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gation, and was set forth by him in a publication on contrasts which John Bull can sometimes so comthe subject.
placently institute between his integrity and the One very important point in the final execution impuled rapacious dishonesty of Jonathan. He of a coonection by railroad between the Pacific and speaks highly of the natural fertility of California : the Mississippi valley, will be the selection of the deplores its very neglected condition, even in its termini; and though Lieut Maury has admirably most favored spots, and the indolence and entire balanced the considerations on this head, yet a few want of enterprise of the inhabitants; and extestimonies may be added from a work which claims, “what a splendid country, whether we reshould be one of authority on the subject. gard its internal resources, or its commercial ca
Sir George Simpson, “ Governor-in-chief of the pabilities, to be thrown away on its present posHudson Bay Company's Territories,” in his “Over- sessors !" land Journey round the World,” visited all the ports It would, therefore, be a blessing for them to of Upper California, as well as that at the mouth yield either to England or the United States; and of the Columbia river. His description of the last doubtless they would “hugely" (as said my uncle greally strengthens the objections to any scheme Toby.) prefer to come under the rational and wellwhich would cause reliance to be placed upon it as secured freedom of England! The British or a place of convenience or safety for ships or steam- Americans must have it ; and though the latter have ers. Steamers might the more easily surmount "the advantage in an unscrupulous choice of weathe obstacles and escape the dangers; but they pons," yet the former must not give it up as hopewould not be near as safe there as ships in the more less ; for they could make a claim to it so honestly, Southern ports ; and it would be idle to establish a by assuming a part of the debts due by Mexico to
great resort to any port which would not accom- British subjects; and besides that, were even then U modate every species of the swift messengers of " entitled to colonize a considerable portion of the
Upper Province,” under the treaty of 1790. Sir George Simpson says of this Columbia Har- Speaking thus, as it were, for his own nation, bor, " There being now a favorable breeze from Sir Governor-in-chief's testimony is entitled to the northeast, as well as smooth water, we prepar- some weight. He decidedly gives the preference ed
lo escape from the prison which had held us in to the harbors of San Diego and San Francisco, durance vile for seventeen days. We were the extreme ports. He does not speak near so faall, even the most experienced among us, anxious- vorably of that of Monterey, as Lieut. Maury's ly excited at the prospect of encountering a spot al- authorities do ; and expresses surprise that Monteteady preēmineni, among congenial terrors of much rey should be the capital of the country. older fame, for destruction of property and loss The discovery and naming of San Francisco, of life,-ils unenviable trophies consisting of three " one of the finest harbors in the world,” may be Ships wrecked and several others damaged;—to say interesting. bothing of boats swamped with all their crews." Vizcaino, still carrying out that career of northThis
, it is true, was in the middle of December; ern exploration set on foot by Cortes, discovered, bot the same aathor says, that his detention by noin 1603, St. Diego and Monterey. But coloniza. means exceeded the average delay, and that ves- tion was not extended to this portion of the country, tels often lie there during the winter from three to till about 1767, when the then Viceroy of Mexico seren weeks. The difficolty of ingress is greater proposed to the Franciscans, who had succeeded than that of egress, because vessels have then to ihe expelled Jesuits, the spiritual invasion of the Wait in the open ocean for a favorable conjunction Upper California. Accordingly, missions were of fair wind and smooth water. Indeed, the ob- planned for both Diego and Monterey ; but the voystructions at the mouth of this too celebrated river age along the coast proving highly disastrous, the tetarded iis discovery.
missionaries undertook the rest of the distance by From this dangerous "prison,” Sir George re- land. Missing Monterey, or failing to recognize joiced to make his escape io the fine harbor of San its location, they passed on to the “miniature MedFrancisco, which he could not behold without cov-iterranean" on its north. Before starting on their eting it for his own country. He, like all Eng. expedition, they had divided their new field of labor lishmen, discovers a strong feeling of one-sided among the saints highest in the Calendar of their nationality, often mistaken for patriotism ;-and order ; but in this division omitted the honored St. like too many of them, uiters those stereotyped Francis himself. When this omission was pointed prejudices against the United States : at the same out, the ready chief of the conclave replied, " let time, foreseeing the vast power and influence of him first prove his title to such a distinction by Rassia, he diplomatically extends to her the assu- showing us a good port.” “Having thus put their tance of his distinguished consideration. Whilst patron to his mettle," the wayworn priests were predicting that California must fall into the hands rejoiced to acknowledge his guidance to the magof the English race, and proposing that England nificent inlet before them; and they called it by his should get it, or take it, he makes one of those name.
“On proceeding along the strait,” says Sir, sors, may yet be taken from your sanctum by steam George Simpson, one of the most attractive and borne on the same strong, swift pinions to the scenes imaginable gradually opens on the mari- distant shores of the Celestial Empire.* ner's view,-a sheet of water of about thirty miles It was not solely the connection of your contribain length by about twelve in breadth, sheltered from tor with Astronomy, nor the fact that his " great every wind by an amphitheatre of green hills, while circle route” is an astronomical idea, that induced an intermediate belt of open plain, varying from ine to associate " Stars and Steamers;" bui he has two to six miles in depth, is dotted by the habita- recently favored us with interesting communica. tions of civilized men.” “On emerging from the lions on that subject also. Besides, ocean steamstrait, which is about three miles long, we saw on ers brought to mind Dr. Lardner; and he again reour left a deep bay, known as Whaler's harbor.” called Le Verriere and the Stars, as I shall pro“On our right, just opposite, stretched the pretty ceed to show you. little bay of Yerba Buena, whose shores are doubt- Le Verriere, thongh so highly honored at home less destined under beiter auspices to be the site of and abroad, has had to fight some defensive bailles a flourishing town." Both these bays were occu-to secure his well-earned laurels. No: only have pied by ships, though most of the whalers, who assaults been made upon them in England, but some once gave name to one of them, have now gone to ignoble disparagers in our own country base sought the Sandwich Islands. Doubtless they would be to tarnish them, by denying, I believe, that the plaaprevailed upon to return by inducements less strong et Neptune is the planet whose existence was prethan those enumerated by Lieut. Maury.
dicted by the French astronomer. Because, perThe harbor of Monterey, though represented as chance, his calculations of the planet's “elements" “ infinitely inferior to that of San Francisco," may were not so exact as their telescopic observations, still be very commodious ; so that the decision be they are disposed to attribute the discovery of Neptween them, and San Diego also, may properly tune to " a happy accident." With them the more depend upon the means employed to reach the Pa- liberal and generous Superintendent of the Nacific coast.
tional Observatory" has no sympathy, and has reLaunching out from either of them, the peculi- cently published a letter of vindication from Le arities of the "great circle route" will be very Verriere himself. striking, but may not be fully appreciated from the Even before the discovery of Uranus, by Herbrief description given in the Messenger, unless it schel, in 1781, perturbations, or disturbances, – be actually followed by the reader upon a globe. for which no known cause existed, -affecting the
Monterey is about N. Lat. 364. Changhai, in motions of Jupiter and Saturn, had been saga. China, is near Lat. 319. One would naturally ciously referred to the influence of some undissuppose, then, that the direct route between them covered body beyond them. Now that the discorlay a little to the south west ; and would lie nearery of such a body had satisfactorily accoopted for the Sandwich Islands, which are about Lat. 23°; those perturbations, it was found that it was itself and far to the south of the Fox Islands, which subject to similar disturbances, that could not be are about Lat. 50°. Yet strange to say, the great accounted for by the mutual attractions of the orbs circle route from Monterey, or San Francisco, to already known. With these effects accurately 28Changhai, reaches very nearly as far north as the certained, M. Le Verriere, a young French matheFox Islands ; thus, instead of going nearly along matician and astronomer connected with the Acadethe parallel westward, -taking a direction north my of Sciences, at Paris, undertook to find out an of the highest terminus, nearly thirteen degrees of adequate cause, which he did not doubt was anoLatitude ! Until I actually made the experiment ther planet beyond the orbit of Uranus. on a globe, I felt inclined to think that there was Having with much patient thought and labor calsome mistake in regard to the Fox Islands being culated the "elements,"—the size, position, disnear the route.
tance, &c.-of a body such as would produce the When one thinks of the results of such stupen- observed effects, he announced his results in the dous schemes, as nearly every day now brings summer of 1846, and informed the star-gazers forth to develop the destiny of our great country, whither to direct their "astronomic tubes." it is calculated to make biin repine at the fate which
Accordingly, on the 23rd of September, M. may prevent his witnessing and enjoying their re- Galle, of Berlin, had the honor of hailing this alization. Richmond, herself, may be one termi- child of scientific prophecy. Of course, great disnus of this Atlantic and Pacific route. She is only tinction was at once conferred on both prophet and a little north of Memphis and Monterey ; and the observer; and M. Salvandy, the French minister too long neglected south western link in the great of public instruction, recommended them both to westward chain is the great work for the energies
* The great circle measure, I suppose, will apply to land and resources of the noble State of which she is the metropolis and the ornament. And, my dear route from Richmond to Monterey would pass north of St.
as well as water; and in that case, I must confess that the Mr. Editor, you, or some of your worthy succes.'Louis, in Missouri.
the king as worthy of the Legion of Honor. As ready achieved? The field is not yet exhausted ; might have been expected, England was not silent and there is room for all. Space contains our sun 00 so memorable an occasion; but with a spirit and his planets and the fixed stars with their sysmore politic than commendable, laid claim substan. tems also,-all in harmony; and I would so exalt tially to the honors awarded both to MM. Galle the conception of Scientific and Literary Fame, and Le Verriere. Englishmen always go perti- that, instead of its being necessary to rob, or even naeiously for their own country and countrymen ; lower one to reward another, it may be shared, and it is not without good outward effect upon their without being dirninished, by all who have won it enterprise and national spirit. The honor of al- in all ages of the world. most every important invention and discovery is But there is one of England's sons, who though grasped after, in whole or part, by that great na- an LL. D. for his scientific attainments and produc1:09. I have already alluded to the different tone tions, is not entitled to any part of the honor sought with which Sir George Simpson speaks of our to be divided with France. Once I had a high resRepublic and the Autocracy of Russia ; yet he has pect for Doctor Lardner ; but there are some things to give his countrymen a genile reproof for (car-contained in his published “ Lectures on Science rying ont their long-settled principles in) not doing and Art,” which shake confidence in his real scito Russia the justice to which he thinks she is en entific knowledge. as much as his scandaluus elopetit:ed. It does not, however, seem to have occur- ment with Mrs. Heavisides did that in his moral red 10 him, that the same habituated sentiment character. may do to others even more injustice than he ad- The part he took some years ago in respect of mits it has done towards England's great northern ocean steam navigation diminished, perhaps rather rival.
unjustly, his reputation in England for enterprise Through Sir David Brewster, and other organs, and practical science. He had committed himself England asserts that Mr. Adams, of the University in favor of a line of communication by steam with of Cambridge, preceded Le Verriere more than this country, starting from the west of Ireland, as a year, and calculated even more accurately the the only point sufficiently near to our shores, for elements of the new planet; and had he only pub- steamers to carry the requisite supply of fuel withlished them instead of placing them in the hands out sacrificing their accommodations for freight and of Mr. Airy, the Astronomer royal, his would have passengers. Some of his more daring countrymen been the signal honor awarded to the Frenchman. were in favor of starting the line from the west of And further,- Mr. Airy, from his faith in Mr. England. In the discussion which ensued, Dr. Adams' computations and inferences, recommend- Lardner was inaccurately reported to have declared a systematic search of the Heavens for the half-led the latter scheme as impracticable as a voyage espected stranger; and Mr. Challis, professor of to the moon. In an essay on the subject in his Astronomy, at Cambridge, actually caught it twice, “ Lectures,” is a friendly, but not altogether conbat not knowing it let it go. What a pity! They clusive desence of the views then maintained by wished to add the confirmation of actual discovery him,-in which, among other things, it is argued, to the deductions of Mr. Adams, and seem to have that he could never have made any such declarashrunk from the risk of a failure; but the young tion as that above ascribed to him, because steamFrenchman, confident in the seer-peering power of ers had previonsly traversed the broad Atlantic. mathematics, boldly uttered his prophecy, assured It is, however, by no means certain that because of its fulfilment.
an interesting maller in science is known to its But after all, it appears by their own shewing, votaries, it is therefore known to Doctor Lardner ; that the loss of this coveted honor by England was and I was greatly surprised to find him, in the imbut the same misfortune. which befel the French portant matter following, so far behind that noble ia losing the credit of discovering Uranus. The science of which he has long been regarded so French astronomer, Lemonnier, bad hailed that prominent a teacher. planet no less than eleven times before its recog.
Doctor Lardner is a fluent and quite an interestbition by Sir William Herschel.
ing speaker; he had a splendid apparatus for ilThere may be much truth in what the English lustrating his lectures; and he deserves credit for thus
say, and perhaps it is natural that the French having diffused so much scientific information ; but should " display no liue irritation at these facts he actually enters into a grave argument to prove being set before the public," (it may be, not in the that Uranus was the extreme limit of the Solar most conciliatory tone,) but both sides should re- System! member, that if men of science cannot afford to be • The existence," says he, (vol. i, p. 255,) "of most largely generous, whence may we look for a body such as Herschel would have been regarded, such an example? And would it not be infinitely before its discovery, just as chimerical as another better for every nation to seek new undivided and planet would now be considered revolving beyond indivisible honors, than to sow the seeds of irrita- it
. We have, however, direct proofs of a cogent tion by claiming a disputable division of those al 'character in favor of the position, that Herschel
(Uranus) is the last and most remote member of across that mighty gulf,-as here, and where Mer. the Solar System.”
cury nestles near the Sun,-the laws of gravitaNow, the existence of Herschel was strongly lion are constantly and unerringly obeyed :—a sisuspected before its discovery, from the observed lent but impressive proclamation this, to intelligent perturbations of Saturn and Jupiter, of which he piety, of the cardinal doctrine of Scripture, —wich seems to have been ignorant. The “ direct proofs" which indeed the remoter regions of the universe alluded to are drawn from the presumed fact, that are oracular,--that there is one God and Father there were no observable perturbations either in of all, who is above all and in all.'" Uranus, or in the comparatively light and volatile Yet the Sun's attraction rapidly diminishes,comets that visit our system and which ought soon as the square of the distance from him: and it to disclose all neighboring attractions. This was might be computed, I suppose, at what distance bis in the spring of 1846 ; and probably at the moment power would be insufficient to maintain the motions that he was penning his most conclusive argument, of a planet. But on the other hand, the size of 28 Le Verriere and Adams, Galle and Challis, Bes- the planet and of its orbit and the time of revolt. sel and Herschel, and perhaps many others were in rion, &c., may possibly be adapted to the least depursuit of the new planet, Neptune, or profoundly gree of attraction; and who can say but that the ihinking over the long-known perturbations which suns or other systems may ultimately come to aid infallibly indicated his existence. These pertur- the feebleness of our own, and by the composition bations were the subject of discussion and corres- and resolution of their attractions, urge a far-farpondence, as far back as the summer and fall of far-distant planet on its way round our centre? 1842, between Bessel and Sir John Herschel. I am inclined to think, therefore, that Neptune The latter, on retiring from the chair of the British is not our frontier orb; though the still augmenting Association, a fortnight before the discovery of distance of every new-found world multiplies the Mr. Galle, (Sept. 23rd, 1846,) referred to the dis- obstacles in the way of its discovery. The discovery of the new Asteroid, Astrea, which had sig- tance from the sun, — by the usual progression, of nalised that year, and continued," it (the year) has a planet outlying Neptune would be over 6,000 mildone more ; it has given us the probable prospect lions of miles. Yet perturbations affecting him of the discovery of another. We see it as Co- may in turn reveal the existence of another bright lombus saw America from the shores of Spain. planet beyond; and Astronomy, now rendered preIts movements have been felt trembling along the phetic, be persuaded of its presence there, though far-reaching line of our analysis, with a certainty never disclosed even by the aid of the telescope. hardly inferior to that of ocular demonstration.” Is it not cheering to witness the honorable proIt is true, that the way had by this time been well gress that Astronomy is making among us! We paved for the majestic approach of the new planet, have several well-furnished and well-plied obserbut the data for such conclusions were not col- vatories - National, Collegiate and Municipal; and lected in a day, or a year.
Yet just about the time our astronomers are in correspondence with the that Doctor Lardner was endeavuring by means most distinguished of Europe. The National Obof logical arguments," as Galileo said of his op- servatory, through Lieutenants Gillies and Maory, ponents, “to charm” all new "planets out of the has presented its first fruits to the scientific world,sky,” Le Verriere, (Adams, too,) was prepared con- which, especially those of the present superintegfidently to predict the existence of one near four dent, have been pronounced by competent jedges, thousand millions of miles from the sun. such as Arago, no unworthy offering. If he could
This planet, Neptune, or Le Verriere, is the be induced therefor to retire from his present honthird orb in size in our system, being about 50,000 orable position and scientific connexions, I know miles in diameter. His bulk is 250 times that of no one who would so well adorn the presidential the earth; though, not being of so dense a mate chair of our venerable William & Mary. He rial, his mass, or quantity of matter, is only 38 would infuse new life into her; and raise ber to times that of the earth :—that of Jupiter being more than pristine eminence. 338 times, and that of Saturn 95 times. His What both public and private institutions hare mean distance from the sun is 3,200 millions of done for the scientific reputation of our country
, miles: consequently a lineal extent of 1,400 mil- bespeaks the most liberal encouragement of conlions of miles has been added 10 the space occupied gress, within their constitutional authority. I hope by the Solar family, and if the whole orbit of Jupiter that they will speedily furnish the National Obserwere stretched into a line, it would not reach from vatory with every instrument and appliance that Neptune to the sun.
may enable it to become a leader and an explorer ia It may naturally be asked, “is this the last ?" The depths of space are doubtless full of shining her present faculty,--for all of whom, and especials like
* So far from this being said in disparagement of any orbs ; and it might be unphilosophical, as yet at present incumbent of her presidential office, I entertex least, to limit the power of the Sun's attraction. high respect and good will, --it has reference only to a 3€* Sir David Brewster says of Neptune, “ Yet there 'organization, provided one should take place.
BY P. P. COOKE.
the unoccupied realms of scientific enquiry. Some, I know, look to the Smithsonian Institute to sup- THE TWO COUNTRY-HOUSES. ply almost every deficiency in our literary and scientific foundations. But whilst I wish that Institation the highest success and usefulness, it produces a feeling of deep humiliation to reflect that
CHAPTER IV. the private munificence of an individual, a stranger to our soil, should not only exceed, but be a sub- The reader will recollect that Mary Hunter, in stjtcte for the contributions of a great, wealthy the interview described in the last chapter, gave and eolightened nation, to those things which con- Carabas Car a letier which she characterized as stilate the basis of the most enduring national fame that of a base person. This judgment which her and monuments of the most elevated national pride. refined sense bad reached was a very just one.
Literature and Science, represented chiefly by The letter was anonymous. Carabas read it in Arago, Lamartine and Victor Hugo, occupy a con- such privacy as his uproarious guests permitted spicuous position in the recent remarkable revolu- him to steal. It was as follows: tion in France. If they be men of wisdom as well “Dear Miss : as of letters, they have a rare opportunity of bles- It is with feelings not to be described that I take sing France. Warned by past excesses, the pru- up my pen to write you these few lines to let you dent can but indulge apprehensions as to the result. know that a good friend is watching over you and There is too much of the old leaven of infidelity always ready with best advice and more if necesstill at work amongst the literary classes; and the sary, and to let you know that your best chance, example set in Paris is likely to spread till Russia, which is your most prudent course, is to turn Mr. Austria, and perchance England, alarmed for their Carabas Car off, who is going fast and will not be own stability, will again put forth their armed in- worth a cent in a short time, and to put you on ter position. Here, letters and liberty may be as- your guard against said Mr. Car, who besides is a sociated under a well-founded republic; and in a gambler, and losing a fortune every night to such few more years, an Arago among us may be our fellows as it would be a disgrace for a gentleman minister of the marine; and our Lamartines prove to have anything to do with in the way of dealing. Worthy successors in high public employments of Also I would wish to let you know that he is ancor Pauldings, and Irvings, and Bancrofts. principled as respects killing his fellow men, which
is against the laws of Moses, and to be punished B. B. M.
when found out by the laws of the commonweal:h April 13, 1848.
(which is certainly right, for how are we to be safe if men are to be allowed to shoot their fellow-men) and to be punished according to how they do it, some going to the gallows and some to the peni
tentiary, which in the opinion of subscriber is worse than the gallows, at least subscriber thinks so, and
that Mr. Car ought to be sent (which other resSONNET.-SUNRISE.
pectable persons agree in opinion with subscriber)
and that he ought to be sent, which may happen. With amber light, the East is all a glow,
In the way of carrying out what subscriber says, it
was only the other day that Mr. Car, after betting Night slowly gathers up her train far spread,
such a sum as was a foolish disgrace, twenty thouAnd westward hies, by sost-paced Vesperus led, sand dollars to ten thousand, when he could have While berald clouds the bright'ning orient strow. got ten thousand to twenty with Colonel Bull of O'er the misty mountain's waiting rim,-lo! Tennessee, and losing the same, shot a poor innoThe Day.god lifts bis calm, majestic head
cent individual of a large family that might have And all is light! The last bold star hath fled,
been thrown orphans and widows on the cold charAnd gladness wakes in all the earth below.
ity of the world (which makes the blood run cold
to think of) in a manner that was a miracle he Sing, ring ye happy birds, from vale and hill,
did not kill him, which is owing to his disgraceful Ye breezes murmur with a wilder thrill,
and dangerous and bloody-minded disposition, which Ye fountains, gurgling from the darksome earth, God preserve subscriber from, who, however, is Smile in his rays and dance with freer mirth, not afraid to let his name be known, if you, dear Open ye flow'rets, and though silent aye,
Miss, are disposed to do the prudent thing, and not Shed
kick (?) a respectable person in whom subscriber is your sweet incense to the rising day.
interested for the sake of ruining yourself and posC. C. L.
terity (no offence) by marrying a man who is a Virginia, 1848,
gambler, a fool, as to his money, and guilty of man