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owed their first introduction to public speaking to these debates. The Guild in its early days also took an active part in the protest against the denial of constitutional rights to Northampton. A manifesto on "The Church and Socialism" was appended to its Annual Report in 1884, and an address on the same subject and on similar lines was presented to the Lambeth Conference in 1888. More recent manifestoes of the Guild have dealt with such subjects as the Democratization of Church Government; the duty of the Clergy towards Education, and especially towards Board Schools; and so on. There are now branches of the Guild in Oxford University and in Bristol, and local groups in several parts of London. The last Report (Sept. 1900) showed 287 members, of whom 93 were in Holy Orders. The Guild organizes each year a “Quiet Day for Social Reformers" and a "Mass for the Labor Cause" on May Day. Courses of sermons are arranged for Advent and Lent, and many services are held in all parts of England in connection with its Annual Festival (St. Matthew's Day, Sept. 21st). The Annual Meeting is held about the same time, usually in the Large Hall of Sion College. The Warden's “Annual Addresses" for the past sixteen years have been published, and afford the best guide to the Guild's history and principles.

Besides the publications included in the Bibliography, there is a terse summary of Christian Socialist principles in a leaflet called “The G. S. M.: What it is and Who should join it."

Hon. Sec. : FREDK, VERINDER, 376 & 377 Strand, W.C.

THE CHRISTIAN SOCIAL UNION, This Society was founded in 1889 by Canon Scott Holland and others. It now consists of 35 branches, the largest being at London, Oxford, Cambridge, Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow, and Bristol. There are also affiliated societies in New Zealand, Melbourne, Sydney, and the United States. The total membership is now over 4,000. The President of the Union is the Bishop of Durham, and among its leading members are the Bishops of London and Rochester, the Dean of Ely, Canons Gore, Barnett, Armitage, Robinson, Professors Sanday and Stanton, Archdeacon Wilson, J. M. Ludlow, Dr. Fry. Its work is mainly educational, by means of lectures and sermons and a considerable output of pamphlets and books; but other forms of work have been undertaken, e.g., fair lists, at Oxford (where the number of fair-dealing shops has been increased from 23 in 1891 to 146 in 1900), Glasgow, London and Birkenhead; investigations into dangerous trades, with reports thereon and petitions to the Home Secretary. Besides printing, leaflets summarizing various social questions, the Oxford Branch issues the quarterly Economic Review. The London Branch has for some years organized daily sermons on social subjects in the City during Lent, which have resulted in four volumes of social sermons, the first, “Lombard Street in Lent,” having reached a sixth edition; the example has now been followed in other towns. The London Branch has also published Haw's “No Room to Live," and a volume of lectures, " The Church and New Century Problems." There is now a C.S.U. settlement for men and women, “ Maurice Hostel,” Hoxton, N. Most of the work has been done by the various branches, which have considerable freedom, but the Central Executive also arranges annual meetings, or, rather, demonstrations, on a large scale in the principal provincial towns. The official objects of the Union are as follows:

1.-To claim for the Christian Law the ultimate authority to rule social practice. II.-To study in common how to apply the moral truths and principles of Chris

tianity to the social and economic difficulties of the present time. III.-To present Christ in practical life as the living master and king, the enemy

of wrong and selfishness, the power of righteousness and love. The Annual Report and List of Publications of the Union and explanatory leaflet by Dr. Fry can be got at the London C.S.U. Depôt, 44 Victoria Street, S.W.

The Secretary of the London Branch is Rev. PERCY DEARMER, 102 Adelaide Road, N.W.

CHRISTIAN SOCIAL BROTHERHOOD. Objects :-1. To secure a better understanding of the idea of the Kingdom of God on earth. 2. To re-establish this idea in the thought and life of the Church. 3. To assist in its practical realization in all the relations and activities of human society.

President: John CLIFFORD, M.A., D.D.
Hon. Sec.: Will REASON, M.A.. New Southgate, London, N.

ment of its Rules and the following publications can be obtained from the
Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 3 Clemeni's Inn, London, W.C.
FABIANISM AND THE EMPIRE: A Manifesto. 4d. post free.
Paper cover, 1/-; plain oloth, 2/-, post free from the Secretary.

Tracts, each 16 to 52 pp., price ld., or 9d. per dos., unless otherwise stated.

Leaflets, 4 pp. each, price ld. for six copres, 1s. per 100, or 8/6 per 1000. The Set of 88, 38.; post free 3/5. Bound in Buckram, 4/6; post free for 55. 1.-General Socialism in its various aspects.

TRACT8.—121. Public Service versus Private Expenditure. By Sir OLIVEB LODGE. 113. Communism. By Wm. MORRIS. 107. Socialism for Millionaires. By BERNARD Shaw. 78. Socialism and the Teaching o! Christ. By Dr. John CLIFFORD. 87. The same in Welsh. 42. Christian Socialism. By Rev. S. D. HEADLAM. 75. Labor in the Longest Reigo By SIDNEY WEBB. 72. The Moral Aspects of Socialism. By SIDNEY BALL 69. Difficulties of Individualism. By SIDNEY WEBB. 51. Socialism: True and False. By S. WEBB. 45. The Impossibilities of Anarchism. By BERNARD SHAW (price 2d.). 15. Englisb Progress towards Social Democracy. By S. WEBB. 7. Capital and Land (6th edn. revised 1904). 5. Facts for Socialists (10th edn., revised 1906). LEAFLET8—13. What Socialism Is.

1. Why are the Many Poor? 38. The same in Welsh. il.–Applications of Socialism to Particular Problems.

TRACTS.—128. The Case for a Legal Minimụm Wage. 126. The Abolition of Poor Law Guardians. 122. Municipal Milk and Public Health. By Dr. F. LAWSON DODD. 120. “After Bread, Education.” 125. Municipalization by Provinces. 119. Public Control of Electrical Power and Transit. 123. The Revival of Agriculture. 118. The Secret of Rural Depopulation. 115. State Aid to Agriculture: an Example. 112. Life in the Laundry. 110. Problems of Indian Poverty. 98. State Railways for Ireland. 124. State Control of Trusts. 86. Municipal Drink Traffic. 85. Liquor Licensing at Home and Abroad. 84. Economics of Direct Employment. 83. State Arbitration and the Living Wage. 73. Case for State Pensions in Old Age. 67. Women and the Factory Acts. 50. Sweating: its Cause and Remedy. 48. Eight Hours by Law. 23. Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 47. The Unemployed. By JOHN BURNS, M.P. LEAFLETS.—89. Old Age Pensions at Work. 19. What the

Farm Laborer Wants. 104. How Trade Unions benefit Workmen. III.-Local Government Powers : How to use them.

TRACTS.—117. The London Education Act, 1903: how to make the best of it. 114. The Education Act, 1902. 111. Reform of Reformatories and Industrial Schools. By H. T. HOLMES. 109. Cottage Plans and Common Sense. By RAYMOND UNWIN. 103. Overcrowding in London and its Remedy. By W. C. STEADMAN, L.C.C. 101. The House Famine and How to Relieve it. 52 pp. 76. Houses for the People. 100. Metropolitan Borough Councils. 99. Local Government in Ireland 82. Workmen's Compensation Act. 62. Parish and District Councils. 61. The London County Council. 54. The Humanizing of the Poor Law. By J. F. OAKESHOTT. LEAFLETS.--68. The Tenant's Sanitary Catechism. 71. Same for London. 63. Parisb Council Cottages and how to get them. 58. Allotments and how to get them. FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM, FIRST SERIES (Nos. 32, 36, 37). Municipaliza. tion of the Gas Supply. The Scandal of London's Markets. A Labor Policy for Public Authorities. SECOND SERIES (Nos. go to 97): Municipalization of Milk Supply. Municipal Pawnshops. Municipal Slaughterhouses. Women as Councillors. "Municipal Bakeries. Muni: cipal Hospitals. Municipal Fire Insurance. Municipal Steamboats.

Second Series in a red cover for 1d. (90. per doz.); separate leaflets, 1/- per 100. IV.-Books.

29. What to Read on social and economic subjects. 6d. net. V.-General Politics and Fabian Policy.

127. Socialism and Labor Policy. 116. Fabianism and the Fiscal Question: an alternative policy. 108. Twentieth Century Politics. By SIDNEY WEBB. 70. Report on Fabian Policy. 41. The Fabian Society:

its Early History. By BERNARD Shaw. VI.—Question Leaflets. Questions for Candidates : 20, Poor Law Guard

ians. 24, Parliament. 28, County Councils, Rural. 56, Parish Councils. 67,

Rural District Councils. 102, Metropolitan Borough Councils. Bok Boxes lent to Societies, Clubs, Trade Unions, for 68. a year, or 2/6 a quarter

Printed by G. Stanäring, 7 Finsbury St., Louwvu, L.U., aya puonsued by the Fabian Society,


Workmen's Compensation Act











JUNE, 1903.

1897 AND 1900.

THE WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION Act, 1897, is now the most im. portant law about accidents to workmen. This Tract is written to explain it ; if any part is not clear to any reader, or any point is omitted on which he wants

information, he can write to the Secretary of the Fabian Society, 3, Clement's Inn, Strand, London, W.C., who will send him a full and clear answer free of charge.

The Old “Common” Law. We must first explain two other older laws, still in force, by which an injured workman can sometimes recover damages.

Before the first day of January, 1881, if a workman were injured by an accident when working, he could only bring an action at law against his master

(i) where the master employed a servant, knowing that the servant was incompetent to do the work ; or

(ii) where a master used bad machinery or plant which he knew was unsafe and dangerous.

But if the master proved (i) that the workman knew the machinery or plant was unsafe, or (ii) that the workman was partly to blame for the accident, the workman could not win his action.

The workman could not at this time, therefore, recover compensation for injuries caused by a fellow servant, unless he proved that the employer knew the fellow servant to be incompetent. This is called the Doctrine of Common Employment, and as foremen were generally held to be fellow servants, it was very seldom that a workman could get any compensation for his injuries. This was a flagrant injustice, for which a remedy was badly needed.

Employers' Liability Act, 1880. In 1880, therefore, Parliament passed the Employers' Liability Act, 1880, which makes an employer liable to pay damages to a workman if he be injured, or to his relatives if he be killed,

(i) by some defect in the machinery or plant which ought to have been put right by the master or his foreman ;

(ii) by the carelessness of a foreman ;
(iii) through obeying an order which caused the injury;

(iv) through a fellow workman obeying a rule or order of his master, or

(v) by the carelessness of a man in charge of any engine, points, or signal on a railway.

But the master can escape liability by proving that the workman injured knew the danger of the bad machinery, or was partly to blame for the accident. And if a master dies before the case is decided in the County Court, the workman cannot obtain any damages at all.

It must be remembered that the Employers' Liability Act, 1880, is not repealed, and it is still open to a workman or his relatives to bring an action under it.

The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1897. Trades Included.—The Act applies to all men or women, whether manual laborers or not, who are employed in certain places. Clerks and apprentices are included. The word "workman" will be used in this Tract, in order to save space, to mean also workwoman and workgirl. The following is a list of the places to which the Act applies :

(1) A railway, including a light railway.
(2) A factory, which includes the following places :--

Print works, bleaching and dyeing works, earthenware or china works, lucifer match works, percussion cap works, cartridge works, paper staining works, fustian cutting works, blast furnaces, copper mills, iron mills, iron, copper and brass foundries where more than five persons work, metal and indiarubber works, paper mills, glass works, tobacco factories, printing works, bookbinding works, flax scutch mills, and electrical stations.

Also hat works, rope works, bakehouses, lace warehouses, shipbuilding yards, quarries, pit banks, dry cleaning, carpet beating, and bottle-washing works, if steam, water, or other mechanical power is used in aid of the manufacturing process carried on there.

Any premises wherein steam, water, or other mechanical power is used to move or work any machinery employed in preparing, manufacturing, or finishing cotton, wool, hair, silk, filax, hemp, jute, tow, china-grass, cocoanut fibre, or other like material, or any fabric made thereof.

Any premises wherein steam, water, or other mechanical power is used in aid of the manufacturing process carried on there, for the making, altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing, or adapting for sale of any article.

Every laundry worked by steam, water, or other mechanical power.

All docks, wharves, quays, and warehouses ; and all machinery and plant used in the process of loading or unloading or coaling any ship in any dock, harbor, or canal.

A workman working on a ship inside a dock (whether a wet or dry dock) is considered as working on or in or about the dock. The same is true of a quay or warehouse.

A ship being loaded or unloaded by its own machinery is within the Act, although not discharging on to a dock, but only into lighters alongside, both being some distance from the quay-side.

(3) A mine, which includes coal mines and every other mine used for working minerals.

(4) A quarry, which includes every place (not a mine) in which persons work in getting slate, stone, coprolites, or other minerals, provided it is more than twenty feet deep.

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