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and of a harsher feel than comunon silk, consequently of a much larger caterpillar, probably of the phalana class, which I have reason to think spins a case similar to the caterpillar of the phalana mori (the European silk-worm moth), from whom the silk gut, so much used by anglers, is taken ; but it is an error to suppose that gut ever to be in a fluid state. I opened several caterpillars of the silk-worm with an intention of discovering the quality of the silk whilst it lay in the body of the caterpillar. I found it there exactly similar to the small intestines of animals, coiled up in various folds, and took it out in appearance a single thread, which I extended about a foot in length, and suffered to dry, súpposing myself in full possession of silk gut for angling; but to my astonishment when dry it was void of elasticity ; brittle, and snapt like a thread of glass of the same size. Whilst under this perplexity I met with a gentleman who had been in Barcelona; he told me, that the method for obtaining the gut was, to lay the caterpillars in vinegar a certain time; but having no caterpillar, either then or since, to make further experiments on, I can speak no further. on the subject; except of my experiment on the gut that I had before extracted, which remained in its rigid and brittle state. This I soaked in vinegar for a day or two, when to my surprise it became elastic, tough, and capable of extension some inches : and probably, if it had been properly put in vinegar in the first in stance, might have been used with effect by an angler. The best time for extracting the gut is, undoubtedly, the period when the caterpillar ceases eating, and shews signs of its intention to begin spinning its web.

(479)

POSTSCRIPT. HAVING reached the end of the first stage in the progress of this work, and formed a sort of acquaintance with my readers, which is dear to me, I think it incumbent, as a just return to their kind partiality, on this occasion, to explain, with a greater degree of precision than I dared venture to avow at the commencement, what are the principal objects I have aimed at in this work, and shall ever continue to do, if a continuance of the public favour shall permit it tu be carried forward.

The improvement of agriculture, natural history, arts, and miscellaneous literature, then, although they be, in my opinion, objects of high importance among men, and therefore must ever demand from me a principal share of attention, still have ever constituted but a secondary place in my estimation in the business of this work :

: my primary object was, to give strength and energy to the human mind, by gradually sapping the foundations of prejudice and ignorance. With that view I have uniformly endeavoured to accustom my readers to take notice of such facts as fall under their own cognizance; to reason upon these with freedom, but divésted of prejudice, and to draw the necessary conclusions with candour and impartiality. It is this liberal exercise of the human powers that I conceive constitutes the true essence of freedom, and of that energy of mind which can alone elevate man to that supreme dignity of which his nature is susceptible. The first step in this progress doubtlefs is to destroy that idolatrous veneration for great names, which the system of our education and the rules of false politeness, so se dulously impresed on the minds of youth, have snch a tendency to establish. It was the risk which I ran of being overpowered by this prejudice that made me so extremely doubtful of the success of the undertaking; for I was fully aware of the objections that might be urged, on this head, to the bold, decisive manner I meant to assume. I was aware, that in an age in which ic is the principal study of men buth to speak and to write in such a manner as to conciliate the favour, rather than to inform the judgment or enlarge the understanding, of those to whom they address themselves; and where, of course, the arts of cajolement and deception are more studiсd than the developement of truth, an attempt to pursue a course so directly the reverse of all this, must necessarily render the conduct of the person who attempted it liable to a thousand misrepresentations, that would probably be productive of disappointment and chagrin, possibly of obloquy and distiels. Of all these things I was fully aware at the time; and, superadded to this, was conscious that pretensions to any uncommon purity of intention were justly liable. to strong presumptions of insincerity; yet still the object itself, if it could be attained, seemed to be so very desirable, that feeling myself at a lofs for something that could keep the mind alive by awakening its dearest propensities in the even-, ing of life, the attempt, at least, seemed to be worth the making. It has been made, and it is unnecessary for me now to say that the success has far exceeded my most sanguine' expectations, convinced even as I was, beyond most other men, of the general rectitude and beneficence of the human heart. I exult in the consciousness that I have not in this respect been mistaken.

The above will serve, with my candid readers, as an apology for the boldness, perhaps some would say asperity, that might scem to characterise some of the essays in this work. I am inclined, however, to believe, that, upon a careful revisal of the whole, the reader will find, that, though I have reprehended with freedom on all occasions, asperity, I trust, has been carefully avoided. To guard against this last, scarcely a single individual has been reprehended in these pages (unless in one solitary instance), of whom in general 1 did not entertain a very respectful consideration; and in no instance have I ever found fault, in which I would not, with a yet greater degree of alacrity, have given the warmest and most unequivocal degree of approbation, had any opportunity occurred in which it could have been done with propriety, consistently with the nature of the subject under discussion at the time.

In the second pl ce, Let it be always considered that my principal object has been to rouse the attention, and to make the mind of the reader feel its own powers, and not to subject it to be servilely influenced by those of any other man. To do This, it was necessary that objects should be placed before him in the strongest

points of view that can be thought of. My object is always rather to provoké disa cussion than to induce implicit obedience.' Few are the objects that any man cani know so thoroughly as to speak decisively concerning them; but those are înnu. therable concerning which he can see that others decide upon without sufficient toundation so to do; and, as the errors which originate in this source are innumesable, it is of importance that they should be pointed out to view.

The public having been so indulgent as to receive with kindness my wellmeant exertions hitherto, i am encouraged to continue my efforts in the same train, arrangements having been formed which will prevent the recurrence of those interruptions in the several departments that have been productive of more disquietude to me than can be imagined by those who have not felt it.

It is a source of satisfaction to the Editor that he has presented to the public one bünk at least which has been conducted from the commencement with the most unceasing attention on his part to enlarge the understanding and improve the heart of his readers, to the attainment of which great objects every other consideration has been made to give way at all times; and if he can flatter himself, that in the prosecution of this plan he has excited on some occasions ideas that would not otherwise have been felt, and aroused the mind into activity from a state of torpor in which it was disposed to indulge, he will be perfectly satisfied with the result of his labour. In tuture, the same objects will be steadily pursued; and he is just preparing to enter upon a variety of discussions of a nature that he hopes will be still more interesting than those which he has till this time ventrired to bring forward, for which he had been only paving the way. He will further beg leáve to add, that he has made one great experiment, the result of which ought to be known, viz. that candour and an upright intentione in a writer in this country cover a multitude of faults ; for, by the help of these alune, a person who has been all his life precluded in a great measure from the use of books ; shut out from the conversation of literary men; who never spent a thought on the graces of diction, and who scarcely ever wrote a line but from the impulse of the moment, has been able so to develope the various objects that attracted his notice, as not to prove disgusting at least to a very numerous and enlightened set of readers. What a striking example does this exhibit of the amazing facilities that candour and integrity confer uppöman, when compared with the more difficult attainments of suppleness and deceptious policy! It would be pleasing to him tf he could flatter himself with the hope that this example might induce others of superior powers and acquirements to venture lipon similar exertions.

The arrangement in future will be more of a miscellancous form than hereto fore, as it is found that it will prove an accommodation to the printet.

It is hoped correspondents will have the goodness to excuse a necessary farther postporement of acknowledgments.

END OF THE FOURTH VOLUME.

GOSNELL, Printer, Little Queen Street, Holborna

TO

THE FOUR FIRST VOLUMES OF RECREATIONS

IN AGRICULTURE, &c.

3. ii. iii. iv. denote Vols. I. II. III. IV. The Arabic Numerals refer to the Pages:

N. B. The letters prefixed to the pages refer to the three divisions in Volume first : A.

for Agriculture, N Natural-history, M. Miscellaneous. Where the figures run on in the same article, without any letter prefixed, they all refer to the division marked at the beginning of that article.

A.

fect mode of acquiring knowledge, 26 480

it, iii. 344.

iii. 305.

- experiments, difficulties attending ABERDEEN, Old, its Gothic spires, iii. them, 28-experimental farm, utility p. 123.

of, 29-difficulties that oppose such an Abstinence, surprising instances of, in establishment, 33-facts that can and Arabian horses, i. N. 72.

cannot be elucidated by an experimentAbutments, origin and uses of, in Gothic al farm, 30-facts, how they may be buildings, ii. 428.

obtained and concentraced in this jourAccidents to which a farm is liable, i.

nal, 32 A. 87.

Agriculture, circumstances that tend to Acacia tree characterised, iii. 455. accelerate or retard its products, i. A. Acidification of milk, hints concerning 85--ditto considered as an object of

taste and recreation to a man of fore Adam, Mr. his memoir on the grub, tune, 90.

iii. 425—his proposals for destroying Agriculture, a synopsis of, v. Synopsis. it inefficacious, 427.

Agriculture, circunstances that requireto African breeds of sheep, ii. 160.

be adverted to in an experimental farm, Age much respected among the Indians, j. 1--required to ascertain the nature

of the objects that the farmer has to Agnoios's apology for ignorance, ii. 65. employ, 7-exemplified respecting the Agriculture, the most necefsary of all arts, varieties of wheat, 10-of oats, 11

has made slower advances than others, varieties of domestic animals, 15-of į. A. I-causes of this, 2-the lan- the dog species, 16-varieties of the guage imperfect-exemplified in regard SHEEP kind, 81--woulless sheep, 82to the word clay, 3-suils how pro- the Argali, 84-Jamaica sheep, 84– duced, 4-manufacturers more accu- Cape sheep, 89_Stateopyga, 89-Finrate in their distinctions than farmers, land sheep carrying long hair, 906--all solid substances fitted to sustain distinctions between hair and wool, 93 some plant, y-metallic impregnations - Cornish sheep, 161—the Lammerrender soils barren, 9-infertile soils moor sheep, 163-Spanish sheep, 164 become fertilizers of others, 10-re. -varieties of English breed, 164--Carmarkable instance of inexhaustible pro- manian sheep, 165--diversities in point ductiveness of a particular soil, 11- of size, 169-in respect to the tendency particular manures affect particular to fatten, 241-to taste of the meat, soils, instances of, 12-particular soils 242-to generate tallow, 245---prolififavourable to particular plants, 14-ex- cacy, 246-golden fleece, 256_varieternal appearance of a soil fallacious, a ties of the Goat kind,---respecting the small degree of impregnation produces fleece, 322—Wool of goats very fine, at times a great change of soil for ever, 323—the Angora goat,-in respect to 15--facts in agriculture can only be milk, 327-the Strella goat, 327--mis. ascertained after a great length of time, cellaneous remarks on wool, and the 18-deceptions in agricultural writings various breeds of sheep, 401. easy to be practised, 19-hence preju- Agriculture, varieties of the Bos tribe, iii. dices prevail against agricultural writ- I-respecting wool, 3—the Zebu, 6ings in general, 20m-evil consequences Holderness cattle, 8-Bison of Louisiof this prejudice, 21-a mode of re- ana, 8-Chittigong cow and Sarluc, 10 moving this evil suggested, 22-agri- -the Yak of Tartary, 11-the musk ox cultural survey of Britain on a new of Hudson's Bay, 14-figure of ditio, 17 plan, 23-and of the Netherlands, 25 2nd. varieties respecting size, 81experience in agriculture an imper. the Urus, the Asnee the largest, 82

Vol. IV.

Postscript. points of view that can be thought of. My object is always rather to provoké disa cussion than to induce implicit obedience. Few are the objects that any man cari know so thoroughly as to speak decisively concerning them; but those are înnu. merable concerning which he can see that others decide upon without sufficient toundation so to do; and, as the errors which originate in this source are înnume sable, it is of importance that they should be pointed out to view.

The public having been so indulgent as to receive with kindness my wellmeant exertions hitherto, I am encouraged to continue my efforts in the same train, arrangements having been formed which will prevent the recurrence of the se interruptions in the several departments that have been productive of more disquietude to me than can be imagined by those who have not felt it.

It is a source of satisfaction to the Editor that he has presented to the public one bunk at least which has been conducted from the commencement with the most unceasing attention on his part to enlarge the understanding and improve the heart of his readers, to the attainment of which great objects every other consider. ation has been made to give way at all times; and if he can flatter himself, that in the prosecution of this plan he has excited on some occasions ideas that would not otherwise have been felt, and aroused the mind into activity from a state of torpor in which it was disposed to indulge, he will be perfectly satisfied with the result of his labour. In tuture, the same objects will be steadily pursued; and he is just preparing to enter upon a variety of discussions of a nature that he hopes will be still more interesting than those which he has till this time ventured to bring forward, for which he had been only paving the way. He will further beg leave to add, that he has made one great experiment, the result of which ought to be known, viz. that candour and an upright intention in a writer in this country cover a multitude of faults; for, by the help of these alone, a person who has been all his life precluded in a great measure from the use of books ; shut out from the conversation of literary men; who never spent a thought on the graces of diction, and who scarcely ever wrote a line but from the impulse of the moment, has been able so to develope the various objects that attracted his notice, as not to prove disgusting at least to a very numerous and enlightened set of readers. What a striking example does this exhibit of the amazing facilities that candour and integrity confer upon man, when compared with the more difficule attainments of suppleness and deceptious policy! It would be pleasing to him tf he could flatter himself with the hope that this example might induce others of superior powers and acquirements to venture upon similar exertions.

The arrangement in future will be more of a miscellaneous form than heretofore, as it is found that it will prove an accommodation to the printer.

It is hoped correspondents will have the goodness to excuse a necessary farther posta porement of acknowledgments.

IND OF THE POWRTH VOLUME.

$. GOSNELL, Printer, Little Queen Street, Holborna

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