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" True-true"-she said in low and sweetlying equipped himself in this extraordinary manner, modulated tones, to which grateful love gave a he walked several times around his companion, as tremor—" true as the love, and the strength, and if not a little vain of his fine appearance. The the honor of a courageous man erer were to a weak sitting lodian, as if emulous of cutting a finer figchild, or a sorrowful woman, so true has thee been ure, took, from under his blanket, the frontal skin to me, John Carper; and whether thee save me, or and horns of an ox, (one of the trophies from I am slaia like the wretched boy, whose body lies Joshua Blake's cattle pen,) and placing it upon his cold, and stiff, yonder, for the wild beasts to tear, head, with the horns erect, and the skin hanging thee will sorely be blessed of Gud.”

over his face, began to strut about with as vain a Carper had given her lip-room for this speech. carriage as the other. Finally both again sat down, He kissed the mouth, yet trembling with its last laughing with the suppressed Indian chuckle at the earnest word, and then calmly replied, still in a pantomime just accomplished. whisper,

[To be concluded in our next.] "I have done nothing very great, or unusual, Nelly. He would be a poor Joe, indeed, that would let his sweetheart be carried off without following on her trail.

But time is pressing. You must creep along with me; I will guide you, and I hope to be mounted and riding away with you before a

THE POLICE OF PARIS. rascal of them all, at the fire yonder, stirs. We will have our talk out, where we can do it without FROM IK. MARVEL'S FRESH GLEANINGS. whispering. Draw your petticoats about your knees, and stoop low to the ground. Mind your The Municipal authority in the capital is the business, Sharpnose."

Prefect of the Department of the Seine, corresPrecisely at this instant a stir took place amongst ponding very nearly with the office of Mayoralty the Indians at the fire. Carper pressed Nelly back in the larger of the American cities. There is into her leafy nest, placing a finger on her lips as under him, a Council of Prefecture made up into he did so, and then, as noiselessly as a snake, crept different administrations, having cognizance of vaaway into the densest shade of the wood-his dog rious public affairs :

:-as for instance, of Roads and following, and imitating his caution. The noises Public Works, of Public Instruction, of Departat the camp-fire became louder, and it seemed pre- mental Taxes, of Post Offices, of the Poste aur seally that the whole Indian party were rising, and Chevaur. Besides this, there belongs to each of preparing for travel as if day had dawned. It the twelve Municipal arrondissements, correspondcould not yet be midnight. The hunter was puz- ing to the wards of our cities, a mairie, (mayor) zled, and, for the better discovery of what the move and two deputy mayor3; these officers sit every mens portended, dragged himself around some dis- day from two to four hours. But in addition to all tance, lo a spot near the edge of the glade, from this machinery of civil administration, and what which he could see what passed. Lying amongst comes more nearly under the eye of the stranger, the roots of an oak, he looked out safely. The is the Administration of the Police. fire, crackling with fresh brush, gave out a strong

The head of this department is the Prefect of light; as it grew brighter he placed his hand over of the Police, holding authority directly from the ibe shining eyes of his dog. In a few minutes he ministers of the crown. It is he, or some one of saw len of the party, Girty one of them, leave the his thousand officials, that permits you to enter the fire, and set off down the bank of the stream, fully city,--it is he who permits you to stay in it, and equipped, and with the precision of step, and order he who permits you to leave it. of march of warriors setting out on the war-path. He has control over the lodging-houses of the Their course led them near the bed of the Quaker- city,-over the porters, the hackmen, the boatmen, ess, and Girty, leaving the file, stooped for a mo- the draymen ;-he has an eye to the markets, that ment over it, then went on with his companions. weights are just, and that provisions are good :The two Indians lest at the fire, seemed to have no he fixes the price of bread ;-he controls bakers, parpose of again going to sleep. They sat for half and brokers, and baths ;-he is the great conservaan hour talking, and occasionally kicking the ends tor of order, and it is he who makes the stranger's of the half-burned brush into the blaze. After way safe in any part of Paris by night or day. If spending so much time in this way, one of the two you drive a cabriolet, he tells you what is to be got up, and going to where the bondles had been paid; if you ride to the Opera, he tells you the placed, brought back one of them to the fire. He streets you are to pass through ; if

you

lose your opened it and spread the contents on the ground. way, he puts you right; if you lose your money, He next singled out a little while night cap, and he finds it for you, if you break a law, he slips his stuck it opon his head : then he tied a shawl around arm into yours, and walks with you down to the bis neck with great bows projecting in front. Hav- Palais de Justice; if you are trampled down in the

street, he plucks you up, and gives you over to with four or five of his comrades ;-there is no need his surgeon; if you tumble into the Seine, he kindly of excuses or promises now;—the brawler goes out fishes you out, and carefully lays your body upon over benches and boxes. He is handed over to the one of the slanting tables in La Morgue.

Sergent-de-ville. The Sergent-de-ville calls a This same omnipresent officer presides every carriage, and the brawler rides to the Palais de other Friday over a council of health, held by the Justice. first physicians and surgeons; he gives to stranger- Perhaps the disturbance is more general. The operatives their certificate of right to work at their soldiers try to arrest it; they press some down, respective callings. He has under him forty-eight they motion the others : but perhaps half the comcommissaries—one in each of the quartiers, into pany are hissing and shouting so that the play can which the twelve arrondissements are divided. not go on. In this event-and it occurred during These are the special heads of their districts, and my last visit to Paris,-a plain-looking gentleman, their houses may be distinguished along the Rue dressed simply in black, with a bit of ribbon in one St. Martin and Rue Richelieu at night, by a crim- button-hole, leans over from one of the boxes, and son lantern burning at their doors.

tells the audience, in a quiet way,--if the noise Nor is this all; under the Prefect, and under the does not cease, he shall order the theatre to be commissaries, are two thousand sergents-de-ville, cleared. who wear broad military chapeaux, and a light sword, and may be seen at all hours of the day, on sistance-for the man in black, whom nobody knew

There is no use in expostulation--still less in rethe Boulevards, in the Garden, and the dirty al- till now, is a commissary of police--and in twenty leys of the Cité.

minutes could order a thousand men upon the spot. Nor yel is this all ;--under the Prefect, and under The house was quiet in a moment, and the play the commissaries, and holding humbler place than went on. the sergents-de-ville, are the Municipal guard—

For a rogue-merely morally speaking, there is three thousand picked men on foot, and seven hun every law of God and man, so it be not written in

no safer place ihan Paris. He may offend against dred horse. The first are stationed in all the thea- the books of the Prefect de Police,-and he is setres at night--they patrol the streets--they rescue cure, and he may hold his head with princes, and the injured ; and wherever there is a street distur- take the cushioned stalls at Notre-Dame, and dine bance, there you will see the black horse-hair at the Café de Paris, and rent the first loge at the

Opera. But let him offend in the least the statutes, plume of the mounted Municipal guard.

and there is no corner from Nôtre-Dame, to Mont There are beside, hundreds of secret police in Martre that can hold him. He may assume any almost every station of life; and there are the disguise and change it as he will--ihose men in officers of the peace" in their unsuspected citi- the cocked hals, and with the straight swords, and zen's dress. No portion of the capital is free from worse still—those men in plain suits, whom nothe presence of some officer of this mighty Police. body knows, will have their eyes and their hands Every theatre has its regular quota--every assem

It is no use—the going backward or forward, or bly has its spy.

talking about rank, or money, or position ;-he may -You are going to the opera :-your carriage as well march at once quietly down to the old is stopped two squares from the Opera-house, by a Palais de Justice-walk straight into the court, horseman in a glittering helmet, with black plumes take off his hat to the Commissariot, and ask powaving over it ; he directs with his drawn sword litely for a room on the first floor, a bottle of old

Macon, and a few pipes. the way the coachman is to take; the order has

There is something in the constant surveillance been arranged and prescribed at the Prefecture of of such a police, noi altogether reconcilable with Police. Arrived at the door of the theatre, three an American's idea of freedom ; yet at the same or more of the mounted guard upon their black time is there a secret and indefinable charm, in feel. horses direct order upon driving away ;-it tnay failing and almost perfect. It makes up, indeed a

ing the presence and security of order,-order onsnow, or it may rain--it may be early or late-still the stern-looking horsemen are there-their hel- inde amid all the gayety. Nor is it wholly the

great part of the luxury of Paris life.-ihis quiemets and swords glittering in the gas-light. You false serenity, which hangs like a summer almos. alight from your carriage, and a couple of the ser- phere over the scenes of Boccacio's story; it is geants-deville are loitering carelessly upon the guarantied by arms, and the nicety of complete Bleps ;-they run their eyes half-inquiringly over the gayesi, and so to speak, most Cosmopolitan

military organization. It gives a home feeling in you, as you enter. Each side the little ticket-box city of the world ;-—and when I came back toward is stationed a soldier with muskel,—iwo of the Mu- it from the great Eastern cities—there was a yeari; nicipal guard. You enter a passage sentinelled by ing at my heart, as if it was half a home; and I another; and within, are three or four loitering at welcomed the broad chapeaux of the Sergents-dethe doorways.

ville, with a little of the same feeling, with which Perhaps there is a slight disturbance ; some the wide branching elms, the gray porch-covered

I welcomed, at a later day,—the high gatewas, brawler is in the house ; in that event, the soldier with its green, flowering creeper-of my country at the door disappears a moment ;-he comes again' home.

upon him.

BY HENRY T. TUCKERMAN.

The mention of one will suffice; “On the Fishes SIR THOMAS BROWNE.

eaten by our Saviour and his disciples, after his resurrection from the dead." His alleged belief in witchcraft has been derided, but this is evidently one of those subjects upon which he indulges his

fancy rather than his reason, and to which he alHow charming is divine philosophy! Not harsh and crabbed as dull tools suppose,

ludes in the preface to his most famous work: But musical as is Apollo's lute,

" There are many things delivered rhetorically, And a perpetual feast of nectared sweets, many expressions therein merely tropical, as they Where no crude surfeit reigns.

best illustrate my meaning and therefore to be Comus.

taken in a soft and flexible sense, and not to be

called unto the rigid test of reason." There is something winsome as well as venera

The “ Letter to a Friend” is a noble offering of ble in the character of the true philosopher. He, personal sympathy and an eloquent illustration of as well as the poet, derives his charter from nature. religious philosophy. But the work that has the adThe term, in its best acceptation, not merely desig- vantage of voluntary, in distinction to professional, nates the adherents of a school of wisdom whether authorship, and that emanated most directly from Stoical, Platonic or Epicurean, but the man of lib- his consciousness, is the private compendium of ineral and inquiring mind, who habitually reasons upon dividual faith, which became renowned soon after facts and to whom the pursuit of truth is an in-being published under the title of Religio Medici; stinct, and its appreciation a keen delight. Next it is the most true and elaborate reflection of himto the great bards, this race of men engage the af- self; and we therefore adopt it as the basis of our fections ; after the poetic, this phase of humanity remarks upon his character of philosopher-his nais most noble. Approaches to the character are to tive claim to which it amply sustains. be found in all good diarists and self-biographers- There is an order of minds that cannot take life for such writings are but collections of personal in- in a jovial or compromising spirit; “ nobler ever cidents and thoughts more or less rich in philoso. than their mood,” some faith, hope or principle is phy. Montaigne is the prince of this species and needful to preserve their equanimity. They must old Burton a fine example—but autobiographies, see things as they are, pluck out the heart of each ingenuously composed, furnish the same kind of mystery, come face to face with truth though it be aliment, and beloken a like idiosyncrasy. Thus sad, condemnatory or hopeless. Poets escape outRousseau, Goldoni, Alfieri, Cellini and Boswell, ward evil through their imaginations, philosophers have contributed invaluable materials towards the by their reason. The one arrays reality in the seiesce of life, by disclosing, with honesty and acu- hues of fancy, the other analyses it in the crucible men, pyschological histories. One of the most in- of thought, and through combination or inference teresting specimens of the genuine philosopher in attains comfort. Perhaps the most characteristic the annals of literature, is Sir Thomas Browne. resource of the latter is a settled conviction that His candor, scope and kindliness, united with benign, universal and inevitable laws obtain not only bravery of thought and originality of expression, in nature, but in the vicissitudes of human life and make bis works attractive beyond any other of the the issues of human destiny. As the astronomer old English prose writers. The bulk of the wri- serenely confides in the starry evolutions and the tings of Sir Thomas Browne are curious rather mariner in the needle's inclination, the philosopher than of practical value ; but their indirect utility is trusts to the wise and kindly results both of events greater than a casoal view of their ostensible de- and action. He is comparatively patient at sucsiga would suggest. A vast amount of quaint cessful charlatanism because his “ faith is large in . knowledge, a vein of original speculation, and a time and that which shapes it to some perfect end." loftiness of conception as well as waywardness of He observes society not for its apparent and imfancy, fix the unind to the page whither the quaint mediate, but for its actual and ultimate tendencies. title attracts it. The “Enquiries into Vulgar Er- His calm eye pierces to the inward fact undiromed fore” are the result of years of observation and by the atmosphere of circumstances. He is a natstudy : “Christian Morals” form an epitome of re- ural eclectic, drawing from each system, character ligious maxims which would do credit to the best and party its truly desirable element and uniting of the old English Divines." “Urn Barial,” sog. them into a harmonious whole. In human intergested by the discovery of some ancient urns at course he feels assured that genuine affinity, in Norfolk, in 1658, is an essay as remarkable for its point of fact, regulates society; in external occuraccarate learning as for the melancholy charm rences he looks beyond the seeming fortune to the with which his devout imagination invested the relation it bears to individual character; and for theme. “The Garden of Cyrus” is like an an- higher truth, strives by integrity and humble patique horticultural poem; and the very titles of the tience to keep ever in a recipient state. tracts and letters, breathe of eccentric genius. “There is no liberty," says our author, "for causes

VOL. XIV-23

to operate in a loose and straggling way, nor any sive coterie, beyond which his sympathies or pereffect whatsoever but hath its warrant from some ceptions cannot wander. A certain foothold of universal or superior cause. It is we that are blind, conservatism is absolutely necessary even for the not fortune ; because our eye is too dim to dis- the most speculative thinker. Whatever be the cover the mystery of her effects, we foolishly paint goal of thought it must have a starting point, and her blind, and hoodwink the providence of the beyond what is positive and defined in a philosoAlmighty. This cryptick and involved method of pher's data of belief, he has a faith of his own his providence have I ever admired, nor can I re- rather instinctive than specific—a vague perhaps Jate the history of my life, the occurrences of my yet actual trust in certain grand and universal prindays, the escapes of dangers and the hits of chance, ciples or ultimate results, which does not contrawith a Bezo las Manos to fortune, or a bare gra- dict but sustains the particular formula to which mercy to my good stars."

he gives open allegiance. In truth it is this very The habitude of observation, the recognition of union of reliance upon broad principles and general the world as a suggestive as well as a merely views with the recognition of particular dogmas physical sphere; the consciousness of life as an which distinguishes the disciple from the sectarias experience full of significance is every where ob- in religion, the statesman from the partizan in polvious in Browne. “ 'The world," he says, " was itics, the liberal from the prejudiced in society, and made to be inhabited by beasts, but studied and the truly philosophic from the pedantic in mind. contemplated by man; it is the debt of our reason The spirit of inquiry and good powers of reawe owe unto God and the homage we pay for not soning are not, however, the only essential qualifibeing beasts. The wisdom of God receives small cations of the philosopher. These may serve him honor from those vulgar heads that rudely stare in material acquisitions, but uninspired by high about, and with a gross rusticity admire his works ; emotions, unquickened by imaginative perception, those highly magnify him whose judicious inquiry they cannot bear the mind beyond the limits of the into his acts and deliberate research into his crea- actual. Like the dying Cleopatra, unless there be tures, return the duty of a devout and learned ad-“ immortal longings," philosophy is bereft of its miration."

hope. Sir Thomas Browne regarded his acquired “ To raise so beauteous a structure as the world knowledge as the basis not the limit of research. and the creatures thereof, was but bis art, but their His experiments foretold a yet more satisfactory sundry and divided operations with their predes- analysis. He found in character chiefly promise, tined ends, are from the treasury of his wisdom.” in event discipline, in nature hints—all suggestive

The philosopher's spirit of inquiry is as com- of more completeness and satisfaction. The best prehensive as it is habitual, ranging from science fact of his own consciousness was a supernal trust, to art, from life to nature, from books to conscious- a sense of glorious affinity. Hence his self-res

His pleasure is to generalize. When the pect, his disregard of the temporary, his instinctprinciple of a subject, the central point of a cha-ive repose upon the bosom of nature. He was an racter, the absolute significance of a number of aspirant, and therefore not only saw the footsteps circumstances is attained, he experiences a pro- of truth in his path, but sometimes caught glimpses found satisfaction. Truth is to the intellect what of her wings through an opening cloud. He conlove is to the heart—its food, object and inspira- fesses to so “ abject a conceit of this common way tion; and they who thus seek and delight in her of existence, this retaining to the sun and the elerevelations are, by nature, philosophers. The zestments," that he “cannot think this is to be a man or of life to them is to approximate to reality through to live according to the dignity of humanity.”. a wilderness of appearances, and in saying that they And again : “Since I was of understanding to best vindicate the integrity of the mind, we mean know we know nothing, my reason has been more that to them the mind is an instrument of useful- pliable to the will of faith. Where the soul ness, happiness and honor-instead of a bewilder- hath the full measure and complement of happiness; ing gift, an aimless interrogation, or a mere lumber- where the boundless appetite of that spirit remains room of fragmentary ideas. A great characteristic completely satisfied, that it can neither desire adof the true philosopher is independence. He is dition nor alteration, that I think is truly heaven. above prejudice; and the habit of viewing every I would not entertain a base design or an question in its connection with absolute truth opens action that should call me villian for the Indies; his mind to conviction however opposed to former and for this only do I love and honor my own soul, opinion. Indeed, the ostensible creed in religion and have, methinks two arms too few to embrace or school of literature, or party in politics to which myself." * He was conscious of an inlet of such men are attached, serve rather as vantage truth above reason, for he observes, “it is but atgrounds than limits—as the particular brigade in tending a little longer and we shall enjoy that by which the true soldier is enrolled is a convenient instinct and infusion which we endeavor at here by arrangement for eliciting his activity in the cause labor and inquisition.” for which he wages battle, rather than an exclu. Among the merely individual characteristics of Sir Thomas Browne, was his love of music, ofern literature. We do not, however, so fully rewhich he says "there is something of divinity in alize the identity whenever evolved, of all true it more than the ear discovers ;” and his irrever- principles, and the innate resemblance of all phience for antiquity merely as such. There is much losophic observers of life and nature. It has to confirm his fanciful idea of a "revived-self,” or been well said that the Sermon on the Mount re-appearance of forms of character. Are we not was an announcement, not a creation of truth. often struck with the marvellous similarity between The pure in heart did not become blessed on acintimate acquaintances and historical personages ? count of the Saviour's benediction. It was and Who has not known women whose brilliant wit is a great moral fact that they are so. Harand turn for the ambitious intrigues of social life, vey's theory of the circulation of the blood is recalled the ladies of the Court of Louis XIV ? spoken of as a discovery ; but the law, though unSome constitutions are decidedly oriental in their recognized, existed from the moment that a pulse needs and aplitudes, though born in a northern lat- quivered in the wrist of Adam. We have spoken itede. Tendencies for particular modes of life ex- of Sir Thomas Browne as a type of the genuine hibit themselves under circumstances which breathe philosopher; and adapting the ingenious transcript Deither a memory or hope in the same direction. of his mind, written for private satisfaction at the A single member of a family will develope traits age of thirty, first surreptitiously published in 1642* wholly at variance with the manners and tone of to us as his creed, confession or theory of life, it feeling around. These and similar instances seem is curious to note how many ideas which, within a to point to an ancestral vein working itself oblique- few years, have become prominently embodied as ly forth, to an Arethusa-like reappearance of some original-were noted by him as familiar and perquality of blood or gift of soul, that has long wan- sonal conceptions. The most cherished of the dered under oblivious waters to incarnate irself at Swedenborgian doctrines brought comfort to his a time and place the most unexpected. Therefore soul. We find a hint of the law of correspondenwell says our philosopher, “ Every man is not hiin- cies in this passage : “ The seven schools shall self; there have been many Diogenes, and as many never laugh me out of the philosophy of Hermes, Timons, though but few of that name; men are that this visible world is but a picture of the inlived over again."

ness.

visible, wherein as in a portrait, things are not truly It is remarkable that the men whose relish for but in equivocal shapes, and as they counterfeit books is the most keen—who read sympathetically, some more real substance in that invisible fabric.” not merely to store the memory and weave ties of And that he recognised somewhat the new church familiar and endearing association with beloved au- view of the spiritual world, is evident from such thors-should invariably repudiate the idea of an observations as these : “I hold that the devil doth extensive library. One can name the volumes es- really possess some men, the spirit of melancholy sential to the comfort of such men as Hazlitt and others, the spirit of delusion others; that as the Shelley. Thinkers do not require books for the devil is concealed and denied by some, so God and information they convey so much as mental stimu- good angels are pretended by others, whereof the lants and faithful companions. They can generate late detection of the maid of Germany hath left ideas for themselves and take up a volume as they a pregnant example.

* I do think that toro to a friend, for the refreshment of sympathy many mysteries ascribed to our own inventions or aurition of mind. Sir Thomas Browne fully have been the courteous revelations of spirits, for shared in this love of the cream of literature, and those noble essences in heaven bear a friendly rewas impatient at the multiplication of books. “orgard to their fellow-natures on earth." those three great inventions in Germany, there are “Therefore, for spirits, I am so far from denying two which are not without their incommodities, and their existence, that I could easily believe that not 'tis disputable whether they exceed not their use only whole countries, but particular persons have and coramodities. 'Tis not a melancholy utinam their tutelary and guardian angels.” His idea of of mine own, but the desires of better heads, that the nature of these beings is equally significant. there were a general synod; not to unite the in- " I believe they have an extemporary knowledge, compatible difference of religion, but for the bene- and upon the first motion of their reason do what fit of learning ; 10 reduce it as it lay at first in a we cannot without study and deliberation; that they few and solid authors, and to condemn to the fire know things by their forms, and define by special those swarms and millions of rhapsodies begotten difference what we describe by accidents and proponly to distract and abuse the weaker judgments of erties; and therefore probabilities to us may be scholars and to maintain the trade and mystery of demonstrations to them." typographers.”

Lavater and Spurzheim have identified their Montaigne compares authorship with the act of memories with a theory of expression or natural pooring water from one vessel into another; and language. A speculative germ of this science was the reprodaction of old materials in new forms is obviously in the brain of Sir Thomas Browne. illustrated by all the brilliant achievement of mod- * The Religio Medici.

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