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ABECEDARIANS. A name given to the out literally such texts as, “ It remaineth that Zwickau PROPHETS [A.D. 1520], a section of both they that have wives be as though they had the German Anabaptists, who claimed to have none” (1 Cor. vii. 29]. But there does not direct inspiration from God, and maintained that seem any historical evidence for connecting them this inspiration was obstructed by human learn with the Gnostics generally, as Mosheim does, ing. They carried this theory to such a length or with the Manichæans in particular, as does as to declare that it was desirable never even Herzog. [Aug. de Hæres. cap. 87; Prelesto learn A B C, since all human learning is tinati liber, cap. 87. Walch, Hist. Ketzereien, i. founded on the alphabet, and the knowledge of 607.] it thus opens the door to that which is an ABENONITÆ. CABELONITES. ] obstacle to Divine illumination. Nicholas Stork, ABLAVIUS. The historian Nicephorus mena weaver of Zwickau, was the first to proclaim tions a heretic of this name as having been this principle, but it was afterwards supported by Novatian, bishop of Nicæa about A.D. 430. He Carlstadt, once an ally of Luther, who, yielding had been a pupil of the sophist Troïlus, and beto Stork's invectives against learning, shut up came celebrated as one of the foremost orators of his books, resigned his degree of Doctor of his day. He seems to have taught the Novatian Divinity, forsook all study of Holy Scripture, heresy in its most extreme form, maintaining and looked for Divine truth at the mouths of that Baptism is the only means by which remisthose who, by all ordinary men, were accounted sion of sins can be obtained; and that, consethe most ignorant of mankind. The Abecedarian quently, penitence and mortification of the flesh theory, in a more moderate form, has had much are utterly useless. [Niceph. Hist. Eccl. xiv. 15. influence on some modern sects, especially the Socrat. Hist. Eccl. vii. 12.] more ignorant sects of Methodists.

ABRAHAMITES. A branch of the PauliABELARD. (SCHOOLMEN. NOMINALISTS.] CIANS, so called from their founder Abraham, or ABELIANS. [ABELONITES.]

Ibrahim, a native of Antioch, who lived in the ABELITES. ABELONITES.

end of the eighth and the beginning of the ABELOITES. [ABELONITES.]

ninth century. They do not appear to have ABELONITES. An obscure African sect, de held any distinctive tenets, but were simply Anriving its name from Abel, the son of Adam. tiochean Paulicians : and the heresy was soon The exact date of its origin is unknown, but it suppressed in that city by the vigorous opposition became extinct during the reign of Theodosius of the patriarch Cyriacus. the Younger (A.D. 408-450), for at the time when ABRAHAMITES. A Bohemian sect of no St. Augustine composed his book on Heresies importance, existing at the end of the last cen[cap. 87], he alludes to it as having lingered on tury in the town of Pardubitz and its neighbouras late as his time in a village near Hippo, of hood. They professed to follow the religion of which he was bishop (A.D. 395-430). The mem

Abraham before he was circumcised, rejected all bers of this sect adopted the eccentric practice of distinctively Christian doctrine, and only acmarrying wives without procreating children, in knowledged the Decalogue and the Lord's supposed imitation of Abel, who was stated to Prayer as Holy Scriptures. have had a wife, but not to have known her ; ABSTINENTES. A sect which arose in Gaul and in lieu of the consummation of marriage, and Spain, at the close of the third century, durand at the same time to enable them to per- ing the reigns of Diocletian and Maximian, and petuate their sect, the husband and wife adopted in the pontificate of Marcellinus. Like the two children of different sexes, who in their Eastern ENCRATITES, they held Gnostic views on turn were to abstain from all intercourse, and on the subject of marriage, which they denounced the death of their foster-parents to resort to the not as absolutely wrong, but as a thing to be same plan of adoption. It is said that young avoided by those who sought sanctity. This persons were easily procured for that purpose was their deduction from such texts in Holy from the superfluous families of the poor popu- Scripture as "There be eunuchs which have lation in the neighbourhood. The conduct of made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of the Abelonites was a mistaken attempt to carry

Heaven's sake. He that is able to receive it, let



him receive it" [Matt. xix. 12), and “With at another time by the abolition of the terms out holiness no man shall see the Lord” (Heb. of technical theology. xii. 14]; and their argument ran thus: Christ In A.D. 363, on the ascent of the orthodox must have preached some new virtue, or have Jovian to the throne, they attended a synod held performed some praiseworthy action not com at Antioch under Meletius, and agreed to sign manded in the Old Testament. Did He come to the Nicene Creed, with a mental reservation to teach the fear of God? This is contained in the the effect that the expression “consubstantial” Law. Was it to condemn envy, covetousness, " co-essential" meant no more than begotten of and the like? This was done in the Old Testa the Father's essence, and therefore like Him in ment. He could not, therefore, have any other

Four years previously, at Seleucia in view but to preach continence to the world, prac Isauria (A.D. 359], they had attempted to banish tising Himself that chastity without which ever the term ovoia altogether, with its compounds lasting life could not be attained [Epiphan. adv. ομοούσιον and ομοιούσιον, and asked to be allowed Hæres. lib. ii. tom. 2, p. 710). They also con to adopt a formula of belief in God's only Son, demned the use of meat, as having been created without any further qualification as to His nature; by the devil and not by God (Philaster, cap. 84]: rejecting "consubstantial" as not found in Holy to which later writers add that, while admitting Scripture, and the phrase ivópolov Ilampi

, the Godhead of the Father and the Son, they as equally defenceless. On being further pressed, held the Holy Ghost to be merely a created they allowed the Son to be like the Father, but Being. Led perhaps by the similarity of some of seemed to prefer the absence of closer definition. their views, Philaster connects the Abstinentes But if the Son was like the Father, in what, with the Gnostics and Manichæans, and Baronius asked the orthodox party, did the resemblance [in Annal. ad ann. 288] identifies them with the consist? Was it merely a resemblance in reHIERACITES.

spect of will ? or was it a resemblance of a still ACACIANS. Three broad lines can be drawn more unreal character, like that of a statue to the among the various subdivisions into which Arian- original, which involves no inherent element of ism branched about the middle of the fourth cen identity? The answer of the Acacians to these tury. [1.] Semi-Arians, of whom Basil of Ancyra questions must be discovered from the creed and George of Laodicæa were the leaders. (2.) which was promulgated on that occasion, the The Anomoeans (ávomocou), or Ultra-Arians, fol- precise terms of which have been preserved: lowers of Aëtius and his pupil Eunomius, Bishop “We confess and believe in one God the of Cyzicum. [3.] Between these two extremes Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and earth, rose the Acacians, a third party, who would and of things visible and invisible. neither allow any approximation to the orthodox “ We believe also in our Lord Jesus Christ, the doctrine of the Homoousion, nor yet admit that Son of God, begotten of Him without any pasthe Second Person in the Trinity was a mere sion (dral@s), before all ages, the God Word, God creature, on the level of all other created beings. of God, Only-begotten, Light, Life, Truth, Wisdom, They derived their name from Acacius, who suc Virtue, by Whom all things were made which are ceeded Eusebius as Bishop of Cæsarea in Pales in Heaven and earth, whether visible or invisible. tine (A.D. 338], a person possessed of many of We believe Him to have assumed flesh of the the qualifications necessary for the leadership of Blessed Virgin at the end of the world to put a party. He was strong and active, a fluent away sin, and that He was made man, that He speaker, and evinced his regard for learning by suffered also for our sins, rose again, and having taking great pains to increase his predecessor's ascended into Heaven, is seated at the right hand library [Tillemont, Mém. vol. xv. 458, edit. of the Father, and shall come again with glory to Brux. 1707]. At the same time he was ex judge the quick and dead. tremely unscrupulous and fickle: at first a furious "We believe also in one Holy Spirit, Whom Arian under Constantius, who sheltered him our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ called the Parafrom the decree of deposition passed by a ma clete, and promised that He would send the same jority of the Semi-Arian Council held at Sardica on His Apostles after His departure, Whom He ÎA.D. 347], he became a Catholic under Jovian, both truly sent, and by Him doth sanctify the faithand veered round to Arianism once more under ful in the Church, who are baptized in the Name Valens. He was prominently concerned in the of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy banishment of Liberius and the substitution of Spirit. But whosoever preach anything beyond the antipope Felix (A.D. 355-358), after whose what is contained in this Creed the Catholic expulsion a sentence of deposition was passed Church considers them as aliens.” [Epiphan. against him at Seleucia (A.D. 359], and re Hæres. lxxii.) peated at the Council of Lampsacus (A.D. The following forty-three bishops subscribed to 365), which he only survived for about a twelve the above Creed :- Acacius, Bishop of Cæsarea, month.

Basil of Ancyra, Mark of Arethusa, George of The Acacians as a body partook of the chame Alexandria, Pancratius, Hypatian, Uranius of leon character of their teacher, and the shifts Tyre, Eutychius of Eleutheropolis, Zoilus of were various by which they attempted to sustain Larissa in Syria, Seras of Parætonium in Libya, their indeterminate position between the Semi Paul of Emessa, Eustathius of Epiphania, and the Ultra-Arians. Their end would be ob Irenæus of Tripolis in Phoenicia, Eusebius tained at one time by an intellectual subterfuge, of Seleucia in Syria, Eutychian of Patara

in Lycia, Eustathius of Pinara and Didyma, tion of Nestorius at the General Council of Basil of Caurica in Lydia, Peter of Hippus Ephesus (A.D. 431]. in Palestine, Stephen of Ptolemais in Libya, III. The followers of Severus the Monophysite, Eudoxius, Apollonius of Oxyrinchus, Theoctistus Bishop of Antioch, who added to the Trisagion of Ostracine, Leontius of Lydia, Theodosius of the words “Who was crucified for us,” and who Philadelphia, Phæbus of Polychalanda in Lydia, was deprived of his see and retired to Alexandria Magnus of Themisi in Phrygia, Evagrius of Myti- (A.D. 518). lene, Cyrion of Doliche, Augustus of Euphra IV. Al priests refusing allegiance to their tesia, Pollux of the second province of Libya, diocesans, or suffragan bishops rebelling against Pancratius of Pelusium, Philicadus of Augus- their metropolitans. tada in Phrygia, Serapion of Antipyrgum in Libya, [For further information about the Alexandrian Eusebius of Sebaste in Palestine, Heliodorus Acephali, consult Pseudo-Jerome, de Hæres. 43; of Sezusa in Pentapolis, Ptolemy of Thmuis Isidore, 67; Honorius, 82; Leontius, Lib. de Augustoniæ, Angarus of Cyrus Euphrasia, Exere- Sectis, art. v.; Gibbon's Rom. Empire, vi. 32. sius of Gerasa, Arabion of Adrai, Charisius of There is also a lengthy refutati of their docAzotus, Elissæus of Diocletianopolis

, Germanus trines by Rusticus Diaconus, contra Acephalos of Petræ, and Barochius of Arabia. [Mosheim, præfatio, incerto interprete.] Eccles. Hist. i. 306. Tillemont, Mémoires, tom. ACCEMITÆà-koqubouai). The name of the vi, 304, Paris edit. Nicephorus, Eccles. Hist. lib. Sleepless,” or “Watchers," was given to an Eastern ix. Epiphanius, Hæres. lxxiii.]

monastic order founded by Alexander, himself a ACCAOPHORI. A sect of heretics which Syrian monk, under the auspices of Gennadius, used water instead of wine for the Holy Excha Patriarch of Constantinople (A.D. 428-430). Barrist has this name given to it by Timotheus Pres onius puts the date rather later, and ascribes byter, and he traces their origin to the followers of their foundation to a person named Marcellus in Tatian, or the Encratites. But he adds that they the middle of the fifth century (Bar. Ann. 459, were also called Hydroparastatæ, and hence “ AC ex actis Marcelli apud Surium], but the earlier caophori " is supposed to be merely a misreading date is more generally received. The Acemitæ for SACCAOPHORI. [Timoth. Presb. in ed. Com did not, as their name would imply, literally befisian. Auct. nov. bibl. Patr. Græco-Latin. ii. abstain from all sleep, but divided themselves 451. Coteler. Mon. eccl. Græc. i. 776. Ittig, into three “watches,” each carrying on their devoDe Heresiarch. II. xii. 13.]

tions for eight hours, so that an uninterrupted ACEPHALI [å-kedain]. 1. The Mono round of worship rose perpetually from their physite Acephali. In the year A.D. 482, while monastery. They became famous both for their the Monophysite and Monothelite controversies special sanctity and, notwithstanding that a suswere raging, the Emperor Zeno issued his famous picion of heresy attached to their founder Alexletter of attempted reconciliation entitled the ander, for their rigid orthodoxy. In A.D. 484, HENOTICON. Peter Mongus, who had been the when Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople, was bitter opponent of, and had been excommunicated condemned by Felix in synod for holding comby Proterius, a former bishop of Alexandria (A.D. munion with Peter Mongus, Bishop of Alexandria, 457], was informed that he might be elevated to the Acæmite sided with the Pope against their that see, then vacant by the expulsion of John own bishop. This order afterwards obtained the Talaia, on the two conditions of admitting the name of Studites, from Studius, a rich Roman Proterians to communion and subscribing the noble of consular dignity, who went to ConstanHenoticon. On Peter's assent to these conditions, tinople during the episcopate of Gennadius, and most of the Catholics submitted to his jurisdic- erected a cloister especially for them [Niceph. tion; but the Ultra-Eutychians still clinging to Hist. Eccl. xv. 23]. In later days the Acæmitæ their denial of the two natures in Christ, and were believed to have inclined to Nestorianism. still bitterly hostile to the Council of Chalcedon, ACTISTETES. A section of the JULIANISTS, withdrew themselves, and formed a sect which, who took their name from the Greek word by either from having no one conspicuous leader, or which a being is defined as uncreated (äktITOS], from the absence of bishops to head the move in opposition to the CTISTOLATRÆ. The Actistetes ment, was called the sect of the Acephali.

maintained that after the Incarnation Christ These Acephali broke up into the three sects ought not to be spoken of as a created Being, of ANTHROPOMORPHITES, BARSANUPHISTS, and even in respect of His human nature; thereby conESATANISTS, but all remained separate from the tradicting the words of the Nicene Creed," kai body of the Monophysites for about three hun- évav@purjoavta," “et Homo factus est,' dred years, though still retaining the distinctive was made Man.” This dogma was, in reality, a name of the original sect.

The Acephali were, form of the elder heresy of the DoceTÆ, for since however, gradually absorbed by the JACOBITES (as a Being wholly uncreated must be wholly God, the Monophysites were called in later times), and hence the reality of our Lord's human nature ceased to exist as a separate sect at the beginning was a doctrine as incompatible with the belief of the ninth century.

of one sect as it was with that of the other. II. The Nestorian Acephali. The title of

The title of [Dörner's Person of Christ, II, i. 131, Clark's Acephali was also applied to those who would transl.] not adhere to John, Patriarch of Antioch, and

ACÚANITES. The Manichees were so called Cyril, Patriarch

of Alexandria, in the condemna in the time of Epiphanius, from their leader in

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Let both grow together until the Harvest."

IATTH. xiii. 30.) 'Lis eorum fides nostra est."

(HILAR, de Trinit. i. 26.)


o'London, Oxford, and Cambridge

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