation of the wrongs of modern society and the exposure of the miseries of our present condition. Indeed, it is eagerly maintained that Christ condemns every manifestation of individual selfishness, backs every earnest crusader against personal covetousness and greed, and justifies the strongest language we can use against the abuses of individual

Socialism. By Professor Robert Flint ; p. 441.
Socialism. By Professor Robert Flint ; p. 452-3.

The Catholic Times, August 10, 1894.

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